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IJERD : Volume 10 - Issue 9

Version - 1 (September 2014)


Citta Anindya, Syifaul Fuada, Sugeng Firmansyah, Dyah Lestari

Prototyping of the Pipe Tracking Robot Using Electronic Nose Technology as Gas Leakage Detector
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
An industrial gas leak will cause material losses and impede the gas distribution of the company. In addition, it can also threaten human lives if the gas leaked is of toxic and inflammable gasses. Thus, to overcome these issues, the researchers had developed an automatic gas leak detection system through this proto type. In this journal, the researchers described how to make a prototype of a robot for monitoring the gas leak. The designed robot was of Out-Pipe Robot type and a PVC pipe was used as the real replica of the pipe. This study was conducted for three purposes: (1) Determining the design; (2) Describing the making process and (3) Explaining the performance test of the prototype of pipe tracking robot using electric nose technology as the gas leak detector. The working system of this pipe tracking robot is by tracking the pipe using the HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensor. If the MQ6 gas sensor detects the presence of a gas leak, the gas sensor will detect the gas and convert it into voltage. Then, the gas sensors will transmit the input voltage to the Arduino microcontroller, after which the output of the Arduino microcontroller will release the data to the LCD and display it in the form of digital figures in accordance with the level and type of the leaked gas. Besides, the buzzer will start sounding once it detects the presence of the gas. The results of the study were: (1) The device is able to track the pipe which was ± 10 cm in diameter, (2) The device is able to detect gas other than clean air, (3) The flashing LCD screen indicating that it detected the presence of gas, (4) The ideal distance to be maintained between the pipe and the mobile robot was 5 cm. With the ideal distance, the mobile sensors could easily track over a pipe installation without getting distracted by other objects. (5) The time reference used as the detection range was 1 minute. By doing so, the sensor will be more sensitive.
Arduino, Electric Nose Technology, Gas leak detector, Mobile Robot, Pipe Tracking.
[1]. Lee, Uichin. 2006. Efficient Data Harvesting in Mobile Sensors Platforms. Proceedings on The Fourth Annual IEEE International Conference On Pervasive Computing And Communications Workshops (PERCOMW). 2006, PP. 56-67.
[2]. Bagus Catur, Muhammad Rivai, Djoko Purwanto. 2013. Identifikasi Jenis Gas Ruang Terbuka Menggunakan Elekctric Nose pada Mobile Robot. Prosiding SENTIA 2013 Vol 5, Mei 2014, Malang, Indonesia. PP A13 –A18.
[3]. Liliental, Achim. 2013. A Stereo Electronic Nose for a Mobile Inpection Robot. University of Tubingen, Germany.
[4]. Available at www.Informatik.unitubingen.de/lilien/lilien03rose2003b_col.pdf. June, 6th 2013 [5]. Aji, Kunto. 2013. Aplikasi Mobile Sensor pada Sistem WSN sebagai Monitoring Kebocoran Gas. Prosiding SENTIA 2013 Vol 5, May 2014, Malang, Indonesia. Hal. A61 – A67
Citation
Citta Anindya, Syifaul Fuada, Sugeng Firmansyah, Dyah Lestari "Prototyping of the Pipe Tracking Robot Using Electronic Nose Technology as Gas Leakage Detector" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0001. Malang
Page 01-05
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O.Hemakesavulu, P.B.Chennaiah, K.Gurappa

Optimal Placement And Sizing Of Dg Using New Power Stability Index

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
This paper proposes a new algorithm for Distributed Generator (DG) placement and sizing for distribution systems based on a novel index. The index is developed considering stable node voltages referred as power stability index (PSI). A new analytical approach is adopted to visualize the impact of DG on system losses, voltage profile and voltage stability. The proposed algorithm is tested on 12-bus, modified 12-bus and 69-bus radial distribution networks. The test results are also compared and found to be in close agreement with the existing Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm.
Distributed generation, Placement, Sizing, Power stability index, Voltage stability, Particle Swarm Optimization, Radial networks
[1]. Jenkins N, Ekanayake J, Strbac G. Distributed generation – IET Factfiles; 2010. http://www.theiet.org/factfiles/energy/distributed-generation.cfm [accessed 10.08.11].
[2]. Energy Networks Association (UK). <http://2010.energynetworks.org/ distributed-generation> [accessed 10.08.11].
[3]. Koeppel. G. Distributed generation-literature review and outline of the Swiss station: Internal Report, ETH Zurich; November 2003.
[4]. Hadjsaid N, Canard JF, Dumas F. Dispersed generation impact on distribution networks. IEEE ComputAppl Power 1999;12:22–8.
[5]. Tuitemwong K, Premrudeepreechacharn S. Expert system for protection coordination of distribution system with distributed generators. Int J Electr Power 2011;33:466–71.
Citation
O.Hemakesavulu, P.B.Chennaiah, K.Gurappa "Optimal Placement And Sizing Of Dg Using New Power Stability Index" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0002. India
Page 06-18
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K. Babu Reddy, K. Harinath Reddy, P. Suresh Babu

Optimal Location and Size of Distributed Generations Using Kalman Filter Algorithm for Reduction of Power Loss and Voltage Profile Improvement
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Now a days, the consumption of electric power has been increased enormously which necessitates for the construction of new power plants, transmission lines, towers, protecting equipment etc. The environmental pollution is one of the major concerns for the power generation and also the cost of installing new power stations is high. Hence the distributed generation (DG) technology has been paid great attention as far as a potential solution for these problems. The beneficial effects of DG mainly depend on its location and size. The non optimal placement of multiple DGs will lead to increase the losses in the system and also its cost of generation. Therefore, the selection of optimal location and size of the DG plays a key role to maintain the constant voltage profile and reliability of existing system effectively before it is connected to the power grid. In this paper, a method to determine the optimal locations of DG is proposed by considering power loss. Also, their optimal sizes are determined by using kalman filter algorithm. It also analysis the system cost of generation before and after placement of DG. The proposed KFA based approach is to be tested on standard IEEE-30 bus system.
Distributed Generation, Optimal location, Optimal Size, Power loss and Kalman filter algorithm.
[1]. A. A. Chowdhury, S. K. Agarwal, and D. O. Koval, "Reliability modeling of distributed generation in conventional distribution systems planning and analysis," IEEE Trans. Ind. bAppl., vol. 39, no. 5, pp.1493–1498, Oct. 2003.
[2]. M. F. AlHajri and M. E. El-Hawary, "Improving the voltage profiles of distribution networks using multiple distribution generation sources," in Proc. IEEE Large Engineering Systems Conf. Power Engineering, 2007, pp. 295–299.
[3]. G. Carpinelli, G. Celli, S. Mocci, F. Pilo, and A. Russo, "Optimization of embedded eneration sizing and siting by using a double trade-off method," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Gen., Transm., Distrib., vol. 152, no.4, pp. 503–513, Jul. 2005
[4]. T. Senjyu, Y. Miyazato, A. Yona, N. Urasaki, and T. Funabashi, "Optimal distribution voltage control and coordination with distributed generation,"
[5]. IEEE Trans. Power Del.,vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 1236–1242, Apr. 2008.
Citation
K. Babu Reddy, K. Harinath Reddy, P. Suresh Babu "Optimal Location and Size of Distributed Generations Using Kalman Filter Algorithm for Reduction of Power Loss and Voltage Profile Improvement" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0003. India
Page 19-28
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B.Raja Rajeswari, P.Bhaskara Prasad, P.Bala Chennaiah

