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IJERD : Volume 13 - Issue 11

Version - 1 (November 2017)


Shaik Riyaz, MVS Sairam

PAPR Reduction Using Extended BCH Code with Biasing Vector Technique in OFDM System
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a distinct form of multicarrier modulation which is well suitable for high data-ratewireless and wired applications. Nevertheless, the foremost drawback of OFDM is that the time domain signal which is a sum of multiple sinusoids leads to high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR). This paper aims to condense the PAPR using (8, 4) Extended BCH (E-BCH) codewith biasing vector technique. (7, 4) BCH code is transformed in to (8, 4) E-BCH code by appending Redundant Bit (RB) intended foreffectiveexecution of Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT)/Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) in OFDM system. Then using biasing vector technique, favourable bias vector which contributes minimum PAPR is recognized. The codeword can be acquired at the receiver by XOR-ed with bias vector and removing RB. Results confirm that significant amount of PAPR is condensed in the proposed scheme.
OFDM, PAPR, BCH, E-BCH, RB, BV.

[1]. "IEEE 802.11 working group for wireless local area networks".
[2]. ETS 300 652, "High performance radio local area networks (HIPERLAN) type 1", June 1996.
[3]. ETSI EN 300 744 V1.5.1, "Radio broadcasting systems; Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) to mobile, portable and fixed receivers".
[4]. ETSI EN 300 744 V1.5.1, "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); framing structure, channel coding and modulation for digital terrestrial television".
[5]. Alan V. Oppenheim and Ronald W. Schafer, "Discrete-Time Signal Processing", 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, 1999.

Citation
Shaik Riyaz, MVS Sairam "PAPR Reduction Using Extended BCH Code with Biasing Vector Technique in OFDM System" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0001. India
Page 01-06
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Chitra Sudakaran, M. Suganthi

Why Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radios? A Review on Moving From Local to Cooperative Spectrum Sensing
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Cognitive radio, an enabling technology has been flourishing day-by-day that allows number of unlicensed users to operate in licensed spectrum bands compromising not to cause any interference to licensed user. The main challenge in cognitive radio technology is to identify the silent periods of licensed users i.e. the unused spectrum of primary users which is called spectrum sensing. In this paper, we described why cooperative spectrum sensing is considered better than local spectrum sensing. Concentrating mainly in centralized cooperative sensing, we analyzed the elements needed in it which includes spectrum sensing models, hypothesis testing techniques, transmission techniques and different types of cooperation models. Also we have added some of the challenges faced during the implementation of cooperative spectrum sensing model in the real world.
Spectral agile radios, centralized cooperative sensing, cooperational models for decision making, transmission techniques, issues in sensing

[1]. Spectrum Policy Task Force Report, FCC ET Docket 02-155, (2002).
[2]. [Book] Ekram Hossain, Dusit Niyato, Zhu Han, "Dynamic Spectrum Access and Management in Cognitive Radio Networks", Cambridge University Press 2009.
[3]. Khong-Lim Yap, Yung-Wey Chong, "Software-Defined Networking Techniques to improve network connectivity: Technical review", IETE Technical review, pages 1-13, 2017.
[4]. Yonghong Zeng, Ying-Chang Liang, Anh Tuan Hoang and Rui Zhang, "A review on spectrum sensing for cognitive radio: Challenges and solutions" Hindawi Publishing Corporation, EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, Article ID 381465, 15 pages, doi:10.1155/2010/381465, 2010.
[5]. [Book] Kandeepan Sithamparanathan and Andrea Giorgetti

Citation
Chitra Sudakaran, M. Suganthi "Why Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radios? A Review on Moving From Local to Cooperative Spectrum Sensing" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0002. India
Page 07-21
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Ratnesh N Chaturvedi, Kavya Agarwal, Sudeep D.Thepade

Improved Performance For "Color To Gray And Back" Using Walsh, Hartley And Kekre Wavelet Transform With Various Color Spaces
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
In this paper comparison of various Wavelet Transform with various color spaces using Image transforms alias Walsh, Hartley, And Kekre for "Color to Gray and Back‟. Using Wavelet transform color information of the image is embedded into its gray scale version/equivalent. The aim of the paper is to provide better bandwidth and storage utilization instead of using the original color image for storage and transmission, gray (Gray scale version with embedded color information) can be used. Using three wavelet transforms and seven color spaces (YCbCr, YCgCb, YUV, YIQ, XYZ , YCC, Kekre‟s LUV And CMY) Twenty-Four variations of the algorithm for "Color to Gray and Back‟ are being proposed. Among all considered image transforms and color spaces, Walsh gives better performance with YCbCr color space for "Color to gray and Back‟.
Color Embedding, Color-to-Gray Conversion, Transforms, Color Space, Image Colorization, Information Hiding, Wavele.

