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IJERD : Volume 11 - Issue 1

Version - 1 (January 2015)


Hasna Ahmad, Abdu Mas'ud, Zulkifli Ahmad

Butterfly on the Island Bacan North Mollucas Province; How Density
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Bacan Island is an island in the administrative region of South Halmahera, North Mollucas Province. One of the biological richness of the region, it is Diorama butterfly. Potential diversity of butterfly in Bacan Island and surrounding areas, requiring require ecologically and molecular studies as a database in the preservation and conservation of the species and its habitat. The purpose of this study is to assess the density and distribution of species of butterfly in Bacan island. This research method is done in several stages, including: a survey to know the various species of butterflies in Bacan island based on morphological characters, sampling (identification and manufacture insectarium), as well as measuring the density and distribution of species of butterflies were observed. The results showed that there are 34 species of butterflies and 424 individuals / ha were collected in 4 Family in Bacan island. Density of butterfly species in the study area, respectively from highest to lowest is Catopsillia pomona species (IVI = 14.97%) of the Family Pieridae, Hypolimnas misippus species (IVI = 12.87%) of the Family Nymphalidae, species Appias albina (IVI = 12.40%) of the Family Pieridae, and Eurema candida (IVI = 11.45) of the Family Pieridae.
Butterfly, distribution, density, Bacan Island

[1]. Borror, D.J., C.A. Triplehorn, and N.F. Johnson. 1996. Introduction Lesson Insects. The sixth edition. Gadjah Mada University Press. Yogyakarta.

[2]. Carter, D. 1992. Handbook Butterflies and Moth. Dorling Kindersley Pub. ISBN : 0-7513-2707-7. Singapore [3]. Dendang, Benyamin. 2009. Butterfly diversity in Resort Selabintana Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park, West Java. Journal of Forest Research and Nature Conservation. Vol. VI. No. 1, hal : 25-36

[4]. Kunte, K. 2000. India A Lifescape Butterflies of Peninsular India. In: Gadgil, M. (Editor). Universitties Press-India.

[5]. Koneril, Roni dan Saroyo. 2012. Distribution and Diversity of the Butterflies (Lepidoptera) At Mount Manado Tua, Bunaken National Marine Park area, North Sulawesi. Journal of Sustainable Earth. Volume 12 No. 2. Hlm: 357-365

Citation
Hasna Ahmad, Abdu Mas'ud, Zulkifli Ahmad "A Study on Effect of Sizes of aggregates on Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0001. INDONESIA
Page 01-07
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Abo El-Hassan Rahil, Alzaed, A

The Geometric Characteristics of the Linear Features in Close Range Photogrammetry

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The accuracy of photogrammetry can be increased with better instruments, careful geometric characteristics of the system, more observations and rigorous adjustment. The main objective of this research is to develop a new mathematical model of two types of linear features (straight line, spline curve) in addition to relating linear features in object space to the image space using the Direct Linear Transformation (DLT). The second main objective of the present paper is to study of some geometric characteristics of the system, when the linear features are used in close range photogrammetric reduction processes. In this research, the accuracy improvement has been evaluated by adopting certain assessment criteria, this will be performed by computing the positional discrepancies between the photogrammetrically calculated object space coordinates of some check object points, with the original check points of the test field, in terms of their respective RMS errors values. In addition, the resulting least squares estimated covariance matrices of the check object point's space coordinates. To perform the above purposes, some experiments are performed with synthetic images. The obtained results showed significant improvements in the positional accuracy of close range photogrammetry, when starting node, end nodes, and interior node on straight line and spline curve are increased with certain specifications regarding the location and magnitude of each type of them.
Accuracy -linear features - geometric characteristics- close range photogrammetry.

[1]. Dalati, "Potentials of Using Linear Features in the Photogrammetric Reduction Processes and Its Applications in Cadastral Surveying", PhD. Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt 1989 .

[2]. Habib, A., Morgan M. F. "Linear Features in Photogrammetry", Technical Report, Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, CANADA, 2008.

[3]. Hottier," Accuracy of close -Range Analytical Restitutions: Practical Experiments and Prediction" Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote sensing,Vol.42, pp. 345-375 March, No.3, 1976

[4]. Morgan M. F.,"Linear Features in Photogrammetry", Technical Report, Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, CANADA, 2008

[5]. Mulawa, D. C., "Estimation and photogrammetric Treatment of Linear Features " Ph.D. Thesis, purdue University, USA ,1989.

Citation
Abo El-Hassan Rahil, Alzaed, A "The Geometric Characteristics of the Linear Features in Close Range Photogrammetry" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0002. Egypt
Page 08-17
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V. USHARANI & R. AGASTHIYA

Enhanced MPPT Technique For DC-DC Luo Converter Using Model Predictive Control For Photovoltaic Systems
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The present study explored an enhanced maximum power point tracking technique which ensures fast tracking in PV systems. This system represents a Model Predictive Control (MPC) MPPT technique. Extracting the maximum power from PV systems has been widely investigated. The main benefaction of this article is an improvement of the Perturb and Observe (P&O) method through a fixed step predictive control under measured fast solar radiation. The preferred predictive control to achieve Maximum Power Point (MPP) speeds up the control loop since it predicts error before the switching signal is applied to the DC-DC Luo converter. Comparing the improved technique to the conventional P&O method indicates significant improvement in PV system performance. The proposed MPC-MPPT technique for a Luo converter is implemented using the MAT LAB SIMULINK
Maximum Power Point Tracking, Perturb and Observe, Model Predictive Control, super lift Luo converter

[1]. Z. Peng, W. Yang, X. Weidong, and L. Wenyuan, Reliability Evaluation of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power Systems, IEEE Trans on Sustainable Energy, 3, 2012, 379-389.