Current Based Model of Upfc and Dg for Loss Reduction and Voltage Profile Improvement
  • Abstract
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  • Reference
  • Full Article
This project shares out with a substitute suggestion for the substantial state modeling of unified power flow controller (UPFC). Since current restrictions are determinant to FACTS apparatus design, the schemed current based model (CBM) assumes the current as variable, allowing easy operation of current restrictions in optimal power flow evaluations. The functioning of the schemed model and of the power injection model (PIM) are compared through a Quasi-Newton escalation approach. Two operating circumstances of a medium size network with 39 busbars were studied from the point of view of escalation and current limits, monitoring the functioning of the UPFC modeling. In general, the electrical power system is a wide variation of a network and it consists of a different equipments such as transmission lines, feeders, transformers, circuit breakers, etc. Due to variations in load or sudden interruption of a network causes to increase in losses and voltage levels of the system are effected. Hence the distributed generation (DG) technology has been paid great attention as far as a potential solution for these problems.
FACTS, Optimal power flow, Quasi-Newton method, UPFC, CBM, DG
[1]. N.G.Hingorani and L. Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems. New York: IEEE Press, 2000.
[2]. J. Bian, D. G. Ramey, R. J. Nelson, and A. Edris, "A study of apparatus sizes and constraints for a unified power flow controller (UPFC)," IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 1385–1391, Jul. 1997.
[3]. K. K. Sen and E. J. Stacey, "UPFC-unified power flow controller: Theory, modeling and applications," IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1953–1960, Oct. 1998.
[4]. F. Keri et al., "Unified power flow controller (UPFC): Modeling and analysis," IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 648–654, Apr. 1999.
[5]. L. Gyugyi, C. Schauder, and K. K. Sen, "Static synchronous series compensator: A solid state approach to the series compensation of transmission lines," in Proc. IEEE Transmission & Distribution Conf., 96-Winter Meeting, Baltimore, MD, 1996.
Citation
B.Raja Rajeswari, P.Bhaskara Prasad, P.Bala Chennaiah "Current Based Model of Upfc and Dg for Loss Reduction and Voltage Profile Improvement" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0004. India
Page 29-37
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Mr. Manjunath B Talawar, Dr. D V Ashoka

A Short Study on MPLS with Internet Traffic Engineering
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
In last couple of years, area of internet traffic measurement has advanced enormously in the number of users connected, in the increase in user access speeds and in the appearance of network-hungry applications[21]. These changes greatly affected the work of Internet Service Providers and network administrators, which have to deal with increasing network users and capacity demands and abrupt traffic changes caused by new applications. The traffic engineering [1] is a method of optimizing the performance of a telecommunication network by dynamically analysing, predicting and regulating the link utilization over the network. The main objective of traffic engineering is to avoid congestion in the network and to make good use of available resources by controlling and optimising the routing, handles the unexpected traffic dynamics for achieving better quality of service. The connection-oriented approach uses signalling and is being used by techniques like Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)[2]. Connection-oriented techniques offer a convenient way to monitor, allocate, reroute, and protect resources for a given traffic on an explicit and flexible basis. This survey explains the short overview about MPLS network traffic engineering and future challenges of MPLS in future internet traffic control.
Traffic Engineering (TE), Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS), Label Switched Routers (LSRs), Quality of Service (QoS), Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP)
[1]. D. Awduche et al, ``Overview and Principles of Internet Traffic Engineering'' IETF Internet Draft draft-ietf-tewg principles-02.txt, Work-in-progress, Jan 2002.
[2]. D. Awduche, ``MPLS and traffic engineering in IP networks,'' IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 37, No. 12, pp. 42-47, 1999.
[3]. Dahai Xu, Member, IEEE, Mung Chiang, Senior Member, "Link-State Routing With Hop-by-Hop Forwarding Can Achieve Optimal Traffic Engineering", IEEE, and Jennifer Rexford, Senior Member, IEEE, Fellow, ACM, 2011.
[4]. B. Fortz and M. Thorup, "Increasing Internet capacity using local search," Computational Optimization and Applications, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 13–48, 2004.
[5]. A. Sridharan, R. Guerin, and C. Diot, "Achieving near- optimal traffic engineering solutions for current OSPF/IS- IS networks," IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 234–247, 2005.
Citation
Mr. Manjunath B Talawar, Dr. D V Ashoka "A Short Study on MPLS with Internet Traffic Engineering" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0005. India
Page 38-43
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Subagiyo, Eko Naryono, Sandra Santosa

Characterization of Temperature and Time Staying on Updraft Fixed Continuous Incinerator for Burning of Household Organic Waste with Tar Removal by Condensatin
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
The combustion process is an alternative waste treatment methods used in the effective treatment of household organic waste . In designing incinerators require a dwell time of data and products of combustion characteristics. Product characteristics can be predicted based on temperature combustion process. Characterization of temperature and residence time can be done by using models or simulations based on experimental measurements. This study aims to obtain a characterization of temperature and residence time in the combustion of household organic waste by means of experiments. Based on visual observation and temperature measurement, combustion of household organic waste can produce continuous combustion using waste water content of 15.1 % , 7.5 m3 of air puffs / min and the rate of time bins 0.15 kg / min in the combustion chamber 1000 CC ( D = 35 cm and t = 11 cm ) , the steady temperature obtained at 455oC in 50 minutes and the resulting flue gas CO , CO2 and HC well below the allowable limit is 0.11 % CO , 7 % CO2 and 70 ppm HC
Updraft Fixed incinerators , organic household waste , residence time , continuous combustion.
[1]. Bridgwater; 1980. Waste Incineration and Pyrolysis. Resource Recovery and Conservation. 5; 99-115
[2]. Blasi C.D; 2008.Modeling chemical and physical processes of wood and biomass pyrolysis. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 34: 47–90
[3]. Barrio M, Fossum M, Hustad J.E; 2001. A small-scale stratified downdraft gasifiercoupled to a gas engine for combined heat and power production. Progress in thermochemical biomass conversion. 426- 440
[4]. Caballero, J.A., Marcilla, A., Front, R., Conesa, JA., 1997. Characterisation of sludges primary and secondary pyrolysis. J. Anal. Applied Pyrolysis. 4041 : 433-450
[5]. De Steene, L.V., Tagutchou, J.P., Mermoud, F., Martin, E., Salvadorb, F,, 2010.. Continuous Fixed Bed Reactor to characterise wood char gasification.Fuel 89: 3320–3329
Citation
Subagiyo, Eko Naryono, Sandra Santosa "Characterization of Temperature and Time Staying on Updraft Fixed Continuous Incinerator for Burning of Household Organic Waste with Tar Removal by Condensatin" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0006. Malang
Page 44-53
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B.O. Afolabi, O.G. Akanbi, T.A. Adegbulugbe

Anthropometry Survey of People with Limbs Impairment as a Basis for Equipment and Machinery Development in Nigeria
  • Abstract
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  • Reference
  • Full Article
In Nigeria people with functional limitation in the usage of limbs among others are regarded as being incapable of contributing to the growth and the development of the society, but are relegated to be beggars on the streets. This is a great waste of human resources in this age of technological innovations! Use of anthropometric data may help in the proper design of local equipment and machinery for this group of disability for better efficiency and more human comfort. Therefore, selected body dimensions necessary for the design of these equipment were identified and a sample study was conducted on 50 men with limbs impairment, in which 40are with lower limbs impairment and 10 are with upper limbs impairment. The collected anthropometric data were analysed to calculate mean, standard deviation, variance, maximum and minimum values, and 1th, 5th, 50th, 95th, and 99th percentile values. Through the analyses of variance at α = 0.05, it is discovered that nature of limb impairment is not significant with age (P-value =0.404), however it is significant with body weight (Pvalue = 0.00) having R2 to be 1.46% and 32.45% respectively. It has now been proposed that extensive surveys should be carried out on people with limbs impairment in different regions of the country to generate the necessary data useful in farm machinery design/design modifications.
Anthropometry, limbs impairment, agro-processing, design, machine development
[1]. B. Mebarki and B.T. Davies "Anthropometry of Algerian Woman". International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 33(12), pp1537-1547, 1990.
[2]. W.G. Lewis and C.V. Narayan "Design and sizing of ergonomic handles for hand tools". Applied Ergonomics 24, pp351-356, 1993.
[3]. M.R. Kathleen, "Anthropometry," in Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics (ed. Salvendy, G.), John Wiley and Sons. 2006.
[4]. K. Kroemer, H. Kroemer, andK. Kroemer – Elbert, Ergonomics. "How to design for ease and efficiency." 2nd edition. Prentice Hall, New Jersey. 2001.
[5]. R.A. Rwamamara, and P. Holzmann, "Reducing the Human Cost in Construction through Design." 2007.
Citation
B.O. Afolabi, O.G. Akanbi, T.A. Adegbulugbe "Anthropometry Survey of People with Limbs Impairment as a Basis for Equipment and Machinery Development in Nigeria" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0007. Nigeria
Page 54-59
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YUKTI ANAND and V K PANDEY

