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IJERD : Volume 6, Issue 11
G. HariKumar1, M. MadhuBabu
|FPGA implementation of universal modulator using CORDIC algorithm for communication application|
The modern communication systems and software radio based applications demands fully digital receivers, consisting of only an antenna and a fully programmable circuit with digital modulators and demodulators. A basic communication system's transmitter modulates the amplitude, phase or frequency proportional to the signal being transmitted. An efficient solution (that doesn't require large tables/memory) for realizing universal modulator is CORDIC (CO-ordinate Rotation Digital Computer) algorithm. The CORDIC algorithm is used in the rotation mode, to convert the coordinates from polar mode to rectangular mode. The radius vector(r) and angle (θ) of a CORDIC processor can be programmed to generate the ASK, PSK and FSK signals.Modelsim simulator tool from mentor graphics will be used for functional simulation and verification of the modulator. The Xilinx synthesis Tools (XST) will be used to synthesize the complete modulator on Xilinx Spartan 3E family FPGA (XC3S500E). Xilinx placement & routing tools will be used for backed, design optimization and I/O routing.
CORDIC, ASK, PSK, FSK, FPGA.
. J.VolderThe CORDIC trigonometric computing technique, IRE Transactions on Electronic computers, Vol.EC 8, 2010, Pp.330-334.
. R.Andraka, A survey of CORDIC algorithms for FPGA based computers, Proceedings of ACM/SIGDA sixth International Symposium on field Programmable Gate Arrays, 1998,pp.191-200
. J.S.Walther, A unified algorithm for elementary functions, proceedings of 38th spring joint computer conference, 2000, pp.379-385.
. Efficient CORDIC Algorithms and Architectures for Low Area and High Throughput Implementation IEEE paper 2009.
. A VLSI implementation of Logarithmic and Exponential Functions Using a Novel Parboil Synthesis Methodology Compared to the CORDIC Algorithms IEEE paper 2011......
SirshenduSekhar Ghosh, Vinay Kumar, Aruna Jain
|A Novel Hybrid Policyfor Web Caching|
Web caching is one of the most successful solutions for improving the performance of Web-based system by keeping Web objects that are likely to be used in the near future close to the clients. The core of the caching system is its page replacement policy, which needs to make efficient replacement decision when its cache is full and a new document needs to be stored. veral replacement policies based on recency, frequency, size, cost of fetching object and access latency have been proposed for improving the performance of Web caching by many researchers. However, it is difficult to have an omnipotent policy that performs best in all environments as each policy has different design rational to optimize different resources. In this paper, we have proposed a Novel Hybrid Replacement Policy for Web Caching which is an efficient combination of two traditional well-known policies, Least Recently Used (LRU) and Least Frequently Used (LFU). We have developed experimental codes along with trace-driven simulation and analyzed the results. Analysis of the results show that our proposed Novel Hybrid Policy gives better performance characteristics over other two policies used individually in terms of Hit ratio and Latency saving ratio.
Web Caching, Replacement policy, LRU, LFU, Hybrid replacement policy, Hit ratio, Latency saving ratio.
. SarinaSulaiman, S.M.Shamsuddin, A. Abraham, S. Sulaiman, "Web Caching and Prefetching: What, Why, and How?", IEEE, 2008.
. A.K.Y. Wong, "Web Cache Replacement Policies: A Pragmatic Approach", IEEE Network magazine, 20(1), (2006), pp.28–34.
. A. Balamash, M.Krunz, "An Overview of Web Caching Replacement Algorithms", IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Second Quarter, 2004.
. Podlipnig, S. and Böszörmenyi, L.,"A Survey of Web Cache Replacement Strategies", ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 35, Ner 4, pp. 374-398, 2003.
. SirshenduSekharGhosh and Dr. Aruna Jain, "Web Latency Reduction Techniques: A Review Paper", IJITNA vol.1 No.2 pp 20 – 26, September, 2011.....
