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IJERD : Volume 6, Issue 10
M. Narasimha, AchamyelehAemro Kassie, R. Reji Kumar
|Industrial Growth in Ethiopia–A Review|
Ethiopia is one of the land-locked countries in Africa. By African standards, Ethiopia is a potentially wealthy country, with fertile soil and good rainfall over large regions. Ethiopia possesses several valuable minerals, including gold and platinum. Unlike most sub-Saharan African countries, Ethiopia's resources have enabled the country to maintain contacts with the outside world for centuries. Since Ethiopia doesn't manufacture automotive, construction machineries, machine tools and agricultural equipment's locally at present, it imports those from various countries of the world. Ethiopia claims that there are lots of resources available in the country. It is true the country has treasure of resources which are not being fully utilized or explored. There is a need of industrial growth in the country. This paper is in relation to develop industries in the country by developing industrial zones, estates, techno craft guilds and enhancing private management capacity. In the present situation industries such as manufacturing of machineries and equipments, automobiles spare parts treated as non-resources based industries and the Govt. pays little attention for these industries. But now Ethiopian Govt. with Industrial Master Plans (IMP) lay the foundation for the development of the manufacture sector, which quickly became the leading growth sector of the economy. These depend the development of the manufacturing sector which led to increased value-added activities, enhanced productivity, greater industry linkages as well as growth of manufacturing related services. Utilizing the resources and the techniques available, it is possible to produce the various engineering products of the daily needs. In developed countries in the mass manufacturing industry; they are using latest equipment and improved methods in process to produce the quality goods. Similarly it is possible to produce the same items maintaining the same quality here by using the proper tooling with the equipment available. As it is in the country all the necessary goods are imported from the other countries spending lot money and time. The country is depending on the other source. The country is still under developed it is true, but how long it will continue this stage, here all the required resources are available and skilled labour, so only will power is lacking. Today the world is advancing, and emerging into new heights of growth. Growth is required for everyone hence it is the time to utilize the resources available start producing the products to meet the demand of the domestic market and later international market. The countries industrial and commerce bureau has to look at the newly industrialized countries performance and how they are progressing day by day, adapt similar industrial policies of them and implement the policies in a phased manner. If look at the present condition of industry and current situation of the industries in Ethiopia, it is a long way to go and takes more time, but right decision at right time will help in progressing.
Machine building, Agro industries, Electrical, Electronic and Automobile Industries.
. CIA (Central Intelligence Agency), the World Factbook, Ethiopia, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/et.html
Mr. Hameed R. Ahmed, Prof. R.A.Joshi
|Effect of Temperature on Biodegradable Solid Waste Digestion|
The study was carried out to find out the effect of temperature on biodegradable solid -waste digestion. Objectives of the research was "Study thermophililic conditions for biodegradation‟ and to "Study control conditions for biodegradation‟. Present study shows that high temperature favored fast biodegradation. Complete degradation of the solid waste was observed when water at temperature 80C was passed through the tube. degradation was slow almost equal to the control (without and temperature control). The results are expressed in the form of graph and compared with the control. In the case of 80C the degradation rate has showed slight increase after 4 days of incubation. It may be due to acclimatization of the microorganisms during degradation. In the case of control after 17 days of incubation total degradation was about around 5.7 cm. and the total degradation in the case of no temperature was about 2.5 cm, for 17 days, and total degradation rate in 30 days control without addition of any external temperature was about 4.1 cm. This experiment clearly indicate that temperature controlled reaction was faster than that of without any additional temperature , this means high temperature favored the faster degradation.
solid -waste, biodegradation, thermophililic, temperature.
. National Solid waste Association, India http://www.nswai.com/waste-municipal-solid-waste.php
. Solid Waste Landfill Design Manual Washington State Department of Ecology.
. Xavier Font, Adriana Artola and Antoni Sánchez, Detection, Composition and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds from Waste Treatment Plants, Sensors (Basel). 2011; 11(4): 4043–4059.