[1]. H. B. Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Ratnesh N. Chaturvedi Improved Performance For "Color To Gray And Back" Using DCT-Haar, DST-Haar, Walsh-Haar, Hartley-Haar, Slant-Haar, Kekre-Haar Hybrid Wavelet Transforms International Journal Of Advanced Computer Research (ISSN (Print): 2249-7277 ISSN (Online): 2277-7970) Volume-3 Number-3 Issue-11 September-2013
[2]. T. Welsh, M. Ashikhmin And K.Mueller, Transferring Color To Grayscale Image, Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 2002, Vol.20, No.3, Pp.277-280, 2002.
[3]. Levin, D. Lischinski And Y. Weiss, Colorization Using Optimization, ACM Trans. On Graphics, Vol.23, Pp.689-694, 2004.
[4]. T. Horiuchi, "Colorization Algorithm Using Probabilistic Relaxation," Image And Vision Computing, Vol.22, No.3, Pp.197-202, 2004
[5]. L. Yatziv And G.Sapiro, "Fast Image And Video Colorization Using Chrominance Blending", IEEE Trans. Image Processing, Vol.15, No.5, Pp.1120-1129, 2006

Citation
Ratnesh N Chaturvedi, Kavya Agarwal, Sudeep D.Thepade "Improved Performance For "Color To Gray And Back" Using Walsh, Hartley And Kekre Wavelet Transform With Various Color Spaces" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0003. India
Page 22-34
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Andrew D. Lowery, Franz A. Pertl, James E. Smith

Design of A Three-Dimensional, High Speed Magnetic Tracking System with A Permanent Magnetic Source
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
This paper will present a novel method of using a magnetic tracking system with a purely DC source to locate the position and orientation of a high speed permanent, rare earth magnet in three-dimensional space. The test platform to be designed to be approximately 9-by-15 feet, as opposed to small scale (inches) of other systems. This tracking system will be tuned to locate specified magnetic objects traveling nearly 100 mph. The tracking system uses a bed of sensitive magnetometers to determine not only the strength of the magnetic source, but also the ambient magnetic noise of the environment and its orientation, allowing the system to track in environmentally noisy conditions. The simulations show the feasibility of such a magnetic tracking system for both location and orientation.
...................

[1]. Ferre, M., et al, ―Position tracking and imaging system for use in medical applications‖, U.S. Patent No. 5967980, 1999.
[2]. Lu, D. J., et al, ―Wireless identification and tracking using magnetic fields‖, U. S. Patent No. 6686881, 2004.
[3]. Vinegar, H. J., et al, ―Thermal processes for subsurface formations‖, U. S. Patent No. 7121342, 2006. Iwamatsu, T., et al, ―Tracking control device for magnetic recording/reproducing apparatus‖, U. S. Patent No. 5262908, 1993.
[4]. Sauer, F., ―Method and apparatus for augmented reality visualization‖, U. S. Patent No. 6919867, 2005.
[5]. Ascension Technology Corporation, ―Magnetic Fact Sheet and Video: DC vs. AC Tracking‖, October 2008.

Citation
Andrew D. Lowery, Franz A. Pertl, James E. Smith "Design of A Three-Dimensional, High Speed Magnetic Tracking System with A Permanent Magnetic Source" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0004. United States
Page 35-42
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Arpit Kumar Sharma

Estimation of Age Group using Histogram of Oriented gradients and Neural Network
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Requirement of Project: Face images are being increasingly used as additional means of authentication in applications of high security zone. But with age progression the facial features changes and the database needs to be updated regularly which is a tedious task. So we need to address the issue of facial aging and come up with a mechanism that identifies a person in spite of aging. In my project, effective age group estimation using face features like texture and shape from human face image are proposed[2]. For better performance, the geometric features of facial image like wrinkle geography, face angle, left to right eye distance, eye to nose distance, eye to chin distance and eye to lip distance are calculated. Based on the texture and shape information, age classification is done using KNN & SVM algorithm (Best algorithm according to many research paper during my research)."..............
........................