Tunable Slit Loaded Stacked Circular Microstrip Antenna for Multiband applications
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
In the present endeavor a tunable (frequency agile) stacked slit loaded circular microstrip antenna has been presented for wireless systems. The frequency agility has been achieved by loading a varactor diode. The antenna is able to operate in five bands. One of these bands hopes over different bands while others are fixed at 1.9611GHz, 2.1179GHz, 2.3018GHz and 2.6203GHz. The bands are useful for different wireless applications. The mathematical model presented here is very accurate and gives clear picture of facts happening in the antenna. Antenna parameters like return loss, resonant frequency, gain, directivity, co and cross polar patterns have been obtained from simulation and numerically. The simulated results agree well with the numerical data. The gain of 6.78dBi and directivity of 7.53 dB has been achieved from the proposed tunable structure.
Stacked, slit, resonant frequency, frequency agile, cavity model etc.
[1]. Jaume Anguera, Lluis Boada, Carles Puente, Carmen Borja and Jordi Solar. (2004). Stacked H-Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna. IEEE Trans. on Antenna and Propag. Vol. 52 (4), pp. 983-993.
[2]. Mohammod Ali, Abu T. M. Sayem and Vijay K. Kunda. (2007). A Reconfigurable Stacked Microstrip Antenna for Satellite and Terristial Link. IEEE Trans. on Vehicular Technology. Vol. 56 (2), pp. 426- 435.
[3]. P. K. Singhal, Bhawana Dhaniram and Smita Banerjee. (2003). A stacked Square Patch Slotted Broadband Microstrip Antenna. Journal of Microwaves and Optoelectronics. Vol. 3 (2), pp. 60-66.
[4]. Nasimuddin. (2007). Design of Wide band Circularly Polarized Stacked Microstrip Antenna with Dielectric Cover using Single Feed. Microwave and Optical technology Letters. Vol. 49 (12), pp. 3027- 3033.
[5]. Ban-Leong Ooi, Shen Qin and Mook-Sheg Leong. (2002). Novel Design of Broad Band Stacked Patch Antenna. IEEE Trans. on Antenna and Prop. Vol. 50 (10), pp. 1391-1395.
Citation
YUKTI ANAND and V K PANDEY "Tunable Slit Loaded Stacked Circular Microstrip Antenna for Multiband applications" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0008. India
Page 60-73
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Jyotishri Behera, Ajit Kumar Pattanaik, Surya Narayan Panda

Spot Welding between Stainless and Galvanised Steels with Microstructural Analysis

  • Abstract
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In this paper, behaviour of dissimilar resistance spot welded joints of low carbon and Austenitic stainless steels was studied under tensile-shear test with attention focused on the failure mode. The experimental results show that in pullout failure mode, necking is initiated at nugget circumference and then the failure propagates along the nugget circumference in the sheet to final fracture. Necking location was low carbon steel side. Results showed that there is a critical fusion zone size to ensure pullout failure mode in shear tensile test, which is mainly controlled by ratio of fusion zone hardness and failure location hardness. In the case of dissimilar resistance spot welding, the hardness of the fusion zone which is governed by the dilution between two base metals, and fusion zone size of low carbon steel side are dominant factors in determining the failure mode of the joint.
Nugget, microstructure, RSW
[1]. AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY, Recommended Practices for Test Methods and Evaluation the Resistance Spot Welding Behaviour of Automotive Sheet Steels, ANSI/AWS/SAE D8.9-97.
[2]. CHAO Y J,2003, Failure mode of resistance spot welds: interfacial versus pullout, Sci. Technol. Weld. Joining, 8, 133-137.
[3]. POURANVARI M., ASGARI H. R., MOSAVIZADEH S. M., MARAHI P. H, GOODARZI M.,2007, Effect of weld nugget size on overload failure mode of resistance spot welds, Sci.Technol.Weld.Joining, 12, 217-225.
Citation
Jyotishri Behera, Ajit Kumar Pattanaik, Surya Narayan Panda "Spot Welding between Stainless and Galvanised Steels with Microstructural Analysis" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0009. India
Page 74-79
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Mehrdad Zobeiri, Navid Ghassem Jahroudi

HVD Holographic Technology for Data Storage Disks

  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
Nowadays due to pervasiveness of using digital devices throughout all the world and Dramatic increase of digital data storage speed, transfer rate, quality of data, etc. these devices need to new infrastructures for handling and supplying data with high speed and volume. One of these devices that will change market of optical disks is HVD. HVD disk uses holographic technology for reading/writing data that causes higher volume of storage and data transfer rate toward other optical storages.
Holography, laser, servo data, HVD, optical Storage
[1]. Toal Vincent (2012), "Introduction to Holography", CRC Press, ISBN 978-1-4398-1868-8
[2]. Keigo Iizuka Elements Of Photonics In free space and special media (Volume I)
[3]. BAHAA E. A. SALEH , MALVIN CARL TEICH, Fundamentals Of Photonics(SECOND EDITION)
[4]. "Holographic data storage.". IBM journal of research and development. Retrieved 2008-04-28.
[5]. The Economist, Holographic data storage, Jul 31, 2003, http://www.economist.cominode/1956881 General Electric Global Research IBM J.RES. DEVELOP VOL 44 MAY 2000 J.ASHLEY ETAL In Phase Technologies, Longmont, Colorado, http://www.inphase-technologies.com/
[6]. Opt ware Corporation http://www.optware.co.jp/english/
Citation
Mehrdad Zobeiri, Navid Ghassem Jahroudi "HVD Holographic Technology for Data Storage Disks" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0010. Iran
Page 80-83
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Version - 2 (September 2014)

 