. P. C. Burrell,1 C. O'Sullivan,2 H. Song,2 W. P. Clarke,2 and L. L. Blackall1, Identification, Detection, and Spatial Resolution of Clostridium Populations Responsible for Cellulose Degradation in a Methanogenic Landfill Leachate Bioreactor.
. Shu-ying Zhang, Qing-feng Wang, Rui Wan, and Shu-guang Xie. Changes in bacterial community of anthracene bioremediation in municipal solid waste composting soil. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2011 September; 12(9): 760–768.......
|Assessment of Optimal Multinodal Bilatral Transaction In The Competetive Electricity Market|
In recent years, the development in the deregulated electricity market structure increases the number of market participants thereby, creates the market more competitive. It is important for the independent power producer (IPP), independent system operator and bulk power customer to know and select the least cost transaction. In this paper, a method for selecting the optimal multi-nodal bilateral transaction for the IPP based on the estimation of maximum allowable load of the buyer buses and on the transaction transmission pricing is proposed. Estimation of maximum allowable load of the buyer buses used to assess the feasibility of each transaction and also help to create profitable and buyer attractable seller price bid. In the context of electricity market, transmission pricing is an important tool to determine the optimal multi-nodal bilateral transaction for the IPP at different seller buses .In this thesis, both embedded cost transmission pricing and incremental cost transmission pricing (short run marginal cost) is considered for the estimation of transaction transmission cost. The proposed method is demonstrated and analyzed for the considered multi-nodal bilateral transaction on 6 bus system and IEEE 30 bus system
Assessment of Optimal Multinodal Bilatral Transaction In The Competetive Electricity Market
. Kankar Bhattacharya, Math H.J. Bollen , Japp E.Daalder, "Operation of restructured power systems"
Mr. Satish M. Kaple
|Invention of the plane geometrical formulae - Part II|
In this paper, I have invented the formulae for finding the area of an Isosceles triangle. My finding is based on pythagoras theorem.
Invention of the plane geometrical formulae - Part II
. Geometry concepts and Pythagoras theorem.
|The Mechanics of Electron-Positron Pair Creation in the 3-Spaces Model|
This paper lays out the mechanics of creation in the 3-spaces model of an electron-positron pair as a photon of energy 1.022 MeV or more is destabilized when grazing a heavy particle such as an atom's nucleus, thus converting a massless photon into two massive .511 MeV/c2 particles charged in opposition. An alternate process was also experimentally discovered in 1997, that involves converging two tightly collimated photon beams toward a single point in space, one of the beams being made up of photons exceeding the 1.022 MeV threshold. In the latter case, electron/positron pairs were created without any atom's nuclei being close by. These two observed processes of photon conversion into electron-positron pairs set the 1.022 MeV photon energy level as the threshold starting at which massless photons become highly susceptible to become destabilized into converting to pairs of massive particles.
3-spaces, electron-positron pair, 1.022 MeV photon, nature of mass, energy conversion to mass, materialization, sign of charges.
. André Michaud. The Expanded Maxwellian Space Geometry and the Photon Fundamental LC Equation. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development e-ISSN: 2278-067X, p-ISSN: 2278-800X, www.ijerd.com Volume 6, Issue 8 (April 2013), PP. 31-45. (http://ijerd.com/paper/vol6-issue8/G06083145.pdf).
|D.Nandhini, Kalpana.G, Abhilash.R|
|Ground Water Quality of Madurai District in Tamil Nadu, India - A Case Studys|
This case study was carried out to determine the ground water quality of Madurai district, Tamilnadu, India. The results of various samples of water collected from the observation wells/bores at the seven Taluks of the Madurai district during the period of 2001-2011at periodical intervals by the Ground Water Wing of Public Works Department of Tamil Nadu have been collected by the present authors and analyzed and compared with WHO standards. Some of the parameters like pH value and total hardness (TH) are well within the allowable limit. Some water quality problems have been identified with regard to parameters like Total Dissolved Solids and Chloride. The quality of ground water in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India has been analyzed in detail by the present authors and some suggestions have been provided for improvement.