[2]. H. Behjati and A. Davoudi, A Multiple-Input Multiple-Output DC-DC Converter, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 49, 2013, 1464-1479.

[3]. B. Farhangi and S. Farhangi, Comparison of z-source and boost-buck inverter topologies as a single phase transformerless photovoltaic grid-connected power conditioner, IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2006, 1-6.

[4]. T. Esram and P. L. Chapman, Comparison of photovoltaic array maximum power point tracking techniques, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 22, 2007, 439-449.

[5]. A. Bidram, A. Davoudi, and R. S. Balog, Control and Circuit Techniques to Mitigate Partial Shading Effects in Photovoltaic Arrays, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 2, 2012, 532-546.

Citation
V. USHARANI, & R. AGASTHIYA "Enhanced MPPT Technique For DC-DC Luo Converter Using Model Predictive Control For Photovoltaic Systems" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0003. India
Page 18-27
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Ojaswi Singh, Rahul Sharma, P. Vijay Kumar, Aparna Gupta

An Experiment with circular saw blade – SPIKE Robot
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Robotics is an art which comprises of technology which deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. This work gives the reader detail information about the Spike Robot that was created with basic wired robotics concept but reserves the capability to perform many actions, possible modifications will surely be going to enhance that capability.
Circular saw blade, Geared Motor, Rectifier, Transformer

[1] http://www.instructables.com/id/Combat-Robots/

[2] Brady, J. M., "Robot motion planning: planning and control", MIT Press, 1982.

[3] Craig, J. J., "Introduction to robotics: mechanics and control" 2nd edition, published in the series of Addison-Wesley Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering: Control Engineering, 1955

[4] Latombe, J. C. "Robot motion planning".

[5] Wolovich, W. A. "Robotics: basic analysis and design".

Citation
Ojaswi Singh, Rahul Sharma, P. Vijay Kumar, Aparna Gupta "An Experiment with circular saw blade – SPIKE Robot" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0004. India
Page 28-31
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Tito EsauMwinuka

Effects of Process Parameters on the Density and Durability of Biomass Briquettes Made from Wet Method
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
-This work aimed at improving the density and durability of biomass briquettes made by composting and pressing biomass (wet method). Though this type of briquettes requires much less energy to form, they are usually of much lower density compared to briquettes made from dry biomass. In this experimental work three parameters were considered, which are type of biomass, composting time, and moisture content. Biomass samples were mixed with water and left to decompose for varying number of days. The moisture content of samples was conditioned accordingly and briquettes were made from these samples using a die and a pressing machine. Briquettes were tested for density and durability. Results show that among saw dust, groundnut shells and rice husk briquettes, rice husk briquettes attain highest density (up to 0.47g/cm3). For all three biomass types, durability index tend to increase with an increase in moisture content. Durability of groundnut shells and rice husk briquettes tend to decrease with an increase in composting time while that of saw dust increase with composting time. For all the three biomasses, the apparent density decreases with an increase in moisture content. For groundnut shells and rice husks the density increases with compositing time while for saw dust the change in density is negligible.
biomass briquettes, biomass composting, wet briquetting, briquette density, briquette durability, briquette testing.

[1]. Kaliyan, N and Morey R.V. (2010) Natural Binders and Solid Bidge type binding mechanism in Briquettes and pellets made from corn stover and switchgrass. Bioresource Technology 101 pp. 10821090.

[2]. Zhanbin, C. (2003) "Normal Temperature Briquetting Technology for Biomass with Original Moisture Content" Proceedings of International Conference on Bioenergy Utilization and Environment Protection – 6th LAMNET Project Workshop, 24 - 26 September 2003, Dalian, China

[3]. Agbontalor, E. A, (2007) Overview of Various Biomass Energy Conversion Routes, AmericanEurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science Vol. 2 (6), pp. 662-671.

[4]. Demirbas, A. 2004. Combustion Characteristics Of Different Biomass Fuels. Prog Energy CombusSci 30:219–230.

[5]. Krizan, P., Soos, L. and Vukelic, D. (2009), A Study Of Impact Of Technological Parameters On The Briquetting Process. Working and Living Environmental Protection, vol. 6 No. 1, pp 39-47.

Citation
Tito EsauMwinuka "Effects of Process Parameters on the Density and Durability of Biomass Briquettes Made from Wet Method" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0005. TANZANIA
Page 32-38
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OJO Stephen Okunlola, ISHOLA Oluwatosin Shola, OLAOLUWA Olatunde

Severity Index of Environmental Factors Associated with Building Construction Process.
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Environmental impact assessment of construction projects is demanded by government of developed nations where the construction industry is regulated. This is however not the case in developing nations where the industry is not regulated. In this research, types and the degree of severity of environmental factors associated with building construction projects in Lagos state of Nigeria was examined. Twenty –eight on-going building projects scattered between Lagos Island and the mainland were randomly selected from each cluster using proportional allocation. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey administered on 3 senior management staff and 7 artisans at each site. The study established raw material consumption and transportation as the most always occurring, most severe construction activity constituting environmental hazard and having the highest impact level on the environment. It was concluded that on-site construction activities have significant impact on the environment across the broad spectrum of, natural resource, ecosystem and public health.
Environmental Factors, Construction, Impact, Nigeria

[1]. A.Akinbode,Introductory Environmental Resource Management. Daybis Limited, Nigeria,2002.