Suhani N. Trambadiya, Pinaki A. Ghosh, J. N. Rathod
|Group Caching: A novel Cooperative Caching scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks|
A mobile host can communicate with other mobile host from anywhere and at any time in the mobile ad hoc network. The accessibility of data objects can be improved with the help of cooperative caching scheme. However, Access latency becomes longer significantly and cache hit ration is reduces due to mobility of data objects while considering factors like energy consumption in battery and limited bandwidth in wireless network. This paper introduces novel cooperative caching scheme called as group caching in mobile ad hoc networks which allows each mobile host and its 1-hop neighbours form a group. In a group, caching status is exchanged and maintained periodically. In this group caching, cache space of mobile host utilized efficiently and therefore there is reduction of redundancy of cached data and reduction of average access latency. We evaluate the performance of this group caching scheme with the help of simulator and compare the results of it with existing schemes like CacheData and ZoneCooperative. Experimental results show that average latency is reduced by about 5% to 25% and cache hit ration is increased by about 3% to 30% while comparing with other schemes.
Include at least 5 keywords or phrases.
. L. Yin and G. Cao, "Supporting Cooperative Caching in Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 2537-2547, March 2004.
Samiran Gupta, Bappadittya Das
|An Energy Efficient and Load Aware Routing Scheme in Multi Sink Wireless Sensor Networks|
Now a days Wireless sensor networks is a revolutionary technology. Now it is widely used in many Indoor and outdoor areas. Due to limited power supply it is very difficult to run it for a long period of time. To run it for a long interval we need an optimum energy and load balancing option such that using this we can minimize the wastage of power consumption. Basically the main power is wasted by transceiver to find an appropriate route for data transmission, So that the sense data can reach to a sink for further processing. In this regards the routing is very vital issue. Normally, using single sink network sense data is routed to the sink using shortest path routing approach, due to this the node near to the sink are quickly exhausted as a result network get down. Over here we are implement a new routing algorithm using multi sink platform with few most important constraints like energy, load and hop count to select an appropriate route or path to enhance the lifetime of Wireless sensor networks.
Optimum path, current traffic, multi-sink, static, wireless sensor networks.
. S. Tilak, Nael B. Abu-Ghazaleh, and W. Heinzelman. "A Taxonomy of Wireless Micro-Sensor Network Models. Mobile Computing and Communication Review",, Volume6, Number2, April 2002.
. D. Estrin, L. Girod, G. Pottie, and M. Srivastava, "Instrumenting the world with wireless sensor networks"., In International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP 2001), Salt Lake City, Utah, May 2001.
. Y. M. Lu and V. W. S. Wong, "An energy-efficient multipath routing protocol for wireless sensor networks," in Proc. IEEE 64th Vehicular Technol. Conf, pp. 1–5, Sep. 2006.
. Jamal N. Al-Karaki Ahmed and E. Kamal, "Routing Techniques in Wireless sensor networks", A Survey Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011.
. I. F. Akyildiz, S. Weilian, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, "A survey on sensor networks", IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 102-114, 2002......
Mukesh D. Parsana, Jayesh N. Rathod, Jaladhi D. Joshi
|Building an Efficient and Flexible Architecture for Caching Data Objects in Distributed Environment Using RMI and Observer Design Pattern|
Database connection management is one of the important issues for any web application. It involves retrieving initial context, retrieving appropriate data source, opening and closing connection with the database and so on. For the large database which involves many modules and functionalities and so many data sources and DAOs available, it becomes very complex to manage database connections and data sources. Caching is one of the primary techniques to decrease the response times of applications that frequently access data stores. As database operations are time consuming, it is better to store data access objects DAOs in cache and retrieve as and when required. But at the same time consistency of cache with database and is an important issue to consider. This paper discusses how RMI (Remote Method Invocation) and design and programming expertise of Observer design pattern can be used to build and efficient and flexible architecture for caching data objects in distributed environment. The Observer design pattern defines a one-to-many dependency between objects so that when one object changes state, all its dependents are notified and updated automatically.
FIFO, LRU, LRU2, 2Q, LFU, ARC, MRU, TTL, RMI, Observer Pattern.