[1]. A.Lanitis and C.J.Taylor, ―Towards Automatic Face Identification Robust to Ageing Variation‖, IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol.24, no.24, p.442-455, 2002.
[2]. A.Lanitis, C.Draganova, and C.Christodoulou, ―Comparing different classifiers for automatic age estimation‖, IEEE Trans.Syst.Man, Cybern.B, Cybern, vol34, no.1, pp.621-628, Feb.2004.
[3]. V. Blanz and T. Vetter, ―Face recognition based on fitting a 3D morphable model‖, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 25(9):1063 –1074, September 2003.
[4]. R. Kimmel A. M. Bronstein, M. M. Bronstein, ―Three-dimensional face recognition‖, Intl. Journal of Computer Vision, 64(1):5–30, August 2005.
[5]. N.Ramanathan and R. Chellappa, ―Face verification across age progression‖, in Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, San Diego, CA, 2005, vol.2, pp.462-469.

Citation
Arpit Kumar Sharma "Estimation of Age Group using Histogram of Oriented gradients and Neural Network" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0005. India
Page 43-49
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Khusboo Uprety, Neha Mahala, Prakash Choudhary, P K Bhagat

Polar Harmonic Transform for Fingerprint Recognition
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Fingerprint recognition refers to the automated methods of verifying a match between two fingerprints. Fingerprints are the most popular biometrics used to authenticate a person as it is unique and permanent throughout a person's life. Polar Harmonic Transforms (PHTs) are orthogonal rotation invariant 2D transforms that provide various numerically stable features for fingerprint recognition. The kernel functions of PHTs are basic waves and harmonic in nature which consists of sinusoidal functions that are inherently computation intensive that can be used to generate rotation invariant features. PHTs are characterized by low time complexity and numerical stability..................
Fingerprint, PHT, PCET, PCT, PST.

[1]. A. Rana and I. Virk, "Implementation and Analysis of Multiple Polar Harmonic Equations in a Rotatory Two Dimensional Graphical Plane for Thumb Pore Identification", International Journal of Computer Applications, vol.79, 2013, pp. 34-37.
[2]. P. T. Yap, X. Jiang and A. C. Kot, "Two Dimensional Polar Harmonic Transforms for Invariant Image Representation", IEEE Transactions, Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 32, 2010, pp. 1259-1264.
[3]. Z. Yang and S. Kamata, "Fast Polar Cosine Transform for Image Description", IAPR Conference on Machine Vision Application, 2011, pp. 9-23
[4]. T. V. Hoang and S. Tabbone, "Generic Polar Harmonic Transforms for invariant image description", IEEE conference on Image Processing, Vol.6, 2012, pp. 617-626.
[5]. M. Liu, X. Jiang, A. C. Kot and P.T. Yap, "Application of Polar Harmonic Transforms to fingerprint classification", Emerging Topics in Computer Vision and Its Applications, 2011, pp. 297-311.

Citation
Khusboo Uprety, Neha Mahala, Prakash Choudhary, P K Bhagat "Polar Harmonic Transform for Fingerprint Recognition" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0006. India
Page 50-55
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Sunil Bhutada, Sandhya Yedama

Automated Chat Response and Query Grouping using Data Mining Techniques
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
We are living in a world full of data. The amount of data that is created each day is increasing rapidly. Every day, people encounter a significant amount of information and store or represent it as data, for further analysis and management. One of the essential means of dealing with this data is to organize or group them into a set of clusters or categories. In our paper, we discuss, how an organization's internal chat messaging system can be automated. In the chat messaging system, employees of the team can post queries and also other employees who know the solution to the query can answer it. The queries may not be immediately followed by a solution, as many users post queries and solutions...............
Query grouping, Query Similarity, clustering, Automatic chat response, query relevance.