[2]. Federal Environmental Protection Agency. (FEPA)"Decree, 59". 1992.

[3]. M. J.Jamaluddin, A.Kadaruddin,K.Arifin,and A.Awang,"Development, environmental degradation and environmental management in Malaysia". European Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 9, no.2, pp. 257264,2009.

[4]. Population Reference Bureau (2011). Report. Available from www.prb.org/countries /Nigeria.aspx.July

[5]. S.Emine,"A cross- country exploration of environmental attitudes", Environment and Behaviour, vol. 41,issue 3,pp.365-386,2011.

Citation
OJO Stephen Okunlola, ISHOLA Oluwatosin Shola, OLAOLUWA Olatunde "Severity Index of Environmental Factors Associated with Building Construction Process." published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0006. Nigeria
Page 39-48
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Preetha R nair, S.Ranjitha, Dr .H. N. Suresh

A Infrared hyperspectral imaging technique for non-invasive canine cancer detection.
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Hyperspectral imaging(HI) is an emerging technology in the field of biomedical engineering which may be used as a non-invasive modality for cancer characterization. In this project, we propose to investigate hyperspectral imaging for the characterization of gastric cancer. The hyperspectral imaging has been used for the detection of various kinds of human cancer; breast, gastric, prostate and tongue. A research group has also investigated the use of reflectance imaging to detect canine cancer using fluorescent dyes. The use of hyperspectral imaging, however, has been limited for the characterization of cancer. In this project, we have already acquired many hyperspectral images of tumors. The malignant tissue has relatively low reflectance intensity compared to the benign tissue. The decreased reflectance intensity observed for malignant tumors is due to the increased microvasculature and therefore higher blood content of cancerous tissue relative to benign tissue. In the future, we will normalize and preprocess the spectral dataset. We propose to apply various algorithms such as Support Vector Machine, Linear Discriminant Analysis and Principal Component Analysis on the spectral data to discern the malignant and benign tumors. The advantage of cancer detection using hyperspectral imaging is that it is non-invasive, highly efficient and less time consuming than traditional methods like biopsy.
Spectral imaging; spectroscopy; hyper spectral; multispectral. Gastric cancer.

[1]. W. L. Wolfe, Introduction to Imaging Spectrometers, SPIE Press, Bellingham, Washington (1997).

[2]. A. F. H. Goetz, ―Three decades of hyperspectral remote sensing of the Earth: a personal view,‖ Remote Sens. Environ. 113(Suppl. 1), S5–S16,(2009).

[3]. C. Fischer and I. Kakoulli, ―Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging technologies in conservation: current research and potential applications,‖ Stud. Conserv. 7, 3–16 (2006).

[4]. H. Liang, ―Advances in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging for archaeology and art conservation,‖ Appl. Phys. A 106(2), 309–323 (2012).

[5]. M. Govender, K. Chetty, and H. Bulcock, ―A review of hyperspectral remote sensing and its application in vegetation and water resource studies,‖ Water SA 33(2), 145–151 (2007).

Citation
Preetha R nair, S.Ranjitha, Dr .H. N. Suresh "A Infrared hyperspectral imaging technique for non-invasive canine cancer detection." published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0007. India
Page 49-54
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A Srinivas, DSV Prasad, M AnjanKumar, GVR Prasada Raju

Utilisation of Waste Materials in the Construction Of Roads
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Expansive soils are so widely spread that it becomes impossible to avoid them for highway construction to keep the network structure for mobility and accessibility. These soils are prevalent as large tracts in many parts of the world. Many highway agencies, private organizations and researchers are doing extensive studies on waste materials and research projects concerning the feasibility and environmental suitability. It is necessary to utilize the waste affectively with technical development in each field. Cyclic plate load tests were carried out on the tracks with optimum percentage of reinforcement materials like waste plastics and waste tyre rubber in gravel/flyash subbase laid on expansive subgrade. Test results show that maximum load carrying capacity associated with less value of rebound deflection is obtained for gravel/flyash reinforced subbase compared to unreinforced subbase.
Expansive Soil, Flyash, Gravel, CBR, Load Test, Reinforcement materials, Pavement.

[1]. Roy, S. and Char, A.N.R. (1969)," Engineering Characteristics of Black Cotton Soils as Related to Their Mineralogical Composition"'. Proceedings of Symposium on Characteristics of and Construction Techniques in Black Cotton Soil. The College of Military Engg., Poona, India. 19-23.

[2]. Lunkad, S.K.(1977)," The Effect of Soil Genesis and Expanding Layered Lattice Mineral on the Engg. Index properties of Residual Trappean Soils of Malwa Plateau",. Proceedings of the First National Symposium on Expansive Soils, HBTI,Kanpur, India. 10-1 to 10-7.

