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IJERD : Volume 6, Issue 3
|Enhanced Performance of Proactive Spectrum Handoff Compared To Csma/Cd|
Cognitive Radio (CR) is the modest technology to make the unlicensed users to make use of licensed spectrum in the opportunistic manner. Collision and throughput are the main parameters to be checked while performing handoff. Proactive Spectrum is proposed to address these Concerns. Various Channel sensing methodologies were simulated and comparison was made between proactive, Reactive Spectrum. Simulation results show that our proactive spectrum handoff outperforms the reactive spectrum handoff and wireless networks approach in terms of higher throughput and fewer collisions to licensed users.
Congestion, CR, Handoff and proactive spectrum,CSMA/CD.
1. Akyildiz .I.F, Lee .W.Y, Mohanty. S and Vuran. M.C (2006): "Next Generation/ Dynamic Spectrum Access/Cognitive Radio Wireless Networks: A Survey,‟ Computer Networks, vol. 50, pp. 2127-2159.
2. Agrawal.P and Kondareddy. Y.R (2008): "Synchronized MAC Protocol for -HopCognitive Radio Networks,‟ Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comm. (ICC), pp. 3198-3202. 3. Brodersen. R, Mishra. S and Sahai.A (2006): "Cooperative Sensing among Cognitive Radios,‟ Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comm. (ICC),pp. 1658-1663. 4. Bahl. P, Chandra. R and Dunagan . J (2004): "SSCH: Slotted Seeded Channel Hopping for Capacity Improvement in IEEE 802.11 Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks,‟ Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 216-230. 5. Cao. L, Yang. L, and Zheng. H (2008): "Proactive Channel Access in Dynamic Spectrum Networks,‟ Physical Comm., vol. 1, pp. 103-111.
|Mr.A.Arunprasath, Mr.J.Raja, Dr.S.M.Ramesh|
|Design of an Efficient Low Power Multi Modulus Prescaler|
Prescaler is a critical block in power conscious PLL design. A new design technique that improves operating speed of true single-phase clock-based (TSPC) prescalers is presented. A reset signal is added to the positive edge triggered TSPC DFF to obtain the objective of multi modulus prescaler that is frequency division (High frequency to low frequency). Two Dual-modulus prescalers 2/3 and 3/4 prescalers are designed using TSPC positive edge triggered DFF and CMOS nor gates. By using the two dual modulus prescalers, multi modulus prescaler is designed to provide multiple division ratios a`nd their performances are compared with previous work. The speed of the 2/3 and 3/4 prescaler are improved at the maximum operating frequency. The power efficient multi modulus prescaler is designed using Tanner EDA tool and its performance are compared. A Simulation and measurement results shows high-speed, low-power, low PDP and multiple division ratio capabilities of the power efficient technique. The improved speed, the power efficiency, and the flexibility will promote its wide deployment in Multi gigahertz range applications.
tspc dff, cmos nor, 2/3 prescaler, 3/4 prescaler, multi modulus prescaler, pll, pseudo nmos nor, nmos nor.
 Wu-Hsin chen and Byunghoo Jung, (2011) "High–Speed Low–Power True Single–Phase Clock Dual-Modulus Prescaler" IEEE transactions on circuits and systems—ii: express briefs, Vol. 58, No. 3, pp.144 -148.
 Cao C, (2005), "A power efficient 26-GHz 32:1 static frequency divider in 130-nm bulk cmos," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., Vol. 15, No. 11, pp. 721–723.
 De Miranda F.P.H, Navarro Jr S.J, and Van Noije W.A.M, ( 2004), "A 4 GHz dual modulus divider-by 32/33 prescaler in 0.35 um CMOS technology," in Proc. IEEE 17th Symp. on Circuits and Syst. Design, Vol. 17, pp. 94–99.
 Huang Q and RogenmoserR,( 1996), "Speed optimization of edge-triggered CMOS circuits for gigahertz single-phase clocks," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 456–465.
 Ji-ren J, Karlsson I, and Svensson C, (1989), "A true single-phase-clock dynamic CMOS circuit technique," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 24, pp. 62–70....
V.Saravanan, Dr.A.Sumathi, S.Shanthana, M.Rizvana
|Dual Mode Mpeg Steganography Scheme For Mobile and Fixed Devices|
This paper reduces the detectable distortion in a Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) file during data hiding process, by introducing new bit embedding scheme. The new bit embedding scheme considers three factors, i.e., the nth significant bit of each pixel, number of 1s or 0s in the pixel and block size. The MPEG frames are split into number of blocks and each pixel in it will be examined to embed the secret information. Depends upon the nth significant bits and bits in the secret information, the least significant bit of each pixel will be altered. This proposed method of information hiding will help to solve the security issues in computer networks. The proposed system works in dual mode and suitable for mobile devices with low computational power and resources. Also, it improves security and reduces the detectable distortion.
Steganography, Macroblock, NSB, LSB, Video, Secret Information.
. Y.-F.Ma and H.-J. Zhang, "A model of motion attention for video skimming," in Proceeding ICIP, VOL. 1, pp. 129 – 132, September 2002.
. V.Saravanan and A.Neeraja, "Security Issues in Computer Networks and Stegnography", in Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Control (ISCO 2013), pp. 363-366, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India, January 2013.