[1]. Ronen Feldman and Ido Dagan. 1995. Knowledge Discovery in Textual Databases (KDT).. In KDD, Vol. 95. 112–117.
[2]. Ming-Syan Chen, Jiawei Han, and Philip S. Yu. 1996. Data mining: an overview from a database perspective. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and data Engineering 8, 6 (1996), 866–883.y: Springer, 1989, vol. 61.
[3]. Jim Cowie and Wendy Lehnert. 1996. Information extraction. Commun. ACM 39,1 (1996), 80–91
[4]. M. Allahyari, S. Pouriyeh, M. Assefi, S. Safaei, E. D. Trippe, J. B. Gutierrez, and K. Kochut. 2017. A Brief Survey of Text Mining: Classification, Clustering and Extraction Techniques. ArXiv e-prints (2017). arXiv: 1707.02919
[5]. Mark Steyvers and Tom Griffiths. 2007. Probabilistic topic models. Handbook of latent semantic analysis 427, 7 (2007), 424–440

Citation
Sunil Bhutada, Sandhya Yedama "Automated Chat Response and Query Grouping using Data Mining Techniques" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0007. India
Page 56-61
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Yousif . A .bdeltuif, Adam zakria, Ahmed Abdallatif, Ibrahim Elkhalil

Bounded Composition Operators on Hardy Spaces
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
We show analytic functions φ,(φ+ε) on ℝ , such that φ(ℝ)⊆ ℝ. We can define a weighted composition operator by f⟼(φ+ε)(f∘φ). In this work we deal with the boundedness, compactness, weak compactness, and complete continuity of weighted composition operators on Hardy spaces Hδ+1(δ>0). In particular, we prove that such an operator is compact on H0 if and only if it is weakly compact on this space. This result depends on a technique which passes the weak compactness from an operator Tr−1 to operators dominated in norm by 𝕋𝕋.
weighted composition operators; Hardy spaces; compact operators.

[1]. J. A. Cima and A. Matheson, Completely continuous composition operators, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 344 Ž1994., 849_856.
[2]. WEIGHTED COMPOSITION OPERATORS ON HARDY SPACES 233
[3]. M. D. Contreras and S. D´ıaz-Madrigal, Compact-type operators defined on H_, Contemp. Math.232 Ž1999., 111_118.
[4]. C. Cowen and B. MacCluer, ''Composition Operators on Spaces of Analytic Functions,'' CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1995.

Citation
Yousif . A .bdeltuif, Adam zakria, Ahmed Abdallatif, Ibrahim Elkhalil "Bounded Composition Operators on Hardy Spaces" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0008. Sudan
Page 62-67
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Bharavi Joshi, Kajal Bhagat, Hetakshi Desai, Malvik Patel, Jekishan K. Parmar

A Comparative Study of Toll Collection Systems in India
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
This paper is based on comparison of conventional toll collection and some existing automatic toll collection systems. Some Automatic toll collection systems discussed in this paper are FASTag which employs RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification) technology and the other is BookMyToll. There is also a system called an Automated Toll Collection System (ATCS) for collecting tax automatically wherein a unique RFID tag is attached to the windshield of the vehicle. Another toll collection system, named BookMyToll System does payment through Android App and the mobile is detected using a smart device near Toll Plazas. Here we also propose an automatic toll collection system using Image Processing.
Toll Collection System; BookMyToll; RFID; FASTag; Traffic Management; Toll plaza; Automation.

[1]. Electronic Toll Collection(ETC) system
[2]. <https://www.ijarcsse.com/docs/papers/Volume_4/3_March2014/V4I3-0698.pdf>
[3]. S.Nandhini, P.Premkumar, Automatic Toll Gate System Using Advanced RFID and GSM Technology,
International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering
[4]. BookMyToll <http://www.bookmytoll.com/howtouse>
[5]. Omarhommadi1, Hussain Asiri, Mamdoohalzahrani, Comparison of Different toll collections system's
and RFID tool collection system, American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) Volume-6, Issue- 1, pp-118-121

Citation
Bharavi Joshi, Kajal Bhagat, Hetakshi Desai, Malvik Patel, Jekishan K. Parmar "A Comparative Study of Toll Collection Systems in India" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0009. India
Page 68-71
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Manish Hassani, Rahul Aadiwal