[3]. Katti, R.K. (1979)," Search for Solutions to Problems in Black Cotton Soils". First IGS annual lecture. IGJ. 9: pp 1- 80.

[4]. Panigrahi, B.K., Babushanker, N. and Nataraj, P. 1994.Clay mineralogy and swelling behaviour of selected expansive soils around Warangal, India. Proc. of IGC-94, Warangal, India. 53 - 56.

[5]. Venkata Koteswara Rao Pasupuleti, Satish Kumar Kolluru, Blessingstone T(2012) " Effect of Fiber on Fly-Ash Stabilized Sub Grade Layer Thickness" International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Vol 4 No 3 Jun-Jul 2012, pp 140-147.

Citation
A Srinivas, DSV Prasad, M AnjanKumar, GVR Prasada Raju "Utilisation of Waste Materials in the Construction Of Roads" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0008. India
Page 55-62
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Gururaj Balikatti, Varalakshmi. V, Varalakshmi. G.U, Veda.M .V, Likhitha.S

A 8-bit high speed ADC using Intel µP 8085
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
An 8-bit ADC Architecture of is proposed, it uses 16 comparators and produces 8-bit digital code in half the time as that of successive approximation technique. In this approach, the analog input range is partitioned into 16 quantization cells, separated by 15 boundary points. A 4-bit binary code 0000 to 1111 is assigned to each cell. The results show that the ADC exhibits a maximum DNL of 0.49LSB and a maximum INL of 0.51LSB.
ADC, Microprocessor, DAC, Sample and Hold. Successive approximation.

[1]. P.E.Pace, J.L. Schaler, and D.Styer, "Optimum Analog preprocessing for folding ADC's", IEEE Trans. Circuits System-II, Vol.42.pp.825-829, Dec. 95.

[2]. Robert H.Walden, "Analog-to-Digital Converter Survey and Analysis", IEEEJ.Comm. Vol.17, No.4, pp539-549, April 1999.

[3]. B.Razavi and B.A.Wooley, "A 12-b 5-M samples Two-step CMOS A/D converter", IEEE J. SolidState circuits, Vol. 27, Dec.1992, pp.1667-1678.

[4]. B.S.Song, S.H.Lee, and M.F.Tompsett, " A10-b 15-MHz CMOS recycling two steps A/D converter", IEEE J. Solid-state circuits,Vol. 25, Dec.1990, pp. 1328-1338.

[5]. Joao Goes, Joao C. Vital, and Jose E.France "Systematic Design for optimization of High Speed SelfCalibrated Pipelined A/D converters", IEEE Trans. Circuits system II, Dec 1998, Vol. 45, pp.15131526.

Citation
Gururaj Balikatti, Varalakshmi. V, Varalakshmi. G.U, Veda.M .V, Likhitha.S "A 8-bit high speed ADC using Intel µP 8085" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0009. India
Page 63-66
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Dafalla Siddig Dafalla* and Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik

Evaluation of Structural Geology of Jabal Omar
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The proposed Jabal Omar Development project includes several multi-storey buildings, roads, bridges and below ground structures. Dykes and joints are the most common geological features in the area; they vary in thickness and orientation. The spacing between adjacent discontinuities largely control the size of individual blocks of rock masses which govern the stability of rock structures. The shearing and faulting system normally associated with tectonic movement making the area very weak, highly weathered and unstable. All Structural geological units analyzed using stereographic projection
Jabal Omar, Dykes, Joints, Discontinuities, shear and faults.

[1]. AL-Shanti, A.M.S., 1966. Oolitic iron ore deposits in wadi Fatima beteen Jeddah and Makkah, Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabia Directorate General of Mineral Resources, Bull. 2, pp. 51.

[2]. Basahel, H. M., (2008) Rock mass quality and stability analysis of rock cuts at Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. King Abdulaziz University. FES. Jeddah.

[3]. Geological Society of London, 1977. The description of rock masses for engineering purpose. Geological Society, Engineering Group Working Party. Q. J. Eng. Geology, Vol. 10, pp. 335-389.

[4]. Goodman, R. E., 1976. Method of geological engineering in discontinuous rocks, West Publishing Company. Minnesota. pp. 472.

[5]. Hoek, E. and Bray, J. W., 1981, Rock slope engineering. 3rd Edition, IMM, London, 358 p.

Citation
Dafalla Siddig Dafalla* and Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik "Evaluation of Structural Geology of Jabal Omar " published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0010. Sudan
Page 67-72
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Version - 2 (January 2015)

  

FA Mekiso, GM, Ochieng and J Snyman

Isotope Hydrology in the Middle Mohlapitsi Catchment, South Africa
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
This paper presents the results of an investigation of isotope hydrology of the wetland in the Mohlapitsi and Olifants basins. One hundred and twenty eight water samples were collected during May 2007 through November 2013 for deuterium and oxygen-18 analyses. The isotopic compositions of water samples at the study site catchment did not show any significant difference, indicating they are from the same source. This isotopic similarity between the upstream and the wetland aquifers confirmed the hydraulic interconnection between them. Furthermore, river water samples cluster together except water samples at Valis Village crossing and downstream river. The auger hole samples are quite variable with those associated with upstream transects grouping with the drains, while those associated with the downstream transects more similar to the spring. The indications are that the springs have a highly variable signature which may suggest that there are different types of springs to be found in the study catchment. The isotopic composition of water samples in the study area during low-flow (June 2011 and July 2012) and high-flow (November 2011 and December 2012) periods were similar.
Wetland, Isotope hydrology, stream flow, transect

[1]. Clark.I.and Fritz.P. "Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology" Lewis Publishers, NewYork, 1997.

