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IJERD : Volume 6, Issue 4
|From Classical to Relativistic Mechanics via Maxwell|
It can be shown that Newton's non relativistic equations can be upgraded to full relativistic status by means of integrating the magnetic aspect of massive particles derived from deBroglie's hypothesis on the internal structure of localized photons and from Paul Marmet's remarkable exploration of the relation between the magnetic aspect of electrons and the contribution of this magnetic aspect to the electron rest mass and relativistic mass, which he termed the "magnetic mass". The outcome is a complete relativistic equations set, one of which is the first to allow velocity calculation of all existing particles, from photons at the speed of light to velocity and relativistic mass of all massive particles from total rest to infinitesimally close to asymptotic velocity of light and related infinite mass.
Relativistic equations, classical equations, Marmet, Maxwell, magnetic mass.
. André Michaud. The Birth of Electron-Positron Pairs in the 3-Spaces Model, The General Science Journal 2010: http://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Essays/View/2270
. Paul Marmet. Fundamental Nature of Relativistic Mass and Magnetic Fields, International IFNA-ANS Journal, No. 3 (19), Vol. 9, 2003, Kazan University, Kazan, Russia. (Also available over the Internet: http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/magnetic/mass.html).
. André Michaud. On the Fundamental Discrete LC Relation of Elementary EM Particles, The General Science Journal 2010: http://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Essays/View/2269.
. André Michaud, Field Equations for Localized Individual Photons and Relativistic Field Equations for Localized Moving Massive Particles, International IFNA-ANS Journal, No. 2 (28), Vol. 13, 2007, p. 123-140, Kazan State University, Kazan, Russia. (Also available online at http://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Essays/View/2257).
. André Michaud. On the Electron Magnetic Moment Anomaly, The General Science Journal 2009: http://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Essays/View/2259.
|Shreyas Suresh Rao, Dr.B.S.Pradeep|
|Management and Architecture for Product Bundle Life Cycle in Retail Banking|
In this paper, a product bundle life cycle is proposed for retail line of business in banking enterprise. Product bundling involves grouping together different products or services belonging to the same or different lines of business in a bank and offering the bundle to the customer of the bank. The proposed approach helps banks to understand product bundle life cycle and thereby implement a product bundle. Bundle life cycle encompasses the stages of planning, creation, maintenance and reporting of product bundle. The paper also proposes a Service oriented architecture to achieve product bundling in retail enterprise.
product bundle, product bundle life cycle, planning of product bundle, creation of product bundle, maintenance of product bundle, service oriented architecture.
. Rong Liu, Frederick Wu, Yasodhar Patnaik, Santosh Kumaran, "Business Entities: An SOA Approach to progressive core banking renovation,", scc, pp.466-473,2009 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, 2009.
|Polarizability with an effect of an Electric field for a donor in spherical GaAs QDs|
In this present work, first I simplified and calculated the binding energy of a donor in spherical quantum dots (QDs) by using a variational approach within the effective mass approximation and computed for GaAs QD as a function of the dot size for different impurity positions. Next I found out the expectation value of the Hamiltonion and also the binding energies were computed for different values of the electric fields. I found that the value of the polarizability obtained is several orders higher than the hydrogen atom value. My results are in good agreement with previous theoretical findings.
Spherical quantum dot, Donor binding energy, Impurity state, Parabolic confinement Quantum dots , quantum wells gallium arsenide, III-V semiconductors, impurity states, effective mass, donor Binding , Semiconductor compounds, Polarizability of atoms, Polarizability of molecules.
