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IJERD : Volume 8, Issue 10


Abida Yousuf, Roohie Naaz Mir, Hakim Najeeb-ud-din

Design Methodology for Low Error Fixed Width Adaptive Multiplier

  • Abstract
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In this paper, we develop a methodology for designing lower-error and Area efficient 2'scomplement fixed-width multiplier. In these multipliers basic multiplications follow the Baugh-Wooley algorithms and have been implemented using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. The approach is based on the fact that the multiplication operations used in multimedia applications (such as DSP) usually have the special fixed-width property i.e., their input data and output product have the same bit width. For some practical DSP applications, we only require n-bit multiplication output, which is to be obtained by directly truncating the n least-significant bits and preserving the n most significant bits. However, significant errors are introduced in the fixed-width operation, which are undesirable for DSP applications By properly choosing the generalized index and binary thresholding, we derive a better error-compensation bias to reduce the truncation error. The proposed fixed width low error multiplier shows better error performance as compared to other existing multiplier structures.
Bough Wooley Algorithm, Fixed Width Adaptive Multiplier, Multiplication., FPGA.

[1]. C. R. Baugh and B. A. Wooley, "A two's complement parallel array multiplication algorithm," IEEE Transaction on Computers, vol. C-22, no. 12, pp.1045-1047, December 1973.
[2]. S. S. Kidambi, F. El-Guibaly, and A. Antoniou, "Area efficient multiplier for digital signal processing applications," IEEE Transaction on Circuit, Systems II, vol. 43, pp. 90-94, 1996.
[3]. E. E. Swartzlander, Jr, "Truncated multiplication with approximate rounding," Proceedings 33rd Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computer, vol. 2, pp. 1480- 1483, 1999.
[4]. Tu and Van, "Power efficient pipelined reconfigurable fixed width Baugh Wooley multiplier," IEEE Transaction on Computers, vol. 58, no. 10, October, 2009.
[5]. Min-An Song, Lan-Da Van, Ting-Chun Huang, and Sy-Yen Kuo, "A Generalized Methodology for Low-Error Fixed-Width Booth Multipliers," IEEE 47th Symposium on Circuits and Systems, July, 2004....

Abida Yousuf, Roohie Naaz Mir, Hakim Najeeb-ud-din "Design Methodology for Low Error Fixed Width Adaptive Multiplier" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2013)
MID 0810.067X.0002. India
Page 09-15
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Bhavika K.Desai, Manoj Pandya, Dr.M.B.Potdar

Comparison of Various Template Matching Techniques for Face Recognition
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TThis paper describes different methods for the pattern matching and face recognition using the template matching technique. Many different pattern matching techniques have been developed but more efficient and robust methods are needed [1]. The pattern matching algorithm is used to identify the patterns available in image. These algorithms shown in this paper generalize and extend the concept of convolution, normalized cross correlation (NCC), zero mean normalized cross correlation (ZNCC), sum of absolute difference (SAD), optimized sum of absolute difference (OSAD), zero mean sum of absolute difference (ZSAD), optimized sum of squared difference (OSSD), zero mean sum of square difference (ZSSD), locally scale sum of square difference (LSSD), sum of hamming distance (SHD). Pattern matching is a significant job of the prototype detection process in today's world for eradicating the structural and efficient activities in a given image. Even though the pattern matching techniques are normally utilized in information processing and computer vision, it can be established in daily tasks. Template matching is conceptually a simple process, this need to match a template to an image where the template pattern is a part of the source image that contains the shape inside it [1].
Convolution, Normalized Cross Correlation, Pattern Matching, Template Matching.

[1]. S. M. Metev and V. P. Veiko, Laser Assisted Microtechnology, 2nd ed., R. M. Osgood, Jr., Ed. Berlin, Jaydeo K. Dharpure , M. B. Potdar, Monaj Pandya," Counting Objects using Convolution based Pattern Matching Technique" International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS) – ISSN : 2249-0868 Foundation of Computer Science FCS, New York, USA Volume 5 – No. 8, June 2013 – Objects using Convolution based Pattern Matching Technique.
[2]. C. Saravanan, M. Surender,"Algorithm for Face Matching Using Normalized Cross-Correlation" in. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT) ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume- 2, Issue-4, April 2013.
[3]. Luigi Di Stefano, Stefano Mattoccia and Federico Tombari, ZNCC-based template matching using bounded partial correlation. Received 6 April 2004; received in revised form 10 March 2005.
[4]. Fawaz Alsaade,"Fast and accurate template matching algorithm based on image pyramid and sum of absolute difference similarity measure"Research Journal of Information technology 4(4):204-211,2012 ISSN 1815-7432/DOI : 10,3923/rjit.2012.204.2112012 Academic Journal Inc.
[5]. Elhanan Elboher and Michael Werman,"Asymmetric Correlation: a Noise Robust Similarity Measure for Template Matching" in IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. XXX, NO. XXX, MONTH YEAR...