[2]. Coplen.T.B "Uses of environmental isotopes". In Regional groundwater quality, ed. W.M. Alley Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 227–254, 1993.

[3]. Coplen. T.B., Wildman. J.D and Chen.J" Improvements in the gaseous hydrogen-water equilibration technique for hydrogen isotope ratio analysis", Analytical Chemistry, 63, 910–912, 1991.

[4]. Gat.J.R.andGonfiantini.R "Stable Isotopes Hydrology.Deuterium and Oxygen-18 in the water cycle". International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna IAEA Technical Report Series, Austria, 210, 1981.

[5]. Fontes.J.C. and Edmunds.J.N" The use of environmental isotope techniques in arid zone hydrology".IHP-III project, UNESCO, Paris, France.5 (2), 1989.

Citation
FA Mekiso, GM, Ochieng and J Snyman "Isotope Hydrology in the Middle Mohlapitsi Catchment, South Africa" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0001. South Africa
Page 01-07
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NITHYA & T.RAMESH

Finite Step Model Predictive Control Based Asymmetrical T-Source Inverter with MPPT Technique
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
This paper presents techniques of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) implemented with finite step model predictive control (FSMPC) for the application of Asymmetrical Γ -source inverter. Incremental conductance MPPT algorithm and FSMPC model is developed to control the output current of the grid-tied Inverter. Both steady-state and transient results show that the high efficiency and robust response of the proposed control technique. Impedance-source inverters are inverters with voltage buck- boost capability that cannot be achieved by the traditional inverters. Their boost capability is introduced by shorting their phase-legs without causing damages. Impedance-source inverters are therefore less prone to false triggering caused by electromagnetic interference. The asymmetrical Γ -source inverters proposed in the paper, whose gain is raised by lowering their turns ratio towards unity. Input current drawn by the proposed inverters is smoother and hence more adaptable by the source.
MPPT, FSMPC, Asymmetrical, Γ -source, Incremental conductance.

[1]. T. Esram and P. L. Chapman, "Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques," Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions , 22, 2007, 439-449.

[2]. V. Salas, E. Olías, A. Barrado, and A. Lázaro, "Review of the maximum power point tracking algorithms for stand-alone photovoltaic systems, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 90, 2006, 1555-1578.

[3]. G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, R. Teodorescu, M. Veerachary, and M. Vitelli, "Reliability Issues in Photovoltaic Power Processing Systems," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions, 55, 2008, 25692580.

[4]. H. Chihchiang, L. Jongrong, and S. Chihming, Implementation of a DSP controlled photovoltaic system with peak power tracking, Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions, 45, 1998, 99-107.

[5]. Safari and S. Mekhilef, "Simulation and Hardware Implementation ofIncremental Conductance MPPT With Direct Control Method Using Cuk Converter, Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions , 58, 2011, 1154-1161.

Citation
NITHYA & T.RAMESH "Finite Step Model Predictive Control Based Asymmetrical Source T-Inverter with MPPT Technique" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0002. India
Page 08-16
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Batool Hashemibeni, Farzaneh Sadeghi, Vahid Bahrambeigi, Masumeh Sanaei, Esmaeel Sharifi, Ali Valiani, Masoud Ghorbani

Determination and comparison rate of expression markers of osteoblast derived of Adipose derived stem cells markers in monolayer and pellet culture models
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Nowadays high accident rates, fractures leading to permanent bone disorders and the impossibility of bone transplant have made scientists to look for new methods of repairing injured bones. Considering the application of stem cells in bone tissue engineering, there exists the necessity to investigate various culture methods and suitable fields and scaffolds. Thus, we decided to induce adipose-derived stem cells into osteoblast cells in two systems of pellet culture and monolayer and compare osteogenic markers. Methods: Stem cells have been separated via mechanical and enzymatic methods and cultured in monolayer and pellet culture models with osteogenic medium. Then, RNA was separated from differentiated cells, complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized and amplified. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product was transferred to electrophoresis gel. The intensity of the bands was measured by Image-J software and analyzed by SPSS. Results: average osteopontin, osteocalcin and Runx2 genes in differentiated cells in the two culture systems showed a significant difference. The expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin and Runx2 gense in pellet system were more than monolayer systems in 21 days. Conclusion: This study indicated that pellet and monolayer culture systems are appropriate for bone engineering but osteocalcin, osteopontin and Runx2 genes expressions were different in the two culture system.
Adipose-derived stem cells, Osteocalcin, Runx2, Osteopontin, Pellet culture, Monolayer

[1]. Cancedda R, Dozin B, Giannoni p. Tissue engineering of cartilage and bone. MatrixBiology: 2003: 22: 81،91 [2]. Hayes JS, Khan IM, Archer CW, Richards RG. The role of surface microtopography in the modulation of osteoblast differentiation. 2010;Eur Cell Mater 20: 98-108.