Ground water quality, WHO standards, Pollution.
. AK Trivey; SN Pandey. Water Pollution, shish Publishing House, New Delhi, 1990, 4
. A.Adediji, LT, Ajibade , Quality of well water in Ede area, southwest Nigeria. J. Hum. Ecology, 17(3), 2005, 223 -228.
. A.Adekunle, A. Adekunle, Ndahi, N. P. SWM by combustion: Implication on the metal in the environment, Proceedings of 29th WEDC International Conference, Abuja Nigeria, 2003, p3- 5.
. American Public Health Association:Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edition, APHA,Institute, 1998.
. Arunabh Mishra ; E.Vasishta Bhatt -Journal of Chemistry. 2008, 5 (3) 487-492
|M.Shankar, B.Lalitha, Akhil CV, Nijin Karthik C, Praveen T.T, A. Sasi kumar|
|Real Time Controlling and Testing In an Embedded Processor under a Multitasking Environment|
In this paper, we present an embedded platform for real-time controlling and testing of a single phase induction motor in an embedded processor under a multitasking environment. In this project we introduce the concept of ARM 9 processor for controlling the speed and simultaneously measuring the single phase motor parameters such as voltage, current, power, torque, speed etc. These tasks are managed by an operating system Linux 126.96.36.199. The load test and other tests are done by virtual arrangements and the test data are serially transmitted to lab view platform then analyzed and results are displayed in the same environment. The paper explores methods to improve the accuracy of the speed control and reduce the time taken for testing and also improving the reliability of testing.
ARM920T processor, PWM circuit, Single phase squirrel cage induction motor.
. Y. Rao and M. Chandorkar, "Rapid prototyping tool for electrical load emulation using power electronic converters," in Industrial Electronics Applications, 2009. ISIEA 2009. IEEE Symposium on, vol. 1, 4-6 2009,pp. 106–111.
. R. Berger. (2010) Embedded gnu/ Linux and real-time an executive summary. Internet draft. [Online]. Available:http://www.reliableembeddedsystems.com/pdfs/2010 03 04 rt linux.pdf
|Ms. Manisha Saini, Ms. Pooja Taneja, Ms. Pinki Sethi|
|Big Data Analytics: Insights and Innovations|
Big data is a collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using on-hand database management tools or traditional data processing applications .The paper is all about big data issues, and ideas and thoughts in order to advance big data challenge, which has been considered as one of the most exciting opportunities of present times.
Big Data, Analytics, Insights and Innovations.
|Smita Tiwari, Neelima Sahu, A.K. Dwivedi|
|Comparative Study of Flat-Based/Data Centric WSN-Specific Routing Protocols|
The present research paper contribution is organized in two folds. First focus is on the basics of data-centric approach for WSN. As well as the first fold focuses on the most popular existing flat-based/data centric WSN-specific. Finally the second fold presents an analytical comparison table of some existing flat-based/data centric WSN-specific routing protocols.
Wireless Sensor Network, Protocols, Data Centric, Energy Efficiency.
 J.N. Al-Karaki, and A.E. Kamal, "Routing Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey," IEEE Wireless Communications, pp. 06-28, Dec. 2004.
|Yasir Ahmad, Sadia Husain, Azmat Ali Khan|
|Advancements in Multi-Criteria Decision Making Based on Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set|
Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem is the process of finding the best option from all of the feasible alternatives where all the alternatives can be evaluated according to a number of criteria or attribute. Since human judgments including preferences are often vague and cannot estimate his preference with an exact numerical value. Multi-criteria decision-making problems usually consist of uncertain and imprecise data and information. To deal with vagueness/imprecision Atanassov‟s intuitionistic fuzzy set  has found to be highly useful and they are successfully applied to the field of multi criteria decision making problems. Later on, integrating interval valued fuzzy sets with IFSs; Atanassov introduced the concept of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IVIFSs) . As a generalization of an intuitionistic fuzzy set, it is more flexible for IVIFSs to deal with uncertain and fuzzy problems. There are many situations in multi attribute decision making where IVIFS theory is more appropriate to deal with. In this paper we will review all the major contribution done in the area of multiple attribute decision-making based on interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IVIFSs) theory.