Bhavika K.Desai, Manoj Pandya, Dr.M.B.Potdar "Comparison of Various Template Matching Techniques for Face Recognition" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2013)
MID 0810.067X.0003. India
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R.Shanthi, T.K.Revathi, Dr.J.Vellingiri

Multicast Routing and Bandwidth Analysis Using Relay Node for Quality Video Transmission
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This paper propose a novel scalable video broadcast/multicast solution that efficiently integrates scalable video coding, broadcast and ad-hoc forwarding to achieve the optimal trade-off between the systemwide and worst-case video quality perceived by all viewers in the cell. In our solution, video is encoded into one base layer and multiple enhancement layers using Scalable Video Coding (SVC). The large number of Internet paths between popular video destinations and clients to create an empirical understanding of location, persistence, and recurrence of failures. The optimal resource allocation problem for scalable video multicast in networks. we design and implement a prototype packet forwarding module called source initiated frame restoration (SIFR). This paper deployed SIFR on PlanetLab nodes and compared the performance of SIFR to the default Internet routing. We show that SIFR outperforms IP-path selection by providing higher on-screen perceptual quality.
Multicast Routing and Bandwidth Analysis Using Relay Node for Quality Video Transmission
[1]. D. G. Andersen,H.Balakrishnan, M. F. Kaashoek, and R.Morris, "Resilient overlay networks," in Proc. 18th ACM SOSP, Banff, Canada, Oct. 2001, pp. 131–145.
[2]. S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, "An architecture for differentiated services," IETF RFC# 2475, Dec. 1998.
[3]. P. Calyam, M. Sridharan, W. Mandrawa, and P. Schopis, "Performance measurement and analysis of H.323 traffic," in Proc. PAM, Apr. 2004, pp. 137–146.
[4]. K. Chen, C.Wu, Y. Chang, and C. Lei, "A crowdsourceable QoE evaluation framework for multimedia content," in Proc. ACM Multimedia, Beijing, China, Oct. 2009, pp. 491–500.
[5]. A. Czumaj and V. Stemann, "Randomized allocation processes," in Proc. Symp. Found. Comput. Sci., Miami, FL,USA,Oct. 1997, p. 194....
R.Shanthi, T.K.Revathi, Dr.J.Vellingiri "Multicast Routing and Bandwidth Analysis Using Relay Node for Quality Video Transmission" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2013)
MID 0810.067X.0004. India
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S.Dhanalakshmi, S.Kaliraj, Dr.J.Vellingiri

Efficient and Effective Detection of Node Replication Attacks in Mobile Sensor Networks
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Wireless sensor networks are often deployed in hostile environments, where an adversary can physically capture some of the nodes. Once a node is captured, the attacker can re-program it and replicate the node in a large number of replicas, thus easily taking over the network. The detection of node replication attacks in a wire- less sensor network is therefore a fundamental problem. Compared to the extensive exploration on the defense against node replication attacks in static networks, only a few solutions in mobile networks have been presented. Moreover, while most of the existing schemes in static networks rely on the witness-finding strategy, which cannot be applied to mobile networks, the velocity-exceeding strategy used in existing schemes in mobile networks incurs efficiency and security problems. In this paper Localized algorithms are proposed to resist node replication attacks in mobile sensor networks. The Merits of proposed algorithms are, it can effectively detect the node replication in localized manner. These algorithms are, also avoid network-wide synchronization and network-wide revocation.
Replication attack, security, wireless sensor networks, localized detection.
[1]. G. Cormode and S. Muthukrishnan, "An improved data stream summary the count-min sketch and its applications," J. Algorithms, vol.55, no. 1, pp. 56–75, 2005.
[2]. M. Conti, R. Di Pietro, L. V. Mancini, and A. Mei, "A randomized, efficient, and distributed protocol for the detection of node replication at- tacks in wireless sensor networks," in Proc. ACM Int. Symp. Mobile AdHoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc), Montreal, Canada, 2007, pp. 80–89.
[3]. M. Conti, R. D. Pietro, and A. Spognardi, "Wireless sensor replica detection in mobile environment," in Proc. Int. Conf. Distributed Computing and Networking (ICDCN), Hong Kong, China, 2012, pp.249–264.
[4]. J. Ho, M. Wright, and S. K. Das, "Fast detection of replica node attacks in mobile sensor networks using sequential analysis," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communications (INFOCOM), Brazil, 2009, pp.773–1781.
[5]. D. B. Johnson and D. A. Maltz, "Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks," Mobile Comput., pp. 153–181, 1996...
S.Dhanalakshmi, S.Kaliraj, Dr.J.Vellingiri "Efficient and Effective Detection of Node Replication Attacks in Mobile Sensor Networks" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2013)
MID 0810.067X.0005. India
Page 26-31
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Deepika.L, Dr.VellingiriJ