R.Dahman, A.Ait Fora, A.Sbihi

Extracting Slums from High-Resolution Satellite Images

  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
Remote sensing has become a necessary tool in planning and urban management. It complements conventional tools such as aerial photogrammetry, and surveying, very accurate, certainly, but the cost factor is required, the thing that has attracted much attention from planners and scientists conducting studies on the extent of urban sprawl, taking into account the problem of slums and its impact on congestion, pollution, environment, leading to the implementation of the principle of intervention. This type of habitat is deprived of basic sanitary conditions. Most slum dwellers are from the rural exodus with insufficient income to meet the basic needs of everyday life. Faced with this alarming situation, the Moroccan government launched in 2004 a "Cities without Slums" program (TWS). The control and monitoring of the program first requires identification and spatial detection of these habitats. To accomplish these tasks, conventional methods such as information gathering, mapping, use of databases and statistics frequently turned out even little used. This article comes from this perspective aims to develop new approaches for the detection of slums mainly based on supervised classification of very high spatial resolution (VHR) with SVM method (Support Vector Machine). The data in this classification will then be used in a spatial database to be introduced into a GIS.
SVM (Support Vector Machine), Slums, Remote sensing, GIS, TWSP (town without slums Program)
[1]. S. M. Metev and V. P. Veiko, Laser Assisted Microtechnology, 2nd ed., R. M. Osgood, Jr., Ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1998.
[2]. Aubrecht, C., K. Steinnocher , M. Hollauset W. Wagner, "Integrating earth observation and GIScience for high resolution spatial and functional modeling of urban land use," Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, vol. 33, p. 15-25. 2009.
[3]. Caloz R . " Traitements numériques d'images de télédétection". Précis de Télédétection, Volume 3, Presses de l'Université du Québec/AUPELF, Sainte Foy, Collet C. 2001.
[4]. [Camps-Valls et al., 2006] Camps-Valls, G., Gomez-Chova, L., Calpe, J., Soria, E., Martin, J., Alonso, L., and Moreno, J., "Robust vector support method for hyperspectral data classification and knowledge discovery", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote sensing, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 1530–1542, 2006.
[5]. D. Dubois, " Etude du profil d'échelle des formes et de mesures d'énergie de texture pour l'évaluation semi-automatique des dégâts sur les bâtiments dans les images satellitaires de très haute résolution : application à l'analyse des zones urbaines sur des images satellitales". Thèse de doctorat, Ecole de technologie supérieure université du Québec, Université de Sophia-Antipolis, Janvier 2014.
Citation
R.Dahman, A.Ait Fora, A.Sbihi "Extracting Slums from High-Resolution Satellite Images" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0001. Morocco
Page 01-10
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Hyun-Seop Shin

FEM Analysis of the Horizontal Shear Behaviour In the Steel-Concrete Composite Beam

  • Abstract
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The structural behaviour of the steel-concrete composite beam is governed essentially by the composite action of the shear connector linking the steel beam and the concrete slab. The shear strength of the shear connector is determined through the standard push-out test. In view of recent experimental research results, the composite action of the shear connector observed in the standard push-out test shows clear difference to that observed in real composite beams. Especially, this difference has been found to become extreme in the case of composite beams with partial interaction. This study develops a three-dimensional FEM model for the analysis of the composite beam and the standard push-out test. The validity of the model is verified by comparing the analytic results to those of the tests. Moreover, the so-developed model is used for comparative analysis of the three-dimensional stress distribution within the slab concrete around the shear connector of the push-out test specimen and composite beam. The comparison reveals that the adopted approach can be used as a methodology for the analysis of the differences in the horizontal shear behaviour at the interface of the push-out test specimen and composite beam.
steel-concrete composite beam, push-out test, composite action, horizontal shear behaviour
[1]. European Committee for Standardization(CEN),Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures, Part 1.1, ENV 1994-1-1, 1992.
[2]. H. Bode, J. Schanzenbach, "Das Tragverhalten von Verbundträgern bei Berücksichtigung der Dübelnachgiebigkeit", Stahlbau 58, Heft 3, pp. 65-74, 1989.
[3]. H. Bode, European Steel-Concrete Composite Structure, Construction and Calculation, Werner Verlag, 1998.
[4]. R. P. Johnson, Composite Structures of Steel and Concrete, volume 1: Beams, Columns, Frames and Applications in Building, London, 1975.
[5]. H. S. Shin, A Contribution to the Numerical Analysis of the Load Carrying Behaviour of the Composite Beams with High Strength Steel and High Strength Concrete, Dissertation, RWTH-Aachen University, 2004.
Citation
Hyun-Seop Shin "FEM Analysis of the Horizontal Shear Behaviour In the Steel-Concrete Composite Beam" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0002. South Korea
Page 11-19
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Khaled Mohamed Waly, Mohamed Tarek Elwakad, and Mohamed A.A. Eldosoky

Effect of bone height on stresses developed around dental implant using strain gauge (In-vitro Study)

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Implant dentistry is a boon for restoration of missing teeth. It overcomes many disadvantages of other conventional methods of restoration with removable prosthesis or with fixed prosthesis. The success of the implant depends on the quality of the bone. The quality of the bone is described by its density, length and width. Based on such quality different stresses and strains may develop in bone. When these stresses exceed certain limits this leads to failure of the bone and consequently the implant. The aim of this research is to study the effect of bone height as one parameter of bone quality on stresses developed in surrounding bone. This is an invitro study using strain gauge technique. An acryl model was used as representation of mandible bone. Two dental implants with dimension (3mm in diameter and 10, 13 mm in length) are installed in the mandible model. Strain gauges bonded to the four sides of the implant (buccal, lingual, mesial and distal). The implants were loaded with a loading device from zero up to 60 N with 10 N increments. Results show that model with shorter bone height (longer implant) showed lower stresses than longer bone height (shorter implant).
Dental implant, buccel, lingual, distal, mesial.
[1]. Lee J.H., Frias V., Lee K.W. and Wright R.F.: Effect of implant size and shape on implant success rates: A Literature review. J. Prosthet. Dent. 94: 377 – 381; 2005.
[2]. Wyatt C.C. and Zarb G.A.: Treatment outcomes of patients with implant supported fixed partial prostheses. Int. J. Oral Maxillofac Implants. 13:204-211; 1998.
[3]. Buser D., Mericske-Stern R. and Bernard J.P.: Long term evaluation of non-submerged ITI implants. 1.8-year life table analysis of a prospective multi-center study with 2359 implants. Clin. Oral Implants Res. 8: 161 – 172; 1997.
[4]. Ivanoff C.J., Grondahl K., Sennerby L., Bergtrom C. and Lekholm U.: Influence of variations in implant diameters: a 3- to 5-year retrospective clinical report. Int. J. Oral Maxillofac Implants.14:175- 182; 1999.
[5]. Weng D., Jacobson Z. and Tarnow R.: A prospective multicenter clinical trial of 3i machined-surface implants: results after 6 years of follow up. Int. J. Oral Maxillofac Implants. 18: 417 – 423; 2003.
Citation
Khaled Mohamed Waly, Mohamed Tarek Elwakad, and Mohamed A.A. Eldosoky "Effect of bone height on stresses developed around dental implant using strain gauge (In-vitro Study)" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0003. EGYPT
Page 20-26
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Gaganpreet Kaur, Daljeet Singh Bajwa

Energy Optimization in a Wireless Sensor Network based on Advanced PEGASIS using Bacterial Foraging Optimization in Chain

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) is a well-known biologically inspired technique for finding optimal solution to a problem. It is a heuristic search technique and a computational methodology based on mimicking the foraging behaviour of Escherichia Coli (E. Coli.) bacteria. BFO is a population based numerical optimization algorithm in which the self-adaptability of individuals in a group searching has drawn great deal of interest in researchers. The complex but organized activities exhibited in bacterial foraging patterns could inspire a new solution for optimization problems. This paper proposes an evolutionary based bacterial foraging algorithm as an energy optimization technique in a wireless sensor network for optimal utilization of energy and this is done by using Advanced Power Efficient GAthering in Sensor Information System (PEGASIS) using BFO in chain and thus reducing the distance between individual nodes. As Wireless Sensor Network's (WSN) are widely used in number of civilian and military applications. So due to limited battery life, energy conservation is a major issue to enhance network lifetime. The proposed method is evaluated in terms of performance of life time cycle by considering the energy level of the nodes and the alive nodes present in the network.
Sensor nodes, BFO, chain formation, network energy, number of rounds.
[1]. Bharathi M.A,B.P.Vijaya Kumar,Manjaiah D H," An Energy Efficient Data Redundancy Reduction Approach for Data Aggregation in WSN", Vol. 10, Issue 4,No. 1, July 2013,IJCSI.
[2]. B.V. Manikyala Rao, S. Pallan Setty, G. Lavanya Devi," Energy Efficient Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network's." vol. 2, Issue 1, 2013, IJCC.
[3]. Cesare Alippi, Giuseppe Anastasi, Mario Di Francesco, Manuel Roveri,"Energy Management in Wireless Sensor Networks with Energy-hungry Sensors", IEEE instrumentation & measurement magazine, vol. 12, N.2, April 2009, pp.16-23.
[4]. Giuseppe Anastasi, Marco Conti, Mario Di Francessco, Andrea Passarella,"Energy Conservation in Wireless Sensor Network: A survey,"
[5]. Hanning Chen, Yunlong Zhu, and Kunyuan Hu,"Coperative BFO",Hinawi publishing Co-operation discrete dyanamics in nature & society,vol.2009,Article Id 815247,17 pages.
Citation
Gaganpreet Kaur, Daljeet Singh Bajwa "Energy Optimization in a Wireless Sensor Network based on Advanced PEGASIS using Bacterial Foraging Optimization in Chain" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0004. India
Page 27-32
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G. Durga Rama Naidu, K. Srinivasa Vengala Rao, V. Divya Sri, M. Navakanth, G.V. Rama Rao