Biplab Das, Dr. Aditya Bandyopadhyay
|A Model of Watershed Management Process-A Case Study of Rarh Region in Gangetic Delta|
Watershed is a region delineated with a well-defined topographic boundary and water outlet. It is a geographic region within which hydrological conditions are such that water becomes concentrated within a particular location, for example, a river or a reservoir, by which the watershed is drained. Within the topographic boundary or a water divide, watershed comprises a complex of soils, landforms, vegetation, and land uses. The terms watershed, catchment, and basins are often used interchangeably. They have long been recognized as desirable units for planning and implementing developmental programmes. A watershed, also called a "drainage basin" in North America, is an area in which all water flowing into it goes to a common outlet, such as the same estuary or reservoir. Watersheds themselves consist of all surface water and include lakes, streams, reservoirs and wetlands, as well as all groundwater and aquifers.
A Model of Watershed Management Process-A Case Study of Rarh Region in Gangetic Delta.
 Balasubramanian, R and K.N.Selvaraj (2003). Poverty, Private Property and Common Pool.
Renu Pandey, Larry Lytle, Alok Mishra
|Low Level Laser Therapy (Lllt) For the Treatment of Hypertension|
Low level laser Therapy (LLLT, Qlaser) is a 100% safe technique that functions at the atomic level by carrying electrons on the soliton waves (Patented) to needy areas without producing any known side effects.103 patients suffering with Hypertension were treated with LLLT (Qlaser) according to the protocol provided by manufacture. A double blind placebo was done. The results of 103 patients gone for Qlaser treatment trial were analyzed. 54 patients were kept in group A (Using instrument A1, A2 or A3) and 49 in group B (those using instrument B1, B2, or B3). The mean base line systolic/Diastolic Blood pressure of group A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and B3 are 51.2/93.56,152.5/94.59, 151/92.79, 153.8/96, 142.1/87.65, and 146.5/93.54 respectively. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure of Group A was decreased by an average of 15.33% and 7.98%respectively after the treatment of 18 days. On the other hand group B showed a decrease of 1.73% and1.29% for systolic and diastolic blood pressure respectively. In conclusion we say that the Group A was set on instrument that has a great capacity to reduce hypertension, the instruments labeled group B were placebo so did not showed any significant results. The Qlaser system is a very effective and safe system of treating stage I and Stage II hypertension.
Low Level Laser Therapy (Lllt) For the Treatment of Hypertension.
. Shuvaeva VN, Gorshkova OP, Kostylev AV, Dvoretsky DP . Effect of laser irradiation on adrenoreactivity of pial arterial vessels in rats.. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2011 May;151(1):1-4.
|M.B.S Alferjani, A.A. Abdul Samad, Blkasem. S Elrawaff ,N. Mohamad M.Hilton|
|CFRP Laminate Flexural And Shear Strengthening Technique for Reinforced Concrete Beams: A Review|
Externally bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite laminates have been successfully applied to reinforced concrete (RC) beams and other structural elements for the purpose of increase load carrying capacity of such elements. This paper presents 10 articles reviews on the flexural and shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams by CFRP laminates. Finally, this paper attempts to address an important practical issue that is encountered in flexural and shear strengthening of beams with carbon fibre reinforced polymer laminate. This paper also proposes a simple method of applying fibre reinforced polymer for strengthening the beam with carbon fibre reinforced polymer.
concrete beams, carbon fibre reinforced polymer, shear strengthening, flexural strengthening.
. Higgins C, Potisuk T, Robelo M, Farrow W, Auliffe MT, Nicholas B (2007). Test of RC deck girders with 1950s vintage details. J. Brid. Engg. 12: 621-31.
|Bommali.Rajani, Tippa Bhimasankara Rao|
|Design of Catcher for Crane Dumping of Slag pot at Slag yard, Steel Melt Shop|
This project work is all about designing of a catcher for crane dumping of slag pot. Dumping of slag done by conventional methods is not economical and less safe. So we designed a catcher (secondary auxiliary attachment) for dumping of slag pot.The Slag generated in LD converter at SMS department during refining of hot metal is collected in vessels called slag pots. This slag is dumped in the pits, which are present in slag yard. For doing so, slag pots, slag pot transfer cars, slag dump cars, EOT cranes, etc. are being used. Slag pot is like a open mouth type vessel made up of cast iron using investment casting method. Due to the limitation of turning effect available for emptying the slag pot by slag dump car/Kamag system, sometimes slag pot will not be totally emptied to clear the metal/slag jams. In the slag pot it is very difficult to clear the metal/slag jams in the slag pot by conventional methods. So for totally emptying the slag pot another method is suggested that is "CRANE DUMPING OF SLAG POT". To use the crane for dumping the slag pot directly in to slag pit, a human interface is required to fix the secondary auxiliary catcher in to the D-slotted ring and to tilt the slag pot. So our team studied the process and designed the catcher required for the tilting the slag pot without manual intervention. It is proved that it can withstand the required load (slag) capacity by using CAD, PRO-E & ANSYS packages. As a result we can choose this method as best economical and safe operation.
Slag pot, slag dump.
. Strength of materials by ARUMUGAM, R.K JAIN