PACS, 73.20.Dx , 73.20.Hb ,73.21.La , 73.21.-b , 73.61.Ey , 73.20.Hb , 71.18.+y, 71.38.+I , 71.20.Nr, 32.10.Dk, 33.15.Kr
 Bastard G 1981 Phys.Rev.B24 4714
|A review on magnetic/nano fluids: Thermal phenomena in magnetic/nanofluids & It's Applications|
Interesting you know, Science of the very tiny one has become huge. It raises issues that are interesting and important to scientific understanding and seems to possess clues to the solution of knotty technological problems. The focus of the present work concerns thermal properties of suspensions of nanoparticles in fluids. They commonly referred to as nanofluids. In another explanation, nanofluids are nanoscale colloidal suspensions containing consendensed nanomaterials. They are two-phase systems with one phase (solid phase) in another (liquid phase). Investigations of their thermal properties have thrown up many findings that are interesting and challenging to describe. The importance of thermal properties is in the context of heat removal from small spaces. It is a technological challenge arising from the need to cool high-speed microelectronic devices. And also , nanoparticle suspensions (nanofluids) have been recommended as a promising option for various engineering applications, due to the observed enhancement of thermophysical properties and improvement in the effectiveness of thermal phenomena. A number of investigations have been reported in the recent past, in order to quantify the thermo-fluidic behavior of nanofluids. Even if it is true that some review articles involving the progress of nanofluid investigations were published in the past several years], most of the reviews are concerned on the experimental and theoretical studies of the thermophysical properties or the convective heat transfer of nanofluids. The purpose of this paper will focuses on the importance of thermal properties, different techniques for measuring the thermal conductivity, thermal phenomena in nanofluids , especially the new application trends for nanofluids in addition to the heat transfer properties of nanofluids. And also this article will be used for researchers on nanofluids. We will try to find some challenging issues that need to be solved for future research based on the review on these aspects of nanofluids.
Magnetic fluids, 47.65.Cb, Thermal diffusivity, 66.30.Xj, Heat transfer - convective, 44.25.+f, 44.27.+g, Convection, 44.25.+f, Thermal properties - of nanocrystals, and nanotubes 65.80.-g, Thermal instruments and apparatus 07.20.-n, Viscosity, diffusion, and thermal conductivity 51.20.+d
Eastman, J. A., Phillpot, S. R., Choi, S. U. S. and Leblinski, P., Annu. Rev. Mater. Res., 2004, 34, 219–246.
Ms. Pallavi R
|A Survey on some of the novel techniques used for VM Scheduling and VM Management|
Cloud computing is a field where we access the big data, over the internet. The big data is placed over multiple servers in the cluster, though the credentials of the network connections are entirely hidden and users cannot access anyone else‟s data. As the big data created by the applications expand, there exists a growing demand for high performance computing infrastructures. This has led to the establishment of large-scale computing data centers causing a notable increase of electrical power consumed by hardware facilities and cooling systems. High power consumption by the infrastructure affects to substantial carbon dioxide emissions on the global scale contributing to the green house effect. Cloud shares a lot of resources with its users. If these resources can be managed efficiently, then we can view a better data center which is economical and energy efficient. It is seen that VM scheduling and VM management are the two key fields where a drastic change in energy consumption can bring in with various algorithms. Our paper gives an overview of various researches wrt the VM scheduling and VM management.
Cloud computing, Energy efficiency, Resource Management, VM scheduling, VM migrations, VM management.
|Y.Deepak Kumar, D.Pradeep|
It is natural that everyone makes mistakes while writing on paper. Natural choice is a whitener to make a correction. But not all paper color matches with that of the whitener ink. So sometimes, it might make our work look shabby. This project aims towards creating a whitener, or rather a corrector, that generates the ink which matches with the color of the paper. The primary color mixture is identified for the captured background color. This color is created by mixing primary colors, y, cyan, magenta and yellow, by controlling solenoid valves, which are controlled by arduino controller. This ink is applied on the desired medium to make the required correction. All combinations of colors are obtained by suitably mixing the CMY primary colors in appropriate proportions. This is a novel idea that was created on personal interest.
MATLAB, ARDUINO, CMY, ink color, solenoid valves.