Comparative Study of Analysis and Design of Pre-Engineered Buildings and Conventional Frames

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Long Span, Column free structures are the most essential in any type of industrial structures and Pre Engineered Buildings (PEB) fulfills this requirement along with reduced time and cost as compared to conventional structures. The present work involves the comparative study and design of Pre Engineered Buildings (PEB) and Conventional steel frames. Design of the structure is being done in Staad Pro software and the same is then compared with conventional type, in terms of weight which in turn reduces the cost. Three examples have been taken for the study. Comparison of Pre Engineered Buildings (PEB) and Conventional steel frames is done in two examples and in the third example, Pre Engineered Building structure with increased bay space is taken for the study. In the present work, Pre Engineered Buildings (PEB) and Conventional steel frames structure is designed for wind forces. Wind analysis has been done manually as per IS 875 (Part III) – 1987.
Pre-Engineered-Buildings; Conventional Buildings; Staad Pro; Steel Take-off; Tapered Sections.

[1] IS 875 (part-1) "Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for building and structures", Dead loads, New Delhi, 1987.
[2] IS 875 (part-2) "Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for building and structures", Imposed loads, New Delhi, 1987.
[3] IS 875 (part-3) "Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for building and structures", Wind loads, New Delhi, 1987.
[4] Jatin D.Thakar, P.G. Patel, "Comparative Study of Pre-Engineered Steel Structure by varying width of Structure", International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology, Volume IV, Issue III, sept 2013, pp: 56-62.

[5] Kanakambara Rao et al. "Design of Pre-Engineered steel structures building and to choose a material which offers low cost, strength, durability, design flexibility and recyclability", International Journal of
Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), Vol. 2, Issue 2, April 2012, pp: 267-272.

Citation
G. Durga Rama Naidu, K. Srinivasa Vengala Rao, V. Divya Sri, M. Navakanth, G.V. Rama Rao "Comparative Study of Analysis and Design of Pre-Engineered Buildings and Conventional Frames" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0005. India
Page 33-41
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Muktirawal, V.Kpandey

Analysis and Design of L-strip Ultra wideband Antenna

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
An L-strip proximity coupled circular micro strip antenna is proposed. The structure is investigated using circuit theoretic approachandsimulatedusingIE3D simulation software. The patch is designed on at hick substrate of thickness 11mm for a center frequency of8.9GHz and provides ultra wide band operation. The parametric study is carried out for horizon tall length of L-strip deviation of patch, and antenna dimensions and return loss radiation pattern, antenna efficiency, radiation efficiency and gain are obtained. It is observed that the band width of the antenna depends on L-strip feed dimensions along with deviation of patch. An ultra bandwidthof4.35GHz is achieved with consistent ideate on characteristics.
Semi Circular micro strip antenna, Band width, L-strip, micro strip antenna, proximity, wideband, radiation pattern, antenna gain, radiation efficiency, return loss, directivity.

[1]. JR James and P.S. Hall, hand book Micro strip Antennas, Peter Peregrinus, London,1989.[1]
[2]. M.K.Meshram and B.R.Vishvakarma,"Gap coupled micro strip array antenna for wide band operation", Int J. of Electro88,2001,pp.1161-1175.[10]
[3]. Y.X. guo, K.M. Luk and K.F.Lee(2001), "Regular Circular an Compact Semicircular Patch Antenna as with a T-probe Feeding," Microwave and OpticalTechnologyLetters,Vol.31,No.1,pp.68-71.[11]2.
[4]. Y.demiao, Chaining and J.Mingjzhi,"Studyon the Wide band and High micro strip antenna Elements" J. Electron14,(1997),pp.68-74.[2]

[5]. K.M. Luk, C.L. Mak, Y.L. Chowand K.F. Lee, "broadband Micro strip Antenna", Elect.Lett.34 (1998),pp.1442-1443.[3]

Citation
Muktirawal, V.Kpandey "Analysis and Design of L-strip Ultra wideband Antenna" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0006. India
Page 42-45
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Bhausaheb D Bhosle

Science of Time and the Theory of Everything

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
"Science of Time and the Theory of Everything" by author Bhausaheb Bhosle.
Black hole, super black hole, Galaxies, Theory Of Everything, boson, quark, fermions.
[1]. Ancient book Surya-Siddhanta, Rig Veda.
Citation
Bhausaheb D Bhosle "Science of Time and the Theory of Everything" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0007. India
Page 46-53
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A.P.V.Raghavendra, S.Belinsha

Novel Detection of Mobile Replica Node Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks using Reputation Based Data Validation

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
An attacker can capture and compromise sensor nodes, takes the confidential information from sensor nodes and create various attacks with these replicas. An adversary can create mobile replicas of sensor nodes, to transmit fake data, to handle and control the network operations. The Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) and quarantine defense strategies were proposed to detect and optimise mobile replicas in wireless sensor networks. The detection of replica node is based on mobility of nodes, where the sensor nodes and the mobile replica have the same mobility; it's difficult to find replicas in sensor networks. In order to find mobile replica in sensor networks, we propose reputation based data validation scheme to tackle the problem of replica node attacks. Finally, the proposed scheme detects mobile replicas in an efficient and robust manner through the simulation results.
Replica detection, SPRT, mobile replica, data validation, RBDV
[1]. J.Y.L.Boudec and M.Vojnovic "Perfect Simulation and Stationary of a Class of Mobility Models" Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 2743-2754, Mar. 2005.
[2]. S.Capkun and J.P.Hubaux "Secure Positioning in Wireless Networks" IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 221- 232, Feb. 2006.
[3]. M.Conti, R.D.Pietro, L.V.Mancini and A.Mei "A Randomized, Efficient and Distributed Protocol for the Detection of Node Replication Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks" Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 80-89, Sept. 2007.
[4]. K.Dantu, M. Rahimi, H. Shah, S. Babel, A. Dhariwal and G.S. Sukhatme "Robomote: Enabling Mobility in Sensor Networks" Proc. Fourth IEEE Int'l Symp, Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN), pp. 404-409, Apr. 2005.
[5]. J.Ho, M.Wright and S.K.Das "Fast Detection of Replica Node Attacks in Mobile Sensor Networks Using Sequential Analysis" Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1773-1781, Apr. 2009.
Citation
A.P.V.Raghavendra, S.Belinsha "Novel Detection of Mobile Replica Node Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks using Reputation Based Data Validation" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0008. India
Page 54-59
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Biyyala Sreedhar Rao, Prof. M. Anand Rao

Kinetics and Mechanism of Ruthenium (III) catalyzed Oxidation of 1, 2, diols (ethane diol) Peroxodiphosphate in HNO3 Medium

