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IJERD : Volume 9, Issue 7

A.S.Kannan, R.Kayalvizhi

Implementation of PSS and STATCOM Controllers for Power System Stability Enhancement
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
In emerging electric power systems, enlarged communication often lead to the situations where the structure no longer remains in secure operating region. The flexible Ac transmission system (FACTS) controllers can take part in an important role in the power system security enhancement. However, due to high capital investment, it is necessary to locate these controllers optimally in the power system. This paper presents an application of fuzzy control to determine the control signal of static compensator (STATCOM) for improvement of power system stability. STATCOM is a shunt type FACTS device which is used in power system primarily for the purpose of voltage and reactive power control. A fuzzy logic based supplementary controller for Static Compensator(STATCOM) is developed which is used for damping the rotor angle oscillations and to improve the transient stability of the power system. Generator speed and the electrical power are chosen as input signals for the fuzzy logic controller (FLC). A Standard 3-phase, six bus system is taken as test system to evaluate the FACTS device (STATCOM) performance for proposed controllers PI and fuzzy with Power System Stabilizer in multi machine system.
Fuzzy Logic Control, PI Controller, Power System Stabilizer, STATCOM

[1]. P. Moore and P. Ashmole "Flexible AC Transmission Systems Part-4, Advanced FACTS Controllers", Proc. Power Engineering Journal, April 1998, pp. 95-100.
[2]. P.K. Dash, S. Mishra, "Damping of Multimodal Power System Oscillations by FACTS Devices Using Nonlinear Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Controller", Electric Power Systems Research,Vol. 25, pp. 481-490, 2003.
[3]. Y. H. Song and A. T. Johns "Flexible AC Transmission Systems", IEE London, T.J.I Ltd. 1999.

[4]. L. Gyugi, "A Unified Power Flow Control concept for Flexible AC Transmission System", IEE Proceedings-C, Vol. 139, No. 4, July 1992, pp. 323-331.
[5]. L. Gyugyi, C.D Schavder, S.L Williams and A. Edris, "The Unified Power Flow Controller: A New Approach to Power Transmission Control", IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery, Vol. 10, No. 2, April 1995, pp. 1085-1097...

Citation
A.S.Kannan, R.Kayalvizhi "Implementation of PSS and STATCOM Controllers for Power System Stability Enhancement" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 7 (January 2014)
MID 0907.067X.0001. India
Page 01-08
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G.Venkata Prasad, S.Muqthiar ali, Dr.M.Padma Lalitha

Power Quality Improvement Using ANN Logic Based UPQC

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
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  • Full Article
A unified power quality controller (UPQC) using a Aritifical neural network (ANN) has been proposed. The results obtained through the ANN are good in terms of dynamic response because of the fact that the ANN is based on linguistic variable set theory and does not require a mathematical model of the system. Moreover, the tedious method of tuning the PI controller is not required in case of ANN. Simulations are carried out using MATLAB/Simulink to validate the theoretical findings.
Artifical neural network controller, harmonics, PI controller, reactive power, unified power quality controller total harmonics distortioncomponent.

[1]. Gyugyi L., "Reactive power generation and control by thyristor circuits," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 521-532, 1979.
[2]. Jin H., Goós G. and Lopes L., "An efficient switched-reactor-based static var compensator," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 998-1005, 1994.
[3]. Mahanty R., "Large value AC capacitor for harmonic filtering and reactive power compensation," IET Gen. Transm. Distrib., vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 876-891, 2008.
[4]. Hirve S., Chatterjee K., Fernandes B. G., Imayavaramban M. and Dwari S., "PLL-less active power filter based on one-cycle control for compensating unbalanced loads in three-phase four-wire system," IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol. 22, no.4, pp. 2457-2465, 2007.
[5]. Lascu C., Asiminoaei L., Boldea I. and Blaabjerg F., "High performance current controller for selective harmonic compensation in active power filters," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1826- 1835, 2007....

Citation
G.Venkata Prasad, S.Muqthiar ali, Dr.M.Padma Lalitha "Power Quality Improvement Using ANN Logic Based UPQC published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 7 (January 2014)
MID 0907.067X.0002. India
Page 09-14
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Kurien E. K., Praveena.K.K., Rehna.M, Shijila.E

Soil Erosion Studies on Micro Plots
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
Soil erosion is one of the most serious environment degradation problem. However reliable measurement of erosion remains limited and estimates of soil productivity are even rarer. Nevertheless, identification and assessment of erosion problems could have an important role in influencing better land use and conservation practices. Rainfall simulators are considered as effective aids in soil conservation research. Simulators make it possible to produce predetermined storms at any desired time and location. Laterite soils are by far the most important soil group occurring in Kerala and cover the largest area. The objective of this study was to estimate soil loss and runoff of laterite soil at different land slopes under simulated rainfall conditions. The soil loss and runoff increased with increase in the rainfall intensity for different slopes studied.
Soil erosion, rainfall simulators, soil loss, runoff.