Intuitionistic Fuzzy sets (IFS), Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy sets (IVIFS), Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM).
. K.T. Atanassov, Intuitionistic fuzzy sets [J]. Fuzzy Sets and Systems,1986,20: 87-96.
|L. O. Ettu, U. C. Anya, J. I. Arimanwa, L. Anyaogu, K. C. Nwachukwu|
|Strength of Binary Blended Cement Composites Containing Corn Cob Ash|
The strength characteristics of binary blended cement composites made with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Corn Cob Ash (CCA) were investigated in this work. 105 concrete cubes and 105 sandcrete cubes of 150mm x 150mm x 150mm were produced at percentage OPC replacement with CCA of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% and crushed to obtain their compressive strengths at 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 50, and 90 days of curing. The 3-28 day compressive strength values of OPC-CCA binary blended cement concrete were found to be much lower than the control values; the 50 day strengths were comparable to the control values; while the 90 day strengths were higher than the control values especially at 5-15% replacements of OPC with CCA, ranging from 24.00N/mm2 for 15% replacement of OPC to 27.00N/mm2 for 5% replacement of OPC compared with the control value of 23.60N/mm2. This same trend was observed for OPC-CCA binary blended cement sandcrete. The variation in density was not significant. Mathematical models were developed for predicting compressive strengths of OPC-CCA binary blended cement composites using polynomial regression analysis. The model values of compressive strengths obtained from the various model equations were found to be either exactly the same as those of the equivalent laboratory values or very close to them, with differences ranging from 0 to 0.3N/mm2. Thus, OPC-CCA binary blended cement composites could be good for civil engineering works and the developed model equations can be used to estimate their strengths for various curing ages and percentage OPC replacement with CCA.
Blended cement, binary, composites, compressive strength, concrete, corn cob ash,pozzolan, sandcrete.
. Adesanya, D. A. (1996). Evaluation of blended cement mortar, concrete and stabilized earth
made from OPC and Corn Cob Ash. Construction and Building Materials, 10(6): 451-456.
|Jeetender Singh Chauhan, Gyan Prabhakar, Sunil Semwal, Atul Kumar Pandey|
|Zigbee Transceiver Protocol Based Wireless Sensor Networks for Emergency Response Notification for Indoor Situations|
In today's world we are faced with many different types of emergencies in the indoor environment. Response to such emergencies is critical in order to protect resources including human life. In this paper, we present an emergency response system which is easy to deploy and can report the emergency to the users in various forms, such as pop-ups on a computer screen, SMS on their cell phones and so on. Due to this flexibility of reporting, low cost and easy of deployment, wireless sensor network (WSN) emergency response systems will be the preferred emergency response systems of the future. We show a design for a WSN emergency response system using temperature sensors as a proof of concept. Comparison to other emergency response systems within the SIUC campus is also drawn out.
Emergency response, WSN, ZigBee, Sensors Emergency Services, Networks.
. Southern Illinois University Carbondale, "SIUC::Emergency Response Site" March 2008. [Online]. Available: http://www.siuc.edu/emergency/ [Accessed: March 13, 2009].
. M. Singh and S. Singh, "Image Segmentation Optimization for X-Ray Images of Airline Luggage" in CIHSPSZOW-IEEE International Conference On Computational Intelligence for Homeland Security and Personal Safety Venice, Italy, 21-22 July, 2004, pp. 10....
|Mr. Shailesh K. Kokate, Prof.Mr.N.N.Shinde, Miss.Madhuri B.Mulik|
|Artificial Wind Power Prediction on Moving Vehicle|
Wind energy is clean & inexhaustible source of energy. Wind turbines used to extract power from wind. This paper considered small size of rotor diameter of wind machine. The device mounted on the two wheeler .Firstly vehicle's speed considered as the speed of wind. The available power in wind calculated using the speed of vehicle. Then wind speed recorded on moving vehicle using analog anemometer. For the corresponding wind, generated power calculated. Author also examined percentage of change in speed of wind using two wheeler. It also examined the actual power available in the wind and expected power from artificial wind generation.