 Hashim, Shah Alam Rahman, R.A. Jarmin, R." A Study on RGB Color Extraction of Psoriasis Lesion using Principle Component Analysis" IEEE TRANS. Research and Development, 27-28 June 2006.
|Subhrajyoti Bordoloi, Bichitra Kalita|
|E-R Model to an Abstract Mathematical Model for Database Schema using Reference Graph|
Graphs have many applications in the field of computer science. As a data structure it plays a very important role in database management system design. In this paper we discuss how the references among the database tables can be easily described by graphs. In the new approach, unlike E-R model, the reference graph model can describe the references occurred among the database tables or among various databases of diverse platforms more precisely and clearly. The reference graphs, unlike the schema diagrams, do not show the details about the attributes of the entities, rather it gives the references available among the entities and the attributes through which these references are made. Reference graphs model, derived from the E-R model or from the intermediate graph, directly developed by analyzing the context system, is used to develop an abstract mathematical model of the database schema, from which we develop the Database Requirements Specifications (DRS). The DRS can be used as a design document in RDBMS and OODBMS paradigm.
E-R Diagrams, EER, SRS, DRS, Reference Graph (E-R graph), FD.
. P.P Chen, "Entity-Relationship Approach to Information Modelling and Analysis", Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (North-Holand ),1983, pp. 19-28
|Anniamma Chacko, Andrew Fernans Tom, Lovely K. M|
|Effect of Fly Ash on the Strength Characteristics of Soil|
The handling of fly ash has become an immediate concern due to its huge accumulation and lack of dumping yards. Flyash can be used in various civil engineering applications. Flyash in geotechnical constructions, embankments, soil stabilisations, geo polymers, subgrades etc. are some of the promising solutions for sustainable development. This paper highlights the importance of utilization of flyash in the stabilisation of soil subgrades. Attempts have been made to study the effect of flyash by conducting experiments on the samples collected from three different sites using various percentages of flyash. Introduction of flyash into the local soil has improved their geotechnical properties.
Effect of Fly Ash on the Strength Characteristics of Soil
. Sridharan, A ., Prasanth, J.P. and Sivapullaiah, P.V. (1997), Effect of flyash on the unconfined compressive strength of black cotton soil, Ground Improvement Vol. 1, 169- 175.
|Dr.Bahija khudaier shukur, hiba Mohammed jafaar, Anwar Jaafer Moosa|
|A Novel Steganography Method for a Secret True Image|
Steganography is an ancient art or conveying messages in a secret way that only the receiver knows the existence of a message, most these methods suffer from number of problems which effect on its performance and implementation.In this paper, a novel mechanism using mathematical modulus to incorporate the secret true image into a cover-image to overcome most of these problems .This proposed method aims to meet most the requirements of any steganography system (like capacity, security and un detectability) ,where the mathematical modulus merging the secret data (the true image after compressing it by using wavelet Daubechies filter and ciphering it using strong key consist two stage the first stage generating pseudo random binary bit and xor it with the byte of the resulted image the second stage consist the rotate operation to satisfying the confusion and diffusion conditions) , that modulus is a threshold value that determines how the embedded file is incorporated into the cover-image. This method has a higher security since the secret information added to the cover image and the hiding data cannot be reconstructed unless we knowing the hiding algorithm and if we know the reconstructed algorithm then the hiding data cannot be constructed unless we know the decompression algorithm. In addition to that the knowing of the sharing secret information between the sender and the receiver which is the seed of the pseudo number generator (Sk) ,series number(S), the number of the hiding bits (ml,mu) and the threshold value (T) ,also the using of random style making the reaching process to the hiding image is difficult. The compressing and ciphering the embedded file used in order to reduce the size of it and increase the security. Furthermore, the quality of stego-image measured by PSNR is acceptable to human vision system and stable for diverse cover-image processes.
Steganography, pseudo number generator, mathematical modulus.
. X. Luo, F. Liu and P. Lu. A LSB Steganography Approach Against Pixels Sample Pairs Stegonalysis. International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 575-588, June 2007.
|Andrew Fernans Tom, Alka Abraham, Anniamma Chacko|
|Influence of Position of Geosynthetic Layer in Pavement|
The rapidly increasing demand for more and more trafficable area has made it imperative to construct on weak and compressible soil subgrades. Whenever a road needs to be built on soft or saturated soil with low CBR value, settlement may take place during or after construction, with serious consequences in the lifespan of the road. It is a big challenge ahead of a civil engineer to build roads which are strong enough to bear the heaviest of traffic expected to move through those roads.Use of geo-synthetics serves as a solution to these problems. Geo-synthetics increase the strength of sub-grade soil and modify some of its properties so that the strength and lifespan of the road is increased. This paper provides an overview of performance of geotextile reinforcement in enhancing the strength of pavements, influence of the position of reinforcement layer and use of multilayer geotextiles.