[1]. Laws, J.O. and Parson, D. (1944). The relation of raindrop size to intensity. Tr.Am. Geophysics Union. 24:452.
[2]. Mech, S.J.(1965).Limitations of simulated rainfall as a research tool.Tr.ASAE.8(1):66-75.
[3]. Morgan, R.D.C. (1986).Soil erosion and conservation. Scientific and Technical,England.
[4]. Kurien E.K. and George, T.P. Design, fabrication and testing of a rainfall simulator. : Proc. Tenth Kerala Science Congress. pp. 63-65, 1998.
[5]. Roshni Sebastian. (1998). Laboratory studies on soil moisture flow and runoff generation in laterite soil. M. Tech thesis., KCAET, Kerala Agric. Univ. Tavanur, Malappuram....

Citation
Kurien E. K., Praveena.K.K., Rehna.M, Shijila.E "Soil Erosion Studies on Micro Plots" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 7 (January 2014)
MID 0907.067X.0003. India
Page 15-19
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P.S.N.Murty, Ch. Jayant Kumar, A. Anil Kuma

Geotechnical Characteristics of the Sediments in the near Shore Sector off Andhra Pradesh and Pondicherry, East Coast of India
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
Integrated offshore investigations along selected segments off East Coast of India for port and harbors developmental activities have provided detailed information on the sea floor morphology and sediment characteristics. The data permits comparative evaluation of the region from northern parts to southern parts. The eastern continental margin of India is flanked by a narrow zone of onshore, offshore sedimentary basins with a sediment fill ranging from Early to Late Holocene. There are variations in sediment nature and geotechnical characteristics along the near shore sector of the east coast. An attempt is made to compare the geotechnical characteristics of the sediments in the near shore sector of the east coast along Andhra Pradesh and Pondicherry coasts. Detailed studies at port areas have been carried out by the East Coast Operations, Marine Wing, GSI, Visakhapatnam at selected sectors along the Andhra Pradesh and Pondicherry coasts for their development and also on case specific studies for single buoy mooring etc.
Geotechnical properties, East coast of India, Wet bulk density, plasticity chart, consolidation test.

[1]. Casagrande, Classification and identification of soils, Amer. Soc. of Civil Engg. Trans., vol, 113, pp. 901-931, 1948.
[2]. Ingram, R.L. Sieve analysis In: Carver (edit.), "Procedures in Sedimentary petrology, Wiley Int. Sci., New York, pp 1-68, 1971.
[3]. Folk , R.L. and Ward , W.C. , Brazos river bar – a study in the significance of grain size parameters, Jour. Sed. Petrol, vol. 27, pp 3-26, 1957.
[4]. Shephard, F.P. Nomenclature based on sand-silt-clay ratios, Jour. Sed. Petrol., vol.39, pp 1074-1106, 1954.

[5]. Murty, P.S.N. and Rao, K.S.R. Textural characteristics of the of Visakhapatnam shelf sediments,
Geol. Soc. India. vol. 33, pp 38 – 47, 1989....

Citation
P.S.N.Murty, Ch. Jayant Kumar, A. Anil Kuma "Geotechnical Characteristics of the Sediments in the near Shore Sector off Andhra Pradesh and Pondicherry, East Coast of India" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 7 (January 2014)
MID 0907.067X.0004. India
Page 20-30
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S.Saravanan, Dr.K.A.Parthasarathy

Video Object Detection and Tracking using kalman filter and color histogram-based Matching algorithm
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
Video coding is most popular from 1990 starting with video teleconferencing, videophone, videoCD, DTV, HDTV,Multimedia framework,etc.,Video compression becomes most important when considering the space requirement, channel width and the requirement of hardware. However, when multiple objects must be tracked simultaneously, significant computation is often introduced in order to handle occlusion and to calculate the appropriate region correspondence between successive frames.In this paper, we proposed a new algorithm that considers the confusing situations (i.e. inter-object occlusions and separation) when multiple objects are being tracked. This data provides the information for evaluating the motion detection and tracking systems. We demonstrate our techniques using real-world video data to automatically track humans with both inter-object and scene occlusions.Experiments have demonstrated the method is valid and fast when applied on several videos under confusing situations.
Motion detection and tracking; Kalman filter; object tracing; color histogram; video segmentation; video coding.

[1]. Wonsang You, M.S.Houari Sabirin, Munchurl Kim, Real-timedetection and tracking of multiple objects with partial decoding inH.264/AVC bit stream domain, Proceedings of SPIE (2009), Vol.7244, 2009.
[2]. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/224226764
[3]. http://www.sribd.com/doc/44778683
[4]. Chris Poppe, Sarah De, Bruyne, Tom Paridaens, Peter Lambert,Rik Van de, Walle, Moving object detection in the H.264/AVCcompressed domain for video surveillance application, Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, Vol.20,Issue 6, 2009,Page 428.
[5]. C.Solana-Cipres, G.Gernandez-Escribano, L.Rodriguez-Benitez,J.Moreno-Garcia, L.Jimenez-Linares, Real- time moving object segmentation in H.264 compressed domain based on approximate reasoning , International Journal of Approximate Reasoning,Vol.51,Issue.1, 2009Page 99-114....