Hybrid ground coupled heat exchanger systems for space heating/cooling applications: A review
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
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  • Full Article
Ground coupled heat exchanger (GCHE) systems are used for space heating/cooling across the globe. Hybrid GCHE systems are being preferred over unitary system due to higher efficiency. GCHE system can be classified as earth air heat exchanger (EAHE) and ground source heat pump (GSHP). Fast depleting stocks, recent rise in costs of fossil fuels and its serious impact on climate makes it imperative to adopt renewable and environment friendly sources of energy and energy conservation. The aim of this study is to review the current status of hybrid GCHE systems with passive renewable systems. The paper concisely explains EAHE, GSHP and various passive techniques commonly used for space heating/cooling and review state of the art of hybrid EAHE and GSHP systems. A comparative study of various technologies has been presented and their role in energy conservation highlighted.
GCHE systems, Space heating, Space cooling.

[1]. Perez-lombard L, Ortiz J, Pout C. A review on buildings energy consumption information. Energy Build 2008;40:394–8.

[2]. Wan KKW, Li HWD, Liu D, Lam JC. Future trends of building heating and cooling loads and energy consumption in different climates. Build Environ 2011;46:223–34.

[3]. Isaac M, Van Vuuren DP. Modeling global residential sector energy demand for heating and air conditioning in the context to climate change. Energy Policy 2009;37:507–21.

[4]. Urge-Vorsatz D, Cabeza LF, Serrano S, Barreneche C. Heating and cooling energy trends and drivers in buildings. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2015;41:85–98.

[5]. Omer AM. Energy, environment and sustainable development. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2008;12(9):2265–300.

Citation
Manish Hassani, Rahul Aadiwal "Hybrid ground coupled heat exchanger systems for space heating/cooling applications: A review" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0010. India
Page 72-77
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Version - 2 (November 2017)


Nitin Bhatia

An Improved Hough Transform for Circle Detection
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Digital image processing relies heavily on detection of various objects. Detection of geometric objects like lines and circles helps image understanding. In this paper, an improved version of Hough transform for circle detection in digital images is presented. Hierarchical Hough transform has been modified to achieve better computational efficiency. An important property of square root of integers has been examined and applied to work in the favour of algorithm. The experimental analysis shows considerable improvement in speed of the algorithm without compromising the accuracy.
Circle detection, Hough transform, hierarchical Hough transform, Automatic thresholding.

[1]. H. Yazid, H. Yazid, M. Harun, S. Mohd, A.A. Mohamed, M. Rizon, S. Sayuti, Circular discontinuities detection in welded joints using Circular Hough Transform, NDT & E International 40 (2007) 594-601.

[2]. C.-P. Chang, J.-C. Lee, Y. Su, P.S. Huang, T.-M. Tu, Using empirical mode decomposition for iris recognition, Conput. Stand. Interfaces 31 (4) (2009) 729-739.
[3]. N.V. Huan, H. Kim, A novel circle detection method for iris segmentation, in: Proceedings of Congress on Image and Signal Processing, Sanya, China, 2008, pp: 620-624.
[4]. N. Bhatia, M. Chhabra, Improved Hough transform for fast Iris detection, in: Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Signal Processing Systems, Dalian, China, 2010, pp: V1-172 - V1-176.
[5]. R. Duda, P. Hart, Use of Hough transform to detect lines and curves in pictures, Communications of the ACM 15 (1975) 11-15.

Citation
Nitin Bhatia "An Improved Hough Transform for Circle Detection" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0001. India
Page 01-07
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Vikash Kumar, Ashhad Imam, Vikas Srivastava, Atul, Y Kushwaha

Effect of Micro Silica on the properties of hardened concrete
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
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  • Full Article
This paper presents the use of Micro Silica (MS) as a mineral admixture in the concrete. Several researches have been performed towards investigating the fresh as well as hardened properties of concrete when blended with Silica Fume or Micro Silica (MS). The present study has been designed to investigate the strength properties of concrete formed with partial replacement of cement by Micro Silica and the percentage variation was 6%, 7% & 8% for M25 grade of concrete with a fixed W/C ratio 0.40 as a result of which the desired workability in the range of 75 - 100 mm was maintained by adding 0.7 % (by weight of cement) super plasticizer..............
Silica Fume, Compressive strength, Split tensile strength, Flexure strength.