[3]. Zuk PA, Zhu M, Mizuno H, et al. Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: implications for cellbased therapies. Tissue Eng. 2001;7:211– 228\.

[4]. Planat-Benard V, Silvestre JS, Cousin B, et al. Plasticity of human adipose lineage cells toward endothelial cells physiological and therapeutic perspectives. Circulation. 2004;109:656–663.

[5]. Hicok KC, Du Laney TV, Zhou YS, et al. Human adipose-derived adult stem cells produce osteoid in vivo. Tissue Eng. 2004;10:371–380.

Citation
Batool Hashemibeni, Farzaneh Sadeghi, Vahid Bahrambeigi, Masumeh Sanaei, Esmaeel Sharifi, Ali Valiani, Masoud Ghorbani "Determination and comparison rate of expression markers of osteoblast derived of Adipose derived stem cells markers in monolayer and pellet culture models" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0003. Iran
Page 17-23
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Krunal Suryakant Kayastha

CFD Simulation and Heat Transfer Analysis of Automobile Radiator using Helical Tubes
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
To ensure smooth running of an automotive vehicle under any variable load conditions, one of the major systems necessary is the cooling system. Automobile radiators are becoming highly power-packed with increasing power to weight or volume ratio. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is one of the important software tools to access preliminary design and the performance of the radiator. In this paper, a 55 hp engine radiator data is taken for analysis in CFD. The model is done Pro-E software and imported in ANSYS-12. Helical tubes are considered for the radiator with two different pitches like 15mm & 20mm. The comparison is done for different mass flow rates like 2.3, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 kg/sec in helical type tubes. It is found that there is more heat dissipation rate in 15mm pitch helical tubes compared to 20mm pitch helical tubes. Maximum temperature drop & minimum pressure drop occurs in case of 0.5 kg/sec of mass flow rate. It is observed that with increased mass flow rate, there is decrease in temperature drop & increase in pressure drop.
CFD, ANSYS, Radiator design, Helical tubes, Mass flow rate, Coolant, Pitch, Numerical Simulations.

[1]. A.Witry M.H. Al-Hajeri and Ali A. Bondac, "CFD analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in patterned roll bonded aluminium radiator", 3rd International conference on CFD, CSIRO, Melborne, Australia, pp. 12-19, 2003. [2]. Hilde Van Der Vyer, Jaco Dirker and Jousoa P Meyer, "Validation of a CFD model of a three dimensional tube-in-tube heat exchanger", Third International Conference on CFD in the Minerals and Process Industry, CSIRO, Melborne, Australia. pp. 25-32, 2003.

[3]. J A Chen, D F Wang and L Z Zheng, "Experimental study of operating performance of a tube-and-fin radiator for vehicles", Proceedings of Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Republic of China, 215: pp. 2-8, 2001.

[4]. Changhua Lin and Jeffrey Saunders, "The Effect of Changes in Ambient and Coolant Radiator Inlet Temperatures and Coolant Flowrate on Specific Dissipation", SAE Technical Papers, 2000.

[5]. Sridhar Maddipatla, "Coupling of CFD and shape optimization for radiator design", Oakland University. Ph.D. thesis,2001

Citation
Krunal Suryakant Kayastha "CFD Simulation and Heat Transfer Analysis of Automobile Radiator using Helical Tubes" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0004. India
Page 24-35
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Shweta Sagar, Deeksha Lal, Seema Dahiya

Visible Light Communication
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The aim of this paper is to determine the viability of Indoor Optical Wireless Communication System. This paper introduces Visible Light Communication along with its merits, demerits and applications. Then the main characteristics of VLC system are described, around which the project is designed. Multiple Input-Multiple Output (MIMO) technique is used in the project in order to enhance the data rate of transmission. Instead of using a system of only one LED and one APD, which transmits only one bit at a time, a system of 4 LEDs and 4 APDs is introduced, which increases the data rates by 300% from the previous case. We observe the signal, noise, SNR, BER etc. across the room dimension. Finally, in the last chapter we summarize our results on the basis of MATLAB simulations and propose some modifications to this model that can be implemented in future.
.

[1]. Toshihiko Komine and Masao Nakagawa "Fundamental Analysis for Visible-Light Communication System using LED Lights" IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 50, No. 1, FEBRUARY 2004.

[2]. Y. Tanaka, S. Haruyama and M. Nakagawa, "Wireless optical transmission with the white colored LED for the wireless home links, "Proc. of the 11th Int. Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC 2000), London, US, pp.1325-1329,2000.

[3]. F. R. Gfeller and U. Bapst, "Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation," Proc. IEEE, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 1474-1486, 1979.

[4]. A. P. Tang, J. M. Khan and K. P. Ho, "Wireless Infrared Communication Links Using Multi-Beam Transmitters and Imaging Receivers," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, pp. 180-186, Dallas, TX, June 1996.

[5]. Talha A. Khan, Muhammad Tahir and Ahmad Usman "Visible Light Communication using Wavelength Division Multiplexing for Smart Spaces", Science, vol. 308, no. 5726, p. 1274, 2005.