. Design Patterns in Software Development by MU Huaxin & JIANG Shuai, Beijing, IEEE 2011 (ISBN: 978-1-4244-9699-0)
. Some domain patterns in Web application framework by Liu Chao & He Keqing & Liu Jie & Ying Shi, Proceedings of the 27th Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference, 2003 IEEE (ISSN : 0730-3157)
|Kowtham Kumar K, B.Kaleeswaran, George Mathew.K|
|Carbon Mitigation in Indian Aviation by Blending Jet Fuel with Biofuels|
The Indian Aviation Sector has been predicted to become the world's third largest carrier by 2020. It is expected to carry 460 million passengers per annum shortly. A sector of such magnitude need to be environment friendly. The International Air Transport Association has declared to cut its carbon emissions to 50% by 2050. The National Biofuels Policy has also targeted to blend 20% biofuels to its fossil fuel consumption. This paper aims in forecasting the jet fuel demand for the Indian Aviation sector and the subsequent carbon mitigation achieved by blending with biofuels. The utilization of the wastelands for the biofuel production in various states of India has also been forecasted.
Aviation Turbine Fuel, Biofuels, Blend, Carbon Mitigation, India, Wastelands.
. .A.P.J Abdul Kalam. (2011). Eco-Friendly Sustainable Development. In: Srijan Pal Singh Target 3 Billion. New Delhi: Penguin Books. P142-144.
. .ICRA (2011). Ministry of Indian Aviation Industry. New Delhi
. .ATAG and Enviro.aero. (2010). In: Beginners Guide to Aviation Efficiency: ATAG and enviro.aero. P3-6
. .Government of India (2012). Biofuels Annual. New Delhi: Government of India. P24-30
. .S.Antony Raja, D.S.Robinson smart, and C.Lindon Robert Lee,. (2011). Biodiesel production from jatropha oil and its characterization. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences. 1, p81-86.
|V.DayaSagar Ketaraju, Dr.M.V.L.N.Raja Rao, Dr.G.V.S.N.R.V.Prasad|
|A Novel Approach Inresource Management and Job Scheduling For Computational Grids|
Grid and P2P computing environments, the resources are usually geographically distributed in multiple administrative domains, managed and owned by different organizations with different policies, and interconnected by wide-area networks or the Internet. This paper introduces a novel approach in resource management and Job scheduling for computational grids we proposed a several algorithms for scheduling jobs in effective time consuming manner. The resource management and scheduling systems for Grid computing need to manage resources and job execution depending on either resource consumers' or resource provider's requirements, and dynamically adapt to changes in resource availability. The management of resources and scheduling of jobs in such large-scale distributed systems is a complex undertaking. In order to prove the effectiveness of resource brokers and associated scheduling algorithms, their performance needs to be evaluated under different scenarios such as varying number of resources and users with differentrequirements. In a Grid environment, it is hard and even impossibleto perform scheduler performance evaluation in a repeatable and controllable manner as resources andusers are distributed across multiple organizations with their own policies. To overcome this limitation, weareusing the Grid Simulator. This toolkit supportsmodelling and simulation of large volume of Grid resources,andapplication models. It provides primitives for creation of application tasks, mapping of tasks to resources,and their management. We have used the Grid Simulator to create a resource broker that simulates Nimrod-G for design and evaluation of deadline and budget constrained job scheduling algorithms with cost and time optimizations.
Grid Computing, Grid Simulator, Job Scheduling Algorithms
1. Foster I, Kesselman C (eds.). The Grid: Blueprint for a Future Computing Infrastructure. Morgan Kaufmann: San Mateo, CA, 1999.
2. Oram A (ed.). Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies. O'Reilly, 2001.
3. Baker M, Buyya R, Laforenza D. The Grid: International efforts in global computing. Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Infrastructure for Electronic Business, Science, and Education on the Internet, Rome, Italy,31 July–6 August 2000.
4. Abramson D, Giddy J, Kotler L. High performance parametric modeling with Nimrod/G: Killer application for the global Grid? Proceedings International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS 2000), Cancun, Mexico, 1–5 May 2000. IEEE Computer Society Press, 2000.