[1]. Bayasi, Zing, Zhou, Jing, (1993) "Properties of Silica Fume Concrete and Mortar", ACI Materials Journal 90 (4) 349 - 356.
[2]. Venkatesh Babu DL, Nateshan SC., (2004) "Investigations on silica fume concrete", The Indian concrete Journal, 57-60.
[3]. Sensualle GR., (2006) "Strength development of concrete with rice husk ash", Cement and Concrete Composites.
[4]. Newman, J., Choo, B.S., (2003) "Advanced Concrete Technology: Constituent Materials" Elsevier, Burlington MA, 36-48.
[5]. Panjehpour, M., Ali, A.A.A., Demirbog, R., 2011. A review for characterization of silica fume and its effect on concrete properties. International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering & Technology. 2(2), 1-7.
[6]. Singh, L., Kumar, A., Singh, A., 2016. Study on partial replacement of cement by silica fume. International journal of advanced research. 4(7), 104-120.

Citation
Vikash Kumar, Ashhad Imam, Vikas Srivastava, Atul, Y Kushwaha "Effect of Micro Silica on the properties of hardened concrete" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0002. India
Page 08-12
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Dr.V.V.S.S.S.Balaram, Sunil Bhutada, Maderi Lavanya

Enhanced Ranking Model
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
In this paper, a reworking process is characterized to adjust a ranking model worked for a wide range search with the end goal of utilizing an area particular ranking model. It is hazardous to apply the full range ranking model straight away to various regions because of contrasts in the domain, to build an only and improved ranking model for each space is time taking for setting up the models. Along these lines, in this paper, we report the troubles by recommending a calculation entitled Ranking Adaptation Support Vector Machine (RA-SVM). This algorithm needs only the prediction of the standing ranking models, relative to their inner image or data from secondary domains. Ranking model modified for the use of searching for different fragments used for the institute purpose for example files like images, documents, videos for a specific topic i.e., video lectures of the staff in the institution..............
Ranking, search result, Video lectures, Local database server, views of file type.

[1]. R. Herbrich, T. Graepel, and K. Obermayer, "Large Margin Rank Boundaries for Ordinal Regression," Advances in Large Margin Classifiers, pp. 115-132, MIT Press, 2000.
[2]. Y. Freund, R. Iyer, R.E. Schapire, Y. Singer, and G. Dietterich, "An Efficient Boosting Algorithm for Combining Preferences," J. Machine Learning Research, vol. 4, pp. 933-969, 2003.
[3]. C.J.C. Burges, R. Ragno, and Q.V. Le, "Learning to Rank with Nonsmooth Cost Functions," Proc. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS '06), pp. 193-200, 2006.
[4]. C.J.C. Burges, T. Shaked, E. Renshaw, A. Lazier, M. Deeds, N. Hamilton, and G. Hullender, "Learning to Rank Using Gradient Descent," Proc. 22th Int'l Conf. Machine Learning (ICML '05), 2005.
[5]. Z. Cao and T. Yan Liu, "Learning to Rank: From PairwiseApproach to Listwise Approach," Proc. 24th Int'l Conf. Machine Learning (ICML '07), pp. 129-136, 2007.

Citation
Dr.V.V.S.S.S.Balaram, Sunil Bhutada, Maderi Lavanya "Enhanced Ranking Model" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0003. India
Page 13-17
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Mehmet Taciddin Akçay, İlhan Kocaarslan

Determination of Distance Between AC Traction Power Centers With A Designed Model Depending on Operational Datas in A 25 Kv AC Railway Line Using Artificial Intelligence Methods
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Railway electrification system is designed with regard to the operating data and design parameters. While the electrification system is designed, the minimum voltage rating required by the traction force in the course of operation needs to be provided. The maximum value of the voltage drop occurring on the line determined by the distance of traction power centers. This value needs to be kept within certain limits for the continuity of the operation. In this study, the determination of the distance between traction power centers by means of the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), support vector machines (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) for a 25 kV AC supplied railway. The distance value was calculated with regard to the operating data by means of ANFIS, SVM and ANN. ANFIS, SVM and ANN were explained and the results were compared.
AC traction power, ANFIS, ANN, railway electrification, SVM.