Influence of Position of Geosynthetic Layer in Pavement
. Robert. M. Koerner, Designing with geosynthetics, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 2nd edition. . Dr. Khanna S.K. and Dr. Justo, Highway Engineering . Sanjay Kumar Shukla and Jian-hua Yin, Fundamentals of Geosynthetic Engineering
|Eldhose M Manjummekudiyil, Shibi Varghese, Jaleen George|
|Recycled Aggregate Concrete|
Concrete is a very important construction material. The main composition of concrete is cement (commonly Portland Cement), coarse aggregates (such as blasted rubble), fine aggregates (such as sand) and water. Cement is the binder that binds the aggregates together. Coarse aggregates are mainly obtained from quarries, using advent blasting methods, wherever competent bedrock deposits of aggregate quality exists. Fine aggregate used is dry sand, which is available naturally or manufactured. The purpose of this paper is to study concrete behaviour by replacing the aggregates in concrete with recycled wastes. This study is intended to make construction more economical wherever recycled concrete can be used. It is also considered in regard of environment by reducing the disposal of the construction wastes by using them efficiently. The various recycled wastes which used for this purpose are- 1. Tiles- disposed broken tiles 2. Bricks- broken brick bat 3. Laterite powder 4. Concrete wastes 5. Plastering wastes
Recycled Aggregate Concrete
 IS 456 – 2000, 'Plain and Reinforced Concrete- Code of Practice', (Fourth Edition), Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
|Solly George, Mercy Joseph Poweth, Able Alias|
|Seismic Effect Study of Structures in Different Soils|
Every structure transfers its reactions to ground through the foundation. In the present situation every building is analysed as the base is fixed or hinged. Fixed condition is assumed if the structure rests on piles and hinged condition is assumed if the structure is supported by isolated footing. IS code 1893-2002 gives guidelines to earthquake resistant design of structures. An attempt has been made to validate the accuracy of the base condition assumptions and completeness of the guidelines in IS: 1893-2002. For this attempt, structures with different base conditions were analysed for seismic response. From the analysis it is seen that the use of fixed base models can not accommodate soil structure interaction. The software used for analysis was SAP2000, which is a Finite Element analysis package. An idealization for the foundation has been arrived.
seismic effect, zone factor, drift, response reduction factor, winkler foundation.
. Pankaj Agarwal & Manish Shrikhande, Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Printice-hall, 2006.
|Shibi Varghese, Eldhose M Manjummekudiyil, Arun Das|
|Structural Behaviour of Coir Fiber Added Concrete|
Concrete is the most widely used construction material. Apart from its excellent properties concrete is very poor in tensile strength. To improve its tensile strength, fibers are added to concrete which is known as fiber added concrete. In our study we focused on structural behaviour of coir fiber added concrete. Coir is abundantly available at low cost in the tropical areas especially Kerala. In this study coir fiber of aspect ratio 50 is randomly dispersed in M20 concrete for the preparation of 48 specimens. Two different varieties of concrete with different fiber cement ratio (0.5% and 1.5%) were casted. The specimens were tested for its compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. From the test results obtained it can be seen that compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength are greater than those of PCC. The optimum percentage f/c ratio may be occurring very near to 0.5%. From the cost benefit analysis coir fiber is proved to be far economical than any other fibers for a strength comparable to that obtained for 0.5% fiber cement ratio coir fiber added concrete. This study also focus on the comparative study among presently using fiber added concrete which their structural strength and cost of production.
Coir Fiber Added Concrete; Aspect ratio; Fiber Cement Ratio; Splitting Tensile Strength; Compressive Strength; Flexural Strength.