5. Buyya R, Abramson D, Giddy J. Nimrod/G: An architecture for a resource management and scheduling system in a global computational Grid. Proceedings 4th International Conference and Exhibition on High Performance Computing in Asia-Pacific Region (HPC ASIA 2000), Beijing, China, 14–17 May 2000. IEEE Computer Society Press, 2000.....
|Smita Tiwari, Neelima Sahu, A.K. Dwivedi|
|Improving the Reliability in PMSM for Wind Turbine|
The wind turbine converts the wind energy into electrical energy, wherein the electrical machines are coupled with wind turbines for this conversion. The electrical machines are liable to meet with faults, but to regain the system reliability the faults should be detected earlier. According to studies of electrical power research institute (EPRI) most of the faults in electrical motors are created in bushes (41%) and winding (37%).Since there is increased probability of winding fault in motors, its fault diagnosis is very important. The fault often occurs with winding isolators. Inter-turn winding fault creates short circuit in phase winding and changes the phase impedance thereby the machine becomes unbalanced. Rate of impedance reduction depends on the intensity of the fault. To diagnosis winding fault approaches based on frequency analysis are studied, MCSA is used to determine the fault in the stator winding.
Fault detection, MCSA , Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM) , Winding fault.
 Wenxin Liu, Li Liu, II-Yop Chung, David A. Cartes, Wei Zhang, Modeling and detecting the stator winding fault of permanent magnet synchronous motors. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, Vol.27,pp1-16, 2012.
|V.J.Rathod, prof. G R.Patel|
|Short Circuit Analysis on 400 Kv Sub-Station Soja|
A Short Circuit analysis is used to determine the magnitude of short circuit current. To demonstrate its use, a simple 19-bus system was selected as a example of 400kV SOJA substation.
Fault current, short circuit
. Nedic, Dusko, Bathurst, Graeme & Heath, John (2007) "A Comparison of Short Circuit Calculation Methods and Guidelines for Distribution Networks" CIRED2007 session3, paper No. 0562. 19th International Conference on Electricity Distribution; 21-24 May 2007; Vienna.
|M. H. GULZAR|
|On The Zero-Free Regions for Polynomials|
In this paper we find the zero-free regions for a class of polynomials whose coefficients or
their real and imaginary parts are restricted to certain conditions.
Mathematics Subject Classification: 30C10, 30C15.
Coefficient, Polynomial, Zero.
. Y. Choo and G. K. Choi, On the Zero-free Regions of Polynomials, Int.Journal of Math. Analysis,
Vol.5,2011,no. 20, 975-981.
|Okoye, P. U., Okolie K. C.|
|Social Approach to Sustainable Construction Practices Through Safety Culture|
Increasingly calls for more sustainable construction have occasioned more actions towards sustainability. A meaningful sustainable construction is inimical without significant cultural and behavioural change in how the construction industry manages its safety issues. It is based on these calls that this paper assesses the practical approach to sustainable construction practices through safety culture in Nigeria. It examined relationship between safety culture dimensions and sustainable construction practices in Nigeria. The paper provides a framework through which a sustained cultural and behavioural change in management of safety in construction can lead to sustainable construction practices. It employed a questionnaire survey which was conducted in South East Nigeria. Questionnaire was distributed to contractors, consultants and instructors in the built environment disciplines. The data collected were analyzed using Chi-square (X2) statistical test, at (α = 0.05). The results revealed that the computed chi-square (X2) for all the four safety culture dimensions (management commitment = 34.04; belief and perception = 46.50; regulatory framework = 19.16; education and training = 20.63) were greater than X20.05,8 (15.51). Based on this result, it was concluded that safety culture dimensions have significant relationship with sustainable construction practices. The study revealed that imbibing safety culture through management commitment to safety concerns of construction workers, workers perception and belief about safety issues, instituting regulatory framework that will ensure strict compliance to safety regulations by the relevant authorities and providing safety training and education to the construction workers, promote sustainable construction practices. The study recommends that safety training for all construction workers, both at management and operation levels; and institution of regulatory framework will ensure strict compliance to safety regulations.
Social Sustainability, Sustainable Construction, Safety Culture, Behaviour, Practices, Nigeria.
. Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (ACSNI). (1993). Third Report of the Human Factors Safety Group of the Advisory Committee on safety in the Nuclear Industry. Health and Safety Commission, HMSO, London.