Artificial Wind, Vehicle Speed, Small Size Rotor, Two Wheeler, Wind Energy.
. Milborrow, D., 2002. Wind energy technology—the state of the art. J. Power Energy 216, 23–30.
|Chang Guo, Yi Pan, Shuangchun Yang|
|Progress of Membrane Technology in the Treatment of Oily Wastewater|
As a whole, this membrane integration desalination technology without acid and alkali is benefit to the environment. As a new technology, membranes are used into separate and concentrate the pollutants in oily wastewater through its permselectivity. In this paper, organic film, inorganic film and biofilm are described in the progress of oily wastewater, including the film of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polytetrafluoroethylene membrane (PTFE), polysulfone film (PS), carbon film , ceramic membrane and biofilm. Then these treatment methods were compared and evaluated in order to propose the research direction in the future.
organic film; inorganic film; biofilm; research progress; oily wastewater.
 Kun-Ho Song & Kwang-Rae Lee. Treatment of oily wastewater using membrane with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-modified surface [J]. Korean J. Chem., 2007, 24(1):116-120.
|Xiaowei Gong, Yi Pan, Shuangchun Yang|
|Research on Processing of Drilling Fluid|
Currently, the drilling fluid processing and recycling has gained more attention from various oilfields. Whether the waste drilling fluid's processing and recycling is good or not will directly affect the development of oil industry. Therefore, the urgent affair is to develop and research the processing method of waste drilling fluid.This article describes various processing methods of waste drilling fluid which are being adopted by oilfields, such as Microbial Treatment, Curing Agent and Curing Technology, Decentralized Processing Method, Mechanical Dehydration Method, Demulsification Method, Salt Cave Method, Reinjection Method, Waste Drilling Fluid Treatment at Sea, Backfill Method.This article has also compared the advantages and disadvantages of these methods, summed up the trend of the development of drilling fluid processing method.
waste drilling fluid; recycle; processing method.
 DongZhiHui. Bioremediation technology of dealing with the waste drilling fluid research[J]. PopularScience, 2007,4:48.
|M.S.Sivagamasundari, Dr.P.Melba Mary|
|A Novel Method for the Elimination of Dead Time in Two Level Voltage Source Inverter|
Dead time is a short delay introduced between the gating signals of the upper and lower switches in an inverter leg to prevent the short circuit of dc link. Such dead time results in a change in f undamental voltage and also causes low frequency distortion. In this paper , a novel method for the elimination of dead time in two level voltage source inverter is proposed and implemented. This method reduces the low frequency distortion and results in a steady fundamental voltage. The validity of this method has been studied by the PSPICE Simulation and prototype experiment.
Dead-time, harmonic, phase-leg, gate drive, voltage source inverter (VSI).
. L. Ben-Brahim, "On the compensation of dead time and zero-current crossing for a PWM-inverter-controlled AC servo drive" IEEE Transac tion on Industrial Electronics, Volume 51, Issue 5, Oct. 2004 Page(s):1113 – 1118. . A. Cichowski, J. Nieznanski, "Self-tuning dead-time compensation method for voltage-source inverters", IEEE Power Electronics Letters,Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2005 Page(s):72 – 75. . Y. Lai; F. Shyu, "Optimal common-mode Voltage reduction PWM technique for inverter control with consideration of the dead-time effectspart I: basic development", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications,Volume 40, Issue 6, Nov.-Dec. 2004 Page(s):1605 – 1612. . A. R. Munoz, T.A. Lipo, "On-line dead-time compensation technique for open-loop PWM-VSI drives", IEEE Transactions on Power Electron ics, Volume 14, Issue 4, July 1999 Page(s):683 – 689. . K. M. Cho; W. S. OH; C. G. In, "A new switching strategy for PWM power converters" Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 23-27 June 2002 Page(s):221 - 225 vol.1....