Citation
Shweta Sagar, Deeksha Lal, Seema Dahiya "Visible Light Communication" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0005. India
Page 36-40
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Hirotaka Kamiyama, Shinichi Nishida, Ryosuke Kurihara, Masaru Fujita

Finite Element Method Analysis in Uniaxial Die Forming of Thick Walled Pipe with Back Pressure
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
In the automotive industry, a fuel economy of vehicle according to emission regulation is an important issue. Development of weight saving technology is a way to achieve a low fuel consumption automobile. In particular, the hollow parts for transmission components such as a drive shaft has been attracting attention because of large effect on improvement of fuel efficiency. The required shapes of hollow shaft for stiffness are small diameter and thick wall at end, and large diameter and thin wall at midportion. Conventional manufacturing process has some problems such as many step process and highly cost. Thus, in this study, uniaxial die forming process of thick walled pipe by press forming was proposed. The purposes of this process are to form a thick walled pipe with reducing diameter and increasing wall thickness. Advantages of this process are the process that needs few manufacturing steps and satisfies a mass production. And the disadvantage is difficult to control the wall thickness. Also, a computer simulation of plastic forming for the purpose of cost reduction and speedy development has been expanding. In this study, finite element method analysis was operated to clarify the mechanism for the wall thickness increasing. The effect of back pressure on wall thickness increasing ratio in uniaxial die forming process was investigated by FEM analysis in this paper. Outer diameter, wall thickness and length of steel pipe were 39 mm, 7.6 mm and 160 mm, respectively. Taper angle of die and target diameter were 20 degree and 34.5 mm, respectively. Wall thickness increasing ratio with back pressure was 8.3 %. The ratio without back pressure was 4.7 %. It was possible to increase the pipe wall thickness by back pressure comparing to without back pressure. It was suggested that the wall thickness increasing was effected by the strain distribution and longitudinal direction stress.
Finite Element Method Analysis, Uniaxial Die Forming, Thick Walled Pipe, Back Pressure

[1]. M. Kiuchi, K. Shintani, "Study on pipe Reducing by Planetary Roller Reducer・1st Report", Production research, vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 14–17, 1989.

[2]. M. Kiuchi, K. Shintani, "Study on pipe Reducing by Planetary Roller Reducer・5th Report", Production research, vol. 43, No. 12, pp. 10–13, 1991.

[3]. D. Kawabata, H. Kamiyama, S. Nishida, "Wall thickness in pipe reduction process using planetary roller", The Japan Institute of Light Metals, 123 times Fall Conference, pp. 393-394, Japan, 2012.

[4]. D. Kawabata, H. Kamiyama, S. Nishida,"Increase characteristics of wall thickness during pipe reduction process by using planetary rolls", M & P 2012, Japan, 2012.

Citation
Hirotaka Kamiyama, Shinichi Nishida, Ryosuke Kurihara, Masaru Fujita "Finite Element Method Analysis in Uniaxial Die Forming of Thick Walled Pipe with Back Pressure" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0006. Japan
Page 41-45
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FA Mekiso, GM, Ochieng and J Snyman

Forming Limit Prediction of High Tensile Strength Steel using FEA Simulation
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Forming limit prediction of High Tensile Strength Steel (HTSS) sheet was carried out by using finite element analysis. JSTAMP/NV was used in the finite element analysis. Thickness of HTSS specimen was 1.0mm, and the length was 120mm.And the width was varied from 20mm to 80mm. Stretching test was operated by Erichsen test. In this study, the forming limit prediction method for predicting the localized necking before the fracture was proposed.FLD of HTSS was compared between experimental results and analytical results. Forming limit diagrams (FLD) obtained by FEAagreed well with the FLD obtained by experiment.
Finite Element Analysis, Sheet Metal, High Tensile Strength Steel, Forming Limit Diagram, FLD
[1]. F. Ozturk, "Analysis of forming limits using ductile fracture criteria", Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 147, pp 397–404, 2004. [2]. H. Hayashi, "Stamping process of hard-to-form material High tensile strength steel", Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun Ltd., Japan, 2010.
Citation
Ryosuke Kurihara, Shinichi Nishida, Hirotaka Kamiyama, Yuki Akaike "Forming Limit Prediction of High Tensile Strength Steel using FEA Simulation" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0007. Japan
Page 46-50
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Ms.Babita Jharia

Importance of Libraries in Rural Development
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
To be a civilized human and create a civilized society it is important to have knowledge through which we became educated in different fields. This knowledge may be practical i.e. experienced gained through day to day incidents. Another is knowledge received through books. Books provide a wide variety of knowledge in every field. We can know the history through the literature given in the books. Libraries should build organization that support learning. With the modernization everything is changing for advancement and development. Now in rural areas also, people like farmers, school children, women and youth are taking active part in development through library. Rural Development generally refers to the process of improving the quality of life and economic well being of people living in relatively isolated and sparsely populated areas. Rural Development is also characterized by its emphasis on locally produced economic development strategies. Rural Development actions are mainly and mostly to development aim for the social and economic development of the rural areas. The revolution in information technology had changed the scenario of libraries and made the system of study very easy and comfortable. About seventy percent (70%) of population lives in rural areas. In addition to other sources, a major source of information is library. Earlier studies stated that the libraries in rural areas are traditional in nature and not well equipped according to the need of the rural people. It had adversely affected the development of a library system. The major reason for the present status of rural libraries is lack of adequate resources, financial and human. The present status of rural libraries can be improved through latest IT techniques, mobile libraries, and mass media to effectively cater to the information needs of the rural people.
Development, rural library, mobile library, IT techniques, social and economic development.