. Brown, R.L. and Holmes, H. (1986). The Use of a Factor-Analytic Procedure for Assessing the Validity of an Employee Safety Climate Model. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 18 (6), pp. 455-470.
|Jatinder Pal Singh|
|Physics, Consciousness and Health in Relation with Aura Energy Field|
Every living thing on the earth radiates a field of energy, which is called an aura. In humans, there are seven main centers in the body that produce the energy or the aura, and these energy centers are called Chakras. These energy fields can be scanned over a long distance and then interpreted in the analysis. The analysis provide perfect evaluation of material and spiritual status of an individual. The auric pattern rather provides a much more complete picture as regards realistic state of happening. It indicates upon relationship harmony, success in work, hurdles and obstacles to be cautious upon, general physical and emotional health. The analysis is very significant because not an individual learn about the pluses and minuses, but also have a corrective solution.
Physics, Consciousness and Health in Relation with Aura Energy Field.
. W. A. Tiller; "Radionics, Radiesthesia and Physics" (Academy of Parapsychology and Medicine Symposium of October 30, 1971 on "The Varieties of Healing Experience" - 314A Second Street, Los Altos, California 94022)
|Pawan Pandey, Prof. (Dr.) Ajay Rana|
|Behavioral Modification in Cellular Message Encryption Algorithm|
This paper, first we describe the introduction of Cellular Message Encryption Algorithm, used for control channel encryption in Cellular Telephony scheme. Secondly why this algorithm is weak against security of cipher text being transmitted and finally how we can modify the Cellular Message Encryption Algorithm to be more secure for control data transmission.
CMEA, Plain Text, Cipher Text, Key, Block Cipher, T-Box.
 TIA TR45.0.A, "Common Cryptographic Algorithms", June 1995.
|K.Ram Mohan Rao, B.Ramesh, G.Indrasena Reddy|
|Font and Size Identification in Telugu Printed Document|
Telugu is the official language derived from ancient Brahmi script and also one of the oldest and popular languages of India, spoken by more than 66 million people, especially in South India. While a large amount of work has been developed for font and size identification of English and other languages, relatively not much work has been reported on the development of OCR system for Telugu text. Font and size identification of Indian scripts is much more complicated than other scripts because of the use of huge number of combination of characters and modifiers. Font and size identification is the pre-processing step in OCR systems. Hence Telugu font and size identification is an important area if interest in the development of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system for Telugu script. Pre processing tasks considered here are conversion of gray scale image to binary image, image clearing, and segmentation of the text into line, separation of connected components. Zonal analysis is applied and then top zone components are identified and checked for the presence of tick mark. Aspect ratio and pixel ratio for component are calculated. Comparing these two parameters with the database we identify the font and size. Simulation studies were carried out using MATLAB with GUI for all the segmentation methods for given Telugu text and the results it observed were good enough for identification of different fonts and sizes in the given Telugu text.
Optical Character Recognition (OCR), Telugu script, Segmentation, Zonal Analysis.
. B. Anuradha Srinivas, Arun Agarwal and C. Raghavendra Rao – "An Overview of OCR Research in Indian Scripts", IJCSES International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering System, Vol.2, No.2, April 2008
. R. Gonzalez and R. Woods - "Digital Image Processing", Addison-Wesley, Reading. MA, 91:1992......
|Shweta Gupta, Sunita Tiwari|
|Trust Management in Partially Decentralized Peer To Peer File Sharing System|
Trust management for peers in P2P network is very much important due to its open and anonymous nature. In this paper, we propose a reputation based trust management scheme for partially decentralized peer-to-peer file sharing systems. Reputation data is stored at the super node level. We calculate the reputation value for each file by using fuzzy logic inferences, which can better handle uncertainty, fuzziness, and incomplete information in peer trust reports. We have considered three factors namely: quality, popularity and size of the file shared by a peer and simulated the resulting trust management system.
P2P file sharing system, Trust Management, Reputation, Partially Decentralized Systems, Fuzzy logic.
. A.Oram, Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, O'Reilly Books, 2001, Ch. 2, pp. 21-37.