[1]. Huh JS, Shin HS, Moon WS, Kang BW, Kim JC. Study on voltage unbalance improvement using SFCL in power feed network with electric railway system. IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 2013; 3: 3601004.
[2]. Ghassemi A, Fazel SS, Maghsoud I, Farshad S. Comprehensive study on the power rating of a railway power conditioner using thyristor switched capacitor. IET Electrical Systems in Transportation 2014; 4: 97-106.
[3]. Raimondo G, Ladoux P, Lowinsky A, Caron H, Marino P. Reactive power compensation in railways based on AC boost choppers. IET Electrical Systems in Transportation 2012; 2: 169-177.
[4]. Aodsup K, Kulworawanichpong T. Effect of train headway on voltage collapses in high-speed AC railways. In: APPEEC 2012 Power and Energy Engineering Conference; 27-29 March 2012; Shanghai, China. New York, USA: IEEE. pp. 1-4.
[5]. Baseri MAA, Nezhad MN, Sandidzadeh MA. Compensating procedures for power quality amplification of AC electrified railway systems using FACTS. In: PEDSTC 2011 Power Electronics Drive Systems and Technologies Conference; 16-17 Februrary 2011; Tehran, Iran. New York, USA: IEEE. pp. 518-521.

Citation
Mehmet Taciddin Akçay, İlhan Kocaarslan "Determination of Distance Between AC Traction Power Centers With A Designed Model Depending on Operational Datas in A 25 Kv AC Railway Line Using Artificial Intelligence Methods" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0004. Turkey
Page 18-27
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Aylin Duman Altan

Simulation of Energy Efficient Lighting System For Energy Optimization: A Case Study of A Dairy Farm
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
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The aim of this study is to design and develop lighting system with the help of lighting programmes for energy optimization at Namık Kemal University (NKU) dairy farm. The lighting systems are studied experimentally with different armatures (lamps). The current lighting system is simulated with the Dialux program. As a conclusion, it is determined that the brightness level is insufficient and energy efficient lighting system design is proposed with the Dialux.
Efficient Lighting, Dairy Farm, Energy Optimization, Dialux, Simulation

[1]. ASABE, Lighting Systems for Agricultural Facilities, ASABE EP344.2, ASAE Standards, 40th edition, St. Joseph, MI 49085-9659. 2005.
[2]. R.R. Peters, Photoperiod and management of dairy cows pratical review. In: Dairy system for 21st century, Proceedings of the third international dairy housing conference, pp 662-666. ASAE 2950 Niles Rd, St Joseph, MI 49085 -9659. 1994.
[3]. M. J. Marcek and L. V. Swanson, Effect of photoperiod on milk production and prolactin of Holstein dairy cows, J. Dairy Sci. 67:2380-2388. 1984.
[4]. G. M. Patterson, What is energy efficiency? Concepts, indicators and Methodological issues. Energy Policy 5(24), 377-390. 1996.
[5]. Peterson, R. Energy Management for Dairy Farms. Presentation at the Farm Energy Audit Training for Field Advisors workshop. 2008.

Citation
Aylin Duman Altan "Simulation of Energy Efficient Lighting System For Energy Optimization: A Case Study of A Dairy Farm" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0005. Turkey
Page 28-31
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Nuzhat F. Shaikh, Aditya Jadhav, Chetan Raina, Gaurav Nagoshe, Suraj Kale

Data Migration From SQL To Mongodb
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As the Internet related technologies have emerged, a lot of changes were observed in the data collected, stored and processed by the organizations. The new incoming data was unstructured, available from a number of outside areas and accumulated in large volumes within a small time span. It was realized the traditional system is inefficient to handle this data. Solution to that is NoSQL type database. The databases that belong to this category are highly scalable, powerful and efficient. But the problem that occurs with these databases is they don't use the traditional SQL (Structured Query language) to query the data. Hence it is difficult to migrate data from existing traditional databases to the NoSQL databases and develop efficient and optimized functions to query the data under these NoSQL databases..............
Schema, MongoDB, RDBMS, Migration, Query Syntax, Relational Model.