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  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The Oxidation of some 1,2diol, butane 1,2 diol, 1,2 biphenyl diol by PDP in Nitric acid medium have studied at different temperatures. The reaction Kinetics showed first order dependence on both Oxidant and diol. The probable mechanism consistent with the observed Kinetic data has been proposed. Increasing [H+] has decreased the rate of Oxidation at constant Ionic strength and order in [H+] was found to be one activation parameters were evaluated Arhenius and Eyring Theories.
1,2diols Oxidation mechanism, 1,2 biphenyl diol, Peroxodiphosphate.
[1]. M. Anand Rao, B. Sethu Ram, T. Naveetha Rao: Ind. J. Chem., 17A, 260(1979).
[2]. K. Asim Das, Sudhin, K. Mandal: Indian Chem. Soc., 77,223(2001)
[3]. For the review of aerobic oxidation of alcohols, see: (a) Sheldon, R. A.; Arends, I. W. C. E. In Advances in Catalytic Activation of DioxygenbyMetal Complexes; Simandi, L. I., Ed.; Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, 2003; pp 123−155. (b) Sigman, M. S.; Jensen, D. R.; Rajaram, S.Curr. Opin. Drug Discovery Dev. 2002, 5, 860−869. (c) Marcó, I. E.; Giles, P. R.; Tsukazaki, M.; Brown, S. M.; Urch, C. J. In Transition Metals forOrganic Synthesis; Beller, M., Bolm, C., Eds.; Wiley−VCH: Weinheim, 1999; Vol. 2, pp 350−360. (d) Nishimura, T.; Uemura, S. Synlett 2004, 201−216. (e) Stoltz, B. M. Chem. Lett. 2004, 33, 362−367.
[4]. (a) Ishii, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Ikariya, T.; Saburi, M.; Yoshikawa, S. J. Org. Chem. 1986, 51, 2822−2824.
[5]. (b) Ishii, Y.; Osakada, K.; Ikariya, T.; Saburi, M.; Yoshikawa, S. Chem. Lett. 1982, 1179−1182.
Citation
Biyyala Sreedhar Rao, Prof. M. Anand Rao "Kinetics and Mechanism of Ruthenium (III) catalyzed Oxidation of 1, 2, diols (ethane diol) Peroxodiphosphate in HNO3 Medium" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0009. India
Page 60-65
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Priyanka Malhotra, Ajay Kumar

Comparative Studies on Phytoplanktonic community structure Of River Yamuna and Western Yamuna Canal in Relation To Industrial Pollution in Yamuna nagar (Haryana), India

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Phytoplankton contribute significant role in aquatic ecosystem as their abundance is directly related with river's water quality. The present studies deals with the phytoplanktonic population of river Yamuna and Western Yamuna Canal and the effect of industrial pollution on their distribution and diversity. Three sampling stations were selected on river Yamuna and western Yamuna canal as pre-effluent point, point of influx of effluents and post effluent point (few Kms downstream from point of influx of effluents). Thirtyfive taxa from river Yamuna and sixteen taxa from western Yamuna canal have been observed belonging to Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Dinophyceae. Among Chlorophyceae Chlorella spp., Ulothrix spp., Dactyloccous spp., Netrium spp. and Volvox spp. were the common taxa observed at both river Yamuna and Western Yamuna canal. Among Bacillariophyceae and Cyanophyceae Surirella spp., Navicula spp., Synedra spp., Oscillatoria spp. and Synechococcus spp. were the common taxa at both the selected sites. However they all showed a decreasing trend at the point of influx of pollution from pre-effluent point but in case of western Yamuna canal their number further goes down at post effluent point. In river Yamuna only taxon Dactyloccous spp. showed a decreasing trend at post effluent point. Cladophora spp., Ankitodes spp., Chaetophora spp., Diatoma spp., Spirulina spp. and Nostoc spp. were the taxa found only in western Yamuna canal but not in river Yamuna. The abundance, distribution, total population, group percentage and species diversity were studied and correlated with pollution indicating water quality characteristics. Species diversity values indicated a decrease from pre-effluent point to effluent discharge channel and post effluent discharge point in river Yamuna and western Yamuna canal.
Industrial effluents, Phytoplankton, River Yamuna, Species diversity, Water quality
[1]. Bhatnagar, A., Chopra, G. and Malhotra, P. 2013. Assessment of water quality of river Yamuna in Yamunanagar, India with reference to planktons and macrozoobenthos, Sch. J. Eng. and tech., 1(4): 204-213.
[2]. Shannon, E.E. and Weaver, W. 1963. The mathematical theory of communication, University of Illinois, Press, Urhana: 117
[3]. Washington H.G. 1984. Diversity, biotic and similarity indices: A review with special relevance to aquatic ecosystems, Water Res., 18: 653-694.
[4]. Malhotra, P., Bhatnagar, A. and Chopra, G. 2014. Planktonic diversity of western Yamuna canal and river Yamuna in Yamunanagar, Haryana, India, Inter. Res. Jr. environ. Sci., 3(2):1-7.
[5]. Patil Shilpa, G., Chonde Sonal, G., Jadhav Aasawari, S. and Raut Prakash, D. 2012. Impact of Physico- Chemical Characteristics of Shivaji University lakes on Phytoplankton Communities, Kolhapur, India, Res. J. Rec.Sci., 1(2): 56-60.
Citation
Priyanka Malhotra, Ajay Kumar "Comparative Studies on Phytoplanktonic community structure Of River Yamuna and Western Yamuna Canal in Relation To Industrial Pollution in Yamuna nagar (Haryana), India" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0010. India
Page 66-71
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Version - 3 (September 2014)

 

Pandey Mukesh Kumar, Gaur Anurag

An Optimized Plate Fin Type Heat Exchanger

  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
Heat exchangers are one of the vital components in diverse engineering plants and systems. So the design and construction of heat exchangers is often vital for the proper functioning of such systems. It has been shown in [Barron, 1985] that the low temperature plants based on Linde – Hampson cycle cease to produce liquid if the effectiveness of the heat exchanger is below 86.9%. On the other hand in aircrafts and automobiles, for a given heat duty, the volume and weight of the heat exchangers should be as minimum as possible.
..
[1]. Dong J., Chen J., Chen Z. and Zhou Y., Air Side Thermal hydraulic Performance of Offset Strip Fin Heat Exchangers Fin Aluminum Heat Exchangers, Applied Thermal Engineering vol 27, page no. 306- 313(2007).
[2]. Michna J. G., Jacobi A. M. & Burton L. R., Air Side Thermal- Hydraulic Performance of an Offset Strip Fin Array at Reynolds Number up to 12, 0000, Fifth International Conference on Enhanced Compact and Ultra Compact Heat Exchangers .Science, Engineering & Technology, page no.8- 14(2005).
[3]. Prabhat Gupta & Atrey M. D., Performance Evaluation Of Counter Flow Heat Exchangers Considering the Heat in Leak and Longitudinal Conduction for Low Temperature applications, Cryogenics Volume 40, issue 7, Pages 469-474(1999).
[4]. Barron R. F., Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Taylor and Francis , page no. 311-318 (1999).
[5]. Shah R. K. and Sekulic D. P. Fundamentals of Heat Exchangers, John Willey & Sons Inc., page no. 10- 13 (1980).
Citation
Pandey Mukesh Kumar, Gaur Anurag"An Optimized Plate Fin Type Heat Exchanger" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0001. India
Page 01-06
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S.Anupama, Dr.M.Padma Lalitha, S.Ashok Kumar

Fuzzy Controller Based Dynamic Voltage Compensation Scheme for Smart Electric Grid Stabilization