Decentralized Trust Based Routing Scheme for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
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The security of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) has been receiving a significant amount of attention in the field of wireless mobile networking because VANETs are vulnerable to malicious attacks.Asymmetric cryptography schemes are not suitable for highly dynamic environments. Cryptanalysis is not verified and protocol is not secure.It adopts transitive trust relationships to improve the performance of the authentication procedure and only needs a few storage spaces.To propose a decentralized trust authentication mechanism for cryptanalysis scheme, inside attacks, secure routing protocol. Intend to develop an intrusion detection mechanism to enhance the network security.
Authentication, decentralized, trust-extended, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs).
[1]. J. P. Hubaux, S. Capkun, and J. Luo, "The security and privacy of smart vehicles," IEEE Security Privacy Mag., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 49–55, May– Jun. 2004.
[2]. Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) [Online]. Available:
[3]. M. Nekovee and B. B. Bogason, "Reliable and efficient information dissemination in intermittently connected vehicular ad hoc networks," in Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technol. Conf., Apr. 2007, pp. 2486– 2490.
[4]. J. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and G. Cao, "Data pouring and buffering on the road: A new data dissemination paradigm for vehicular ad hoc networks," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol., vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 3266– 3277, Nov. 2007.
[5]. J.-F. Lee, C.-S. Wang, and M.-C. Chuang, "Fast and reliable emergency message dissemination mechanism in vehicular ad hoc networks," in....
Deepika.L, Dr.VellingiriJ "Decentralized Trust Based Routing Scheme for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2013)
MID 0810.067X.0006. India
Page 32-44
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R.Mythili, S.Gowthami

Diffeomorphic MRI-Brain Registration Using Mean-Shift Algorithm
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A new methods to constrain brain MRI registration, and perform experiments evaluating the alignment of manually-traced structures, reduction of intersubject variance, and morph metric results using group wise registration is compared against traditional MRI. By using image registration, it restrict the scope of structures to those that can be represented volumetrically as images, such as MRI volumes or anatomical segmentations, or those that can be interpolated on a volumetric grid.This method uses Mean Shift algorithm to efficiently segment the gray and white matter.
Atlases morphometry, brain registration, diffeo- morphisms, MRI.

[1]. A. R. Khan, L. Wang, and M. F. Beg, ―Freesurfer-initiated fully-automated subcortical brain segmentation in MRI using large deformation diffeomor- phic metric mapping,‖ Neuroimage, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 735– 46, 2008.
[2]. M. A. Yassa and C. E. Stark, ―A quantitative evaluation of cross- participant registration techniques for MRI studies of the medial temporal lobe,‖ Neuroimage, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 319–327, 2009.
[3]. F. Wang and B. C. Vemuri, ―Simultaneous registration and segmentation of anatomical structures from
brain MRI,‖ Proc. SPIE, vol. 8, pp. 17–25, 2005.
[4]. K. M. Pohl, J. Fisher, W. E. L. Grimson, R. Kikinis, and W. M. Wells, ―A bayesian model for joint segmentation and registration,‖ Neuroimage, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 228–39, 2006.

[6]. C. L. Guyader and L. Vese, ―A combined segmentation and registration framework with a nonlinear elasticity smoother,‖ Comput. Vis. Imag. Un-...

R.Mythili, S.Gowthami "Diffeomorphic MRI-Brain Registration Using Mean-Shift Algorithm" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2013)
MID 0810.067X.0007. India
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Amrinder Singh Chahal, Vikram Singh

Review To Six Sigma: A Metric And A Methodology
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Recent advancement in the manufacturing techniques and increased demand of quality products necessitate the use of error reduction techniques. Six sigma developed as such error reduction technique that broaden the limits of quality in order to reduce defects up to 3.4 million per opportunities. Origin of six sigma by Motorola industry proven as the quality assurance technique and validated over many years. Present exertion is made to lime light the importance and need of the philosophy of six sigma so as to reduce the defects in the manufacturing industries. Work represents the importance of six sigma as well methodology used for implementation and the potential benefits by using six sigma.
Six Sigma,metric,methodology, quality assurance.

[1]. "The Inventors of Six Sigma". Archived from the original on November 6, 2005. Retrieved January 29, 2006.
[2]. Tennant, Geoff (2001). SIX SIGMA: SPC and TQM in Manufacturing and Services. Gower Publishing, Ltd. p. 6. ISBN 0-566-08374-4.
[3]. H. K. Young, F. T. Anbari, "Benefits, obstacles, and future of six sigma approach," Technovation. Vol. 26, pp.708-715, 2006.
[4]. P. Nonthaleerak, L. C. Hendry, "Six Sigma: literature review and key future research areas," Int. J. Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage. Vol. 2, pp. 105-129, 2006.
[5]. James E. Brady, Theodore T. Allen, "Six Sigma Literature: A Review and Agenda for Future Research," Quality and Reliability Engineering International. Vol. 22, pp. 335-367, 2006....

Amrinder Singh Chahal, Vikram Singh "Review To Six Sigma: A Metric And A Methodology" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2013)
MID 0810.067X.0008. India
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