[1]. M. Shirazi, H. C. Kuan, and H. Dolatabadi, "Design patterns to enable data portability between clouds' databases," in ICCSA 2012. Salvador:
[2]. IEEE, Jun. 2012, pp. 117–120.
[3]. M. Scavuzzo, E. Di Nitto, and S. Ceri, "Interoperable data migration between NoSQL columnar databases," in EDOCW 2014. Ulm: IEEE,
[4]. Sep. 2014, pp. 154–162.
[5]. B. Thalheim and Q. Wang, "Data migration: A theoretical perspective," Data and Knowledge Engineering, vol. 87, pp. 260–278, 2013.

Citation
Nuzhat F. Shaikh, Aditya Jadhav, Chetan Raina, Gaurav Nagoshe, Suraj Kale "Data Migration From SQL To Mongodb" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0006. India
Page 32-36
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A S Reddy

Improving the Positioning Performance of GPS through Differential GPS – An Overview
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The advent of GPS and its exceptional capability of providing continuous Position, Velocity and Time (PVT) information to the users worldwide proved to be a great technological success of 20th century. The PVT solution provided by standalone GPS is degraded by various error sources such as atmosphere based errors, satellite based errors and receiver based errors. The errors that are correlated in time and space can be mitigated or reduced using Differential GPS (DGPS) technique. Thus DGPS enhances the accuracy of standalone GPS. This is achieved by employing reference stations that transmit the corrections to the users in its service area. This paper presents an outline of the salient features of DGPS, while throwing light on the DGPS types and error corrections in DGPS.
GPS, DGPS corrections, error mitigation.

[1]. Parkinson, B.W., and J.J. Spilker, "Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications", Vol.1, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, 1996.
[2]. Misra, P., and Per Enge, "Global Positioning System: Signals, Measurements, and Performance", Ganga- Jamuna press, 1st Edition, New York, 2001.
[3]. Groves Paul, D., "Principles of GNSS, Inertial, and Multisensor Integrated Navigation Systems", GNSS Technology and Application Series, Artech House, Boston, London, 2008.
[4]. Prasad, R., and Marina Ruggieri, "Applied Satellite Navigation using GPS, Galileo, and Augmentation systems", Artech House, Boston and London, 2005.
[5]. Seeber, G., "Satellite Geodesy", Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, 2nd Edition, 2003.

Citation
A S Reddy "Improving the Positioning Performance of GPS through Differential GPS – An Overview" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0007. India
Page 37-39
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Ankur Joshi

Numerical Analysis of Shell-Tube Heat Exchanger with Baffle At Inclined Angle
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In this study, some attempts are made to investigate the impact of various baffle inclination angles on a fluid which is allowed to flow and the heat transfer characteristics of a shell-tube heat exchanger for different baffle inclination angles like 0°, 10°, and 20°. The simulation results for various shell and tube heat exchangers, one with segmental baffles perpendicular to fluid flow and two with segmental baffles inclined to the direction of fluid flow are needed to compare for their specific performances. The shell side design has been investigated numerically by modelling a small shell and tube heat exchanger. The study is concerned with a single shell and single side pass parallel flow heat exchanger..............
Shell-tube heat exchanger, computational fluid dynamics, conjugate heat transfer, pressure drop, baffle inclination angle.

[1]. Rajagopal Thundil Karuppa Raj., et al. "Shell side numerical analysis of a shell and tube heat Exchanger considering the effects of baffleInclination angle on fluid flow", THERMAL SCIENCE, Year 2012, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 1165-1174
[2]. Gaddis, D., Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, TEMA Inc, 9th ed., Tarrytown, N. Y., USA, 2007
[3]. Schlunder, E. V., Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Bureau of Energy Efficiency, New York, USA, 1983
[4]. Mukherjee, R., Practical Thermal Design of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers, Begell House. Inc., New York, USA, 2004
[5]. Ozden, E., Tari, I., Shell Side CFD Analysis of a Small Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger, Energy Conversion and Management, 51 (2010), 5, pp. 1004-1014

Citation
Ankur Joshi "Numerical Analysis of Shell-Tube Heat Exchanger with Baffle At Inclined Angle" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2017)
MID 1311.067X.0008. India
Page 40-46
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