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  • Full Article
In this paper a novel modulated power filter compensator (MPFC) is used for power quality improvement on transmission side for the smart grid stabilization and efficient utilization. The MPFC is controlled by a novel tri-loop dynamic error driven inter coupled fuzzy controller. The Fuzzy logic controller based on fuzzy logic provides a means of converting a linguistic control strategy based on expert knowledge into automatic control strategy. This paper presents a Digital validation conducted for different cases of load, excursions and fault conditions using the Mat lab/ Simlink/ Sim-Power software environment without and with the modified power Filter Compensator scheme with fuzzy controller for effective voltage stabilization, power factor correction and transmission line loss reduction.
FACTS, Dynamic Voltage Stabilization, Smart Grid, Stabilization, Efficient Utilization.
[1]. K. Eichert, T. Mangold, M. Weinhold, "Power Quality Issues and their Solution", in VII Seminario de Electrónica de Potencia, Valparaíso, Chile, Abril 1999.
[2]. M. Rahmani, A. Arora, R. Pfister, P. Huencho, "State of the Art Power Quality Devices and Innovative Concepts",in VII Seminario de Electrónica de Potencia, Valparaíso, Chile, Abril 1999.
[3]. A.M. Sharaf, Hong Huang, Liuchen Chang," Power quality and nonlinear load voltage stabilization using error-driven switched passive power filter", Proc of the IEEE Inter. Symp.on Industrial Electronics, pp 616-621, 1995
[4]. G. Joos, L. Morán, "Principles of Active Power Filters", Tutorial Course Note. of IEEE Ind. Appl. Society Annual Meeting, Oct. 1998.
[5]. W. M. Grady, M.J. Samotyj, A. H. Noyola, "Survey of Active Power Line Conditioning Methodologies," in IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 5, no 3, pp.1536-1542, July 1990.
Citation
S.Anupama, Dr.M.Padma Lalitha, S.Ashok Kumar "Fuzzy Controller Based Dynamic Voltage Compensation Scheme for Smart Electric Grid Stabilization" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0002. India
Page 07-14
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M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

THE PREJUDICED JUSTICE?... (A New theory on "Stony Heart")

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  • Full Article
This scientific research article focus that the "Human Ancestor" lived in "WHITE MARS" (also called as white planet) consider contain only "single chamber heart" and the judgment delivered shall be considered as "Perfect judgment" without any prejudice. In the early universe they shall be considered lived under "J-RADIATION" (Zero hour radiation) which shall also be called as perfect radiation (or) virgin radiation. During the expanding universe at one stage the white planet ancestral populations consider transformed to "EARTH PLANET" and undergone "Heart evolution" say two chamber Heart, three chamber heart, four chamber heart in three nuclear ages.
a) "LAW" differs from "RULE"?...
b) Philosophy of "STONY HEART"?...
c) Philosophy of "COURT"?...
d) Philosophy of "PERFECT JUDGE"?...
e) Philosophy of "FOUNDATION ACT"?...
f) Philosophy of "HUMANISM"?...
[1]. Intensive Internet "e-book" study through, Google search and wikipedia
[2]. M.Arulmani, "3G Akkanna Man", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2011
[3]. M. Arulmani; V.R. Hemalatha, "Tamil the Law of Universe", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2012
[4]. Harold Koontz, Heinz Weihriah, "Essentials of management", Tata McGraw-Hill publications, 2005
[5]. M. Arulmani; V.R. Hemalatha, "First Music and First Music Alphabet", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2012
Citation
M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha "THE PREJUDICED JUSTICE?... (A New theory on "Stony Heart")" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0003. India
Page 15-26
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M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha,

"STUDENTS" AND "POLITICS"?... (A New theory on " Student Politics ")

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This scientific research focus that "student life", "student stage" of human shall be considered as more precious value for existence of human society under Equilibrium condition. Further students shall be considered as the gift of nature and product of "J-RADIATION" (soul) of universe rather than the product of "Parents". "Student politics" shall mean students shall be kept under strict "SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT" in mastering the "Ethics" before transforming into "Political activities" of life system. Politics shall alternatively mean teaching the Ethics.
a) Philosophy of "studentship"?...
b) Philosophy of "Perfect Teacher?...
c) Philosophy of "Perfect Scholar"?...
d) Philosophy of "School"?...
e) Philosophy of "College"?...
f) Philosophy of "University"?...
g) Philosophy of "Politics"?...
h) Philosophy of "Politics"?...
[1]. Intensive Internet "e-book" study through, Google search and wikipedia
[2]. M.Arulmani, "3G Akkanna Man", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2011
[3]. M. Arulmani; V.R. Hemalatha, "Tamil the Law of Universe", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2012
[4]. Harold Koontz, Heinz Weihriah, "Essentials of management", Tata McGraw-Hill publications, 2005
[5]. M. Arulmani; V.R. Hemalatha, "First Music and First Music Alphabet", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2012
Citation
M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha, ""STUDENTS" AND "POLITICS"?... (A New theory on " Student Politics ")" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0004. India
Page 27-35
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Veeresh Menasinakai, G S Pujar, Mahesh Swami and Ajaykumar N. Asode

Mineralogy of Banded Iron Formations at and around Kammatturu, Sandur Schist Belt, Karnataka.

  • Abstract
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The banded Iron Formations form a peculiar part of the sandur schist belt, Karnataka craton in Archean Indian Shield, which are exposed at and around Kammatturu Village. The iron and manganese ores are confined to eight mountain ranges namely, Copper Mountain (Vibhutigudda), Donimalai, Ettinahatti, Kumaraswamy, Thimmappanagudi, Ramandurg (Ramgad), North Eastern Block (NEB) range and Devagiri range. The Sandur schist belt is one of the Dharwar type Precambrian supracrustal belts in the Karnataka craton of South India (2900 to 2600 m.y.). This is the smallest of the three basins and covers an area of just 960 sq. km. It is structurally highly disturbed and squeezed out of shape by the intrusion of Younger granites. Shelf facies as in the other basins is confined to the western margin. Well-developed mafic magmatism and strong development of manganiferous greywacke, phyllite and numerous bands of banded heamatite quartzites (BHQ) characterize the basin. In Sandur Schist Belt the iron and Manganese deposits are concentrated along the hilltop and ridges ranging between 600 to 1100m in altitude. Well-developed mafic magmatism and strong development of manganiferous greywacke, phyllite and banded iron formations characterize the basin. The basin is known for its rich accumulation of iron and Manganese Ores. The average grade of the Iron Ore in this area is 58-60% Fe. The mineralized zones are variable in size, ranging from few metres to nearly kilometre scale in width. The Iron ore mineralization is characterized by oxidation, sedimentation and metamorphism. These banded iron formations have a typical mineralogy envisaged by hematite, goethite, martitized magnetite, garnet, feldspar, cherty quartz, gibbsite, siderite, ferruginous clay, tourmaline, cliachite (bauxite) which have been studied in detail and described here.
Kammattutru Iron Ores, BIF, Sandur Schist Belt, Dharwar craton.
[1]. Abbott, D. H., Drury, R. And Smith, W.H.F. (1994). The flat to steep transition in subduction style. Geology,v.22,pp.937-940.
[2]. Abbott, D. H. (1996). Plumes and hotspots as sources of greenstone belts. Lithos, v. 37, pp. 113-127.
[3]. Gnaneshwar Rao, T. And Naqvi. S.M. (1995). Geochemistry, depositional environment and and tectonic setting of the BIF's of the late Archean Chitradurga schist belt, India. Chem. Geol., v. 121.pp.217-243.
[4]. Gross., 1965. Geology of iron deposits in Canada. 1. General geology and evaluation of iron deposits.
Geol. Surv. Can. Econ. Geol. Rep., 22: 181.
[5]. Hofmann, A. W. (1996). Mantle geochemistry: the message from oceanic volcanism. Nature, v.385, pp.219-229.
Citation
Veeresh Menasinakai, G S Pujar, Mahesh Swami and Ajaykumar N. Asode "Mineralogy of Banded Iron Formations at and around Kammatturu, Sandur Schist Belt, Karnataka." published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0005. India
Page 36-42
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Ms. Gunjan Sekhon, Mr. Rounak Choudhary, Dr. Sandhya Choudhary