[1]. Power, Politics and Rural Development: Essays on India 01 Edition (Paperback) by G. K. Leiten, Manohar Publishers and Distributors.

[2]. Rural Development in India - 2 volumes (set) 01 Edition (Paperback) by Suresh K. Sharma, Vista International Publishing House, V-196,near C-11 Shiv Sadhna Mandir, Yamuna Vihar, Delhi

[3]. Rural Development: Principles, Policies, and Management 3rd edition (paperback) by Kartar Singh, Sage Publications.

[4]. http://buyindiaalibrary.wordpress.com.

[5]. https://www.ashanet.org/projects/project

Citation
Ms.Babita Jharia "Importance of Libraries in Rural Development" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0008. India
Page 51-56
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ANED 06.067X/H11015156 aned
aned 067X-1101-5156
  

Vaishali Kachru Avhad, Hemant Nandkishor Chinchole, Mahesh Shivaji Gambhire, Amol Keru Ghuge, Prof. Firoj Umraobhai Pathan

Elimination of rework in V Cap by Using Six Sigma Methodology
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The purpose of this project was to gain a strong understanding of Six Sigma management philosophy, concepts, and practices and to apply this knowledge to creating a Six Sigma academic course or training program. This was done through three main methods: preliminary research and data collection, the creation of a design model for Six Sigma academic course program establishment, and the creation of a Six Sigma academic course program syllabus. The preliminary research consisted of conducting a Six Sigma knowledge survey with the students of Worcester Polytechnic Institute, interviewing a Six Sigma expert, and examining current Six Sigma educational programs in other universities, businesses, and organizations. As a result of our observations, we determined that Six Sigma has become a large part of many companies and should be implemented into more engineering programs at universities nation-wide, including Worcester Polytechnic Institute. This can be done through a project based course, as well as more Six Sigma based Interactive and Major Qualifying Projects.
.

[1]. Six Sigma Analysis: The Design and Implementation Submitted to the faculty of Worcester Polytechnic Institute In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science.

[2]. Fundamental elements for the successful performance of Six Sigma projects in service industries

[3]. Roy Andersson, Henrik Eriksson, Håkan Torstensson, (2006),"Similarities and differences between TQM, six sigma and lean", The TQM Magazine, Vol. 18 Iss: 3 pp. 282 - 296

[4]. Hellsten, U. and Klefsjo¨, B. (2000), "TQM as a management system consisting of values, techniques and tools", TQM Magazine, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp. 238-44.

[5]. Magnusson, K., Kroslid, D. and Bergman, B. (2003), Six Sigma – The Pragmatic Approach, Lund, Student litterateur.

Citation
Vaishali Kachru Avhad, Hemant Nandkishor Chinchole, Mahesh Shivaji Gambhire, Amol Keru Ghuge, Prof. Firoj Umraobhai Pathan "Elimination of rework in V Cap by Using Six Sigma Methodology" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0009. India
Page 57-62
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ANED 06.067X/I11015762 aned
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Vighneswara Rao.K, Balanarsaiah.T, Pitchumani.B

Effect of Geometric Configuration on Performance of Uniflow Cyclone
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Reverse flow cyclones find wide applications in many industries however, they require a high expenditure of energy and large pressure drops, which can be better overcome by uniflow cyclones. A laboratory unit of Uniflow Cyclone has been developed with 45 mm inlet diameter. The performance parameters pressure drop and total efficiency were studied for the effect of geometric configuration. The present study includes the effect of 4 different geometric parameters on performance of uniflow cyclone. The geometric variation of test cyclones includes the Inlet velocity, Vane angles, Outlet to inlet diameter ratio and Separation lengths. The overall experimental results yield and investigated the optimal conditions for uniflow cyclone performance is 450 vane angle, 0.5 outlet to inlet diameter ratio, 3D separation length and 9-10 m/s inlet velocity. The experimental pressure drop values are validated with the model equations available in literature and well matched for Ramachandran model.
Inlet Velocity, Vane angle, Do/D Ratio, Separation length, Pressure drop, Total Efficiency

[1]. Sumner, R.J., Briens, C.L., Bergougnou, M.A., (1987), Study of a novel Uniflow cyclone design for the ultra-rapid fluidized pyrolysis reactor, Can. J. Chem. Eng., 65, 470-475.

[2]. N.P. Vaughan, (1988), Construction and testing of an axial flow cyclone pre separator, Journal of Aerosol Science, 19, 295–305.

[3]. T.A. Gauthier, C.L. Briens, M.A. Bergougnou, P. Galtier, (1990), Uniflow cyclone efficiency study, Powder Technology, 62, 217-225.

[4]. G. Ramachandran, P.C. Raynor, D. Leith, (1994), Collection efficiency and pressure drop for a rotary flow cyclone, Filtration and Separation, 631-636.

[5]. Ashwani. Malhotra, (1995) "Studies in Fine Particle Collection in Uniflow Cyclone", Ph.D Dissertation, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.

Citation
Vighneswara Rao.K, Balanarsaiah.T, Pitchumani.B "Effect of Geometric Configuration on Performance of Uniflow Cyclone" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 11, Issue 01 (January 2015)
MID 1101.067X.0010. India
Page 63-69
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