. James I Daniel, Surendhra.P.Shah, "SP-142 Fiber Concrete Developments and Innovations", American Concrete Institute, 1994.
|H.B.Kekre, Tanuja Sarode, Prachi Natu|
|Image Compression Using Column, Row and Full Wavelet Transforms Of Walsh, Cosine, Haar, Kekre, Slant and Sine and Their Comparison with Corresponding Orthogonal Transforms|
In this paper, image compression using orthogonal wavelet transforms of Walsh, Cosine, Haar, Kekre, Slant and Sine is studied. Wavelet transform of size N2xN2 is generated using its corresponding orthogonal transform of size NxN. These wavelet transforms are applied on R, G, and B planes of 256x256x3 size colour images separately. In each transformed plane rows/columns are sorted in their descending order of energy, and lowest energy coefficients are eliminated to compress the image. This procedure is repeated for different compression ratios and in each case image is reconstructed. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between original image and reconstructed image is calculated to measure the performance of transform. Wavelet transforms are applied in three different ways: Column wavelet, Row wavelet and Full wavelet and their performance is compared using RMSE. From the results it has been observed that, RMSE obtained using full wavelet transform is nearly half than column and row wavelet transform. Also, results of wavelet transforms are compared with results of their orthogonal transforms. Full DCT wavelet transform outperforms all other transforms.
Image compression, Wavelet Transform, Orthogonal Transform, DST, Kekre‟s Transform, and Slant Transform.
. Rohit Arora, Madanlal Sharma, Nidhika Birla "An Algorithm for Image Compression using 2D Wavelet Transform". International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 4, April 2011, pp. 2758- 2764.
|Tulips Angel Thankachan, Dr. Kumudha Raimond|
|A Hybrid Classifier based Rule Extraction System|
Classification is one of the common tasks performed in knowledge discovery and machine learning. Different learning algorithms can be applied to induce various forms of classification knowledge. This type of learning process results in creating classification system called classifier. Measure used to evaluate such systems is classification accuracy. Classification accuracy of individual classifiers can be improved through combining classifiers. This paper proposes a hybrid classifier model called DTABC (Decision Tree and Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm) to improve the classification accuracy irrespective to size, dimensionality, class distribution and domain of the dataset. This proposed system comprises of two phases: in the first phase, rules are extracted from the training dataset using C4.5 decision tree algorithm. In the second phase, ABC algorithm is applied over C4.5 produced rules to produce more optimized rules. The proposed system has been compared with C4.5, DTGA and Naïve Bayes. The results show that the proposed hybrid classifier provides better classification accuracy.
artificial bee colony algorithm, classification, c4.5, hybrid classifier, fitness function, accuracy.
. Sousa, T., Silva, A., & Neves, A. (2004). Particle Swarm based Data Mining Algorithms for classification tasks.Parallel Computing, 30(5-6), 767-783.
|K.T. Obolewski, A. Strzelczak, A.M. Astel, J. Sawczyn|
|Short-Term Effects of Stream Restoration and Management on Macroinvertebrate Communities in Lowland Streams|
As a result of hydrotechnical treatments, a 2.5 km long reach of the lowland Kwacza River was elongated to 3.5 km. Restoration triggered off short-term changes in the river ecosystem, which were studied through habitat and invertebrate analysis. Sampling was conducted at 10 sections before and after restoration. Invertebrates quickly colonized various habitats and thus improved biological diversity of the Kwacza River. The only taxon that increased its ecological importance was Gammaridae. In turn, Ephemerellidae concentrated at places with better oxygen conditions. The neural network model revealed that variables directly connected with restoration were not as important as primarily hypothesised.
biological engineering, monitoring, invertebrates, Poland.
. E.S. Bernhardt, M.A. Palmer, J.D. Allan, G. Alexander, K. Barnas, S. Brooks, J. Carr, S. Clayton, C. Dahm, J. Follstad-Shah, D.Galat, S. Gloss, P. Goodwin, D. Hart, B. Hassett, R. Jenkinson, S. Katz, G.M. Kondolf, P.S. Lake, R. Lave, , J.L. Meyer, T.K. O'Donnell, L. Pagano, B. Powell and E. Sudduth, ―Synthesizing U.S. river restoration efforts‖. Science, vol. 308, 636 – 637, 2005.