Study of the repayment behavior of beneficiaries of Kisan Credit Card scheme

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Agriculture has been and continues to be the chief source of livelihood/employment for millions of Indians living in villages and the only sector that till today forms the backbone of Indian economy and provides a platform to Indian economy in adopting a 'leap-frog strategy' of development. Agriculture, therefore, is and will continue to be central to all strategies for planned socio-economic development of the country. Therefore, it is important to examine the profile of farmers as well as the reasons or factors which are likely to be associated with repayment behavior of the beneficiaries. The present study is taken up under the particular scheme of Kisan (Farmer's) Credit Card (KCC).
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[1]. Tiwari, S.C; Bhatt, J.P and R.K Sharma (1974). Socio-economic factors and co-operative credit borrowing behavior. Financing Agriculture. 6(1): 1-2
[2]. Virk,G.S; Kalra R.K and B.S. Hansra (2003). Agricultural credit repayment behavior of Punjab farmers. Indian Journal Of Extension Education. 39 (1 & 2). 12-17
Citation
Ms. Gunjan Sekhon, Mr. Rounak Choudhary, Dr. Sandhya Choudhary "Study of the repayment behavior of beneficiaries of Kisan Credit Card scheme" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0006. India
Page 43-45
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Priyanka Rajput, Manju Jain

Simulation of a Large Scaled Web Application on the Cloud Using CloudAnalyst

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Cloud computing is Internet based computing where virtual shared servers provide software, infrastructure, platform, devices and other resources and hosting to customers on a pay-as-you-use basis. The advancement of Cloud technologies in the last few years has opened up new possibilities to Internet applications developers. Resources and software are shared on the basis of client's demand in cloud environment. Essentially, dynamic utilization of resources is achieved under different conditions with various previous established policies. Sometime it is very much difficult and time consuming to measure performance of the applications in real cloud environment. Cloud simulators are required for cloud system testing to decrease the complexity and separate quality concerns. This actually reduces the cost of reconstruct as changes have been made during design time. Simulation technique provides lots of advantages as the experiments can be carried out with voluminous data in different abstraction level. In this paper we introduce CloudAnalyst to simulate large-scaled web applications on the Cloud with the purpose of studying the behaviour of such applications under various deployment configurations.
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[1]. Mell, P. and Grance, T. (2011) The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing. [Internet], National Institute of Standards and Technology, September, p.1-3. Available from: <http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.pdf> [Accessed 8th June 2012]
[2]. Deng, J et al (2010) Research and Application of Cloud Storage. 2nd International Workshop on Intelligent Systems and Applications (ISA), 22-23 May, pp. 1-5.
[3]. Vaquero, L. et al (2009) A Break in the Clouds: Towards a Cloud Definition. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 39(1), January, pp. 50-55.
[4]. Miller, M. (2008) Cloud Computing: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online. United States of America: Que Publishing.
[5]. Velte, A., Velte, T., and Elsenpeter, R. (2010) Cloud Computing: A Practical Approach. United States of America: McGraw-Hill.
Citation
Priyanka Rajput, Manju Jain "Simulation of a Large Scaled Web Application on the Cloud Using CloudAnalyst" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0007. India
Page 46-56
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aned 067X-0109-0356

 

Latesh Kumari, Er. Sonia Jangra, Er. Rakesh Sharma

Combined Approach for Face Detection, Eye Region Detection and Eye State Analysis- Extended Paper

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Computer vision is a subject which process, understand and analyse the human images and produce the output in terms of some symbolic values in the form of decisions. In computer vision, the multi-view analysis of face is currently an active research which helps in many applications such as driver‟s fatigue monitoring system, surveillance system. The determination of eye sate and tracking the status of eyes of the driver which help in avoidance of many road accidents. Here in this paper, we propose combined approach for face detection, eye detection and determination of eye state based on the conditional values of the number of white pixels lies in the human eyes after the selection of upper 60% of the image and then the eye regions, and finally the state of the eyes is determined whether it is closed or open. During the implementations, we discuss and present the various modules of the system. Based on the implementation of the algorithms we are successfully able to determine the state of the eyes of the human image. Therefore we can say that our algorithmic implementation of the combined approach of detection is accurate and working properly. For the implementation, we have chosen the YCbCr color model for image representation.
Computer Vision, Digital Image Processing, Face Detection, MATLAB, Data Structure, Eye Detection
[1]. Research on Drowsy Driving, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, [online] Available: http://www.nhtsa.gov/Driving+Safety/Distracted+Driving/Research+on +Drowsy+Driving
[2]. [M. Kutila, "Methods for Machine Vision Based Driver Monitoring.
[3]. S. G. Kong, J. Heo, B. R. Abidi, J. Paik, and M. A. Abidi, "Recent advances in visual and infrared face recognition: a review," Computer Vision and Image Understanding, vol. 97, pp. 103–135, 2005.
[4]. W. Zhao, R. Chellappa, A. Ronsenfeld, and P. J. Phillips, "Face recognition: A literature survey," ACM Computing Surveys, pp. 399–458, 2003.
[5]. C. C. Han, H. Y. M. Liao, G. J. Yu, and L. H.Chen, "Fast face detection via morphologybased preprocessing," Pattern Recognition, vol. 33, pp. 1701–1712, 2000.
Citation
Latesh Kumari, Er. Sonia Jangra, Er. Rakesh Sharma "Combined Approach for Face Detection, Eye Region Detection and Eye State Analysis- Extended Paper" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0008. India
Page 57-68
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aned 067X-0109-0368

 

Dr.T.Chandra sekhra reddy, Kuruva Mahesh

Macro Mechanical Properties of Ultra High Strength Concrete Using River Sand and Silica Fume

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Ultra High Strength Concrete (UHSC) is a new generation of concrete which has exceptional mechanical and durability properties. The major difference between ultra high strength concrete and conventional concrete is that coarse aggregates are eliminated in UHSC which improves the homogeneity of concrete. The present paper is aimed to produce ultra high strength concrete using locally available materials, to achieve target compressive strength more than 170 Mpa. Different curing regimes play different role in enhancing the micro structural properties of concrete which improves the mechanical and durability properties of concrete, apart from different curing regimes a combination thermal curing regime and normal water curing has been chosen. A cube specimen of size 70.6 mmX 70.6mmX70.6mm mm and cylindrical specimen of size 100 mm diaX 200 high mm were cast and demoulded after 24 hours then they allowed for normal water curing. Specimens were exposed to thermal regime at 2000C for duration of 24 hrs, 48 hrs and 72 hours at the age of third day followed with water curing till 28 days. The compressive strength varied in the range of 108 Mpa to 171 Mpa. The results showed marked difference in compressive strength and split tensile strength of UHSC with thermal curing when compared with only normal water curing.
UHSC, Silica fume, Quartz powder, Thermal curing regime, compressive strength.
[1]. Prabhat R P, Bharatkumar B H and Iyer N R 2012 Mechanical properties of ultra high performance concrete. Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. No. 68. World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol. 351(68): 1969
[2]. M.M Reda, Shrivea G N and Gillotta E J 1999 Micro structural investigation of innovative UHPC. Cem.Concr. Res. 29(3): 323–329
[3]. Richard P and Cheyrezy M 1995 Composition of reactive powder concretes. Cem. Concr. Res. 25(7): 1501–1511
[4]. Harish K V, Dattatreya J K and Neelamegam M 2007 Role of ingredients and curing regime in ultra high strength powder concretes. Journal of structural engineering vol.34,Feb-Mrch 2008.
[5]. Chan Yw, Chu SH. Efeect of silica fume on steelfiber bond characterstics in reactive powder concrete. Cement concrete Research 2004; 34:1167-72
Citation
Dr.T.Chandra sekhra reddy, Kuruva Mahesh "Macro Mechanical Properties of Ultra High Strength Concrete Using River Sand and Silica Fume" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 9 (Septemper 2014)
MID 1009.067X.0009. India
Page 69-76
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