Citation
S.Saravanan, Dr.K.A.Parthasarathy "Video Object Detection and Tracking using kalman filter and color histogram-based Matching algorithm" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 7 (January 2014)
MID 0907.067X.0005. India
Page 31-39
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M. K. Alam, M. K. Hasan

Solution of Fuzzy Maximal Flow Network Problem Based on Generalized Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers with Rank and Mode
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Network-flow problems can be solved by several methods. Labeling techniques can be used to solve wide variety of network problems. A new algorithm to find the fuzzy maximal flow between source and sink was proposed by Kumar et el. [19]. They have represented normal triangular fuzzy numbers as network flow. It is not possible to restrict the membership function to the normal form and proposed the concept of generalized fuzzy numbers in many cases [8]. Generalized trapezoidal fuzzy numbers for solving the maximal flow network problems have been used by Kumar [21]. In this paper, we have modified the existing algorithm to find fuzzy maximal network flow between source and sink for generalized trapezoidal fuzzy number. Ranking and mode function to find the highest flow for maximum flow path of generalized trapezoidal fuzzy number has been applied. A numerical example has been solved by the proposed algorithm and the other results are discussed. Mathematica programs have been applied for various arithmetic operations.
Mode and Ranking function, Normal Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers, Generalized Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers, Fuzzy Maximal Flow Problem, Fuzzy Residue.

[1]. Abbasbandy S., Hajjari T., "A new approach for ranking of trapezoidal fuzzy numbers", Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 57 (2009), pp. 413-419
[2]. Ahuja R. K., Magnanti T. L. and Orlin J. B., Network Flows, Theory and Algorithm, Prentice Hall, New Jersey (1993)
[3]. Bansal A., "Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers (a,b,c,d): Arithmetic Behavior", International Journal of Physical and Mathematical Science, (2011), pp. 39-44.
[4]. Bazarra M. S., Jarvis J. J. and Sherali H. D., Linear Programming and Network Flows, 2nd Edition, Wiley, New York, (1990)

[5]. Chanas S. and Kolodziejczyk W, "Maximum Flow in a Network with fuzzy arc capacities", Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 8: (1982), pp. 165-173.

Citation
M. K. Alam, M. K. Hasan "Solution of Fuzzy Maximal Flow Network Problem Based on Generalized Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers with Rank and Mode" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 7 (January 2014)
MID 0907.067X.0006. Bangladesh
Page 40-49
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Sanusi A. EL-Azhari, Mahmud M. Akkari, Mohamed F. Suleiman

The Effect of Aggregate Size on Energy Dissipation of Plain Concrete Members Subjected To Static Cyclic Loading
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
When concrete structures are subjected to cyclic loading they tend dissipate the generated energy. The performance of concrete structures is widely measured by the concept of energy dissipation, which usually expressed as non – dimensional ratio defined as the energy dissipated per cycle to the total input energy, this paper presents an experimental works were conducted to investigate the effect of aggregate size and type of applied loads ( constant or gradually ) on energy dissipation. The results showed that , the smaller aggregate size gave the lesser in energy dissipation, and also when the load is applied gradually increase in each cycle gave less energy dissipation than when the load is applied as constant for all cycles.
Energy Dissipation, Cyclic Load, Aggregate Size.
[1]. Abbsi, F. Munir Ahmed, and Mohammad Wasim " optimization of concrete mix proportioning using reduced factorial experimental technique " ACI materials journal PP 55 - 62 , 1987
[2]. Walker, Stauton " the effect of aggregate size on properties of concrete " ACI journal (57-13) PP-264- 296 , 1960
[3]. Walker, Stauton " Relationship of concrete strength to maximum size of aggregate " proceedings, Highway research board vol. 38 pp. 368 – 379, 1977
[4]. Jordan, R.w " The effect of curing, mix and age upon the damping of concrete " Magazine of concrete reach vol. 32 No 113 pp – 195 – 2001 December 1987
[5]. Flesch, R. " The damping behavior of reinforced concrete element " International Association for Concrete Engineering report vol. 34, pp 83-98, 1981...
Citation
Sanusi A. EL-Azhari, Mahmud M. Akkari, Mohamed F. Suleiman "The Effect of Aggregate Size on Energy Dissipation of Plain Concrete Members Subjected To Static Cyclic Loading" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 7 (January 2014)
MID 0907.067X.0007. Libya
Page 50-54
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MaushumiLahon

Risk Assessment Score (RAS) as an Indicator of Decision Making
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
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  • Full Article
Risk Assessment is considered to be an important indicator in decision making. Different methods are devised for assessing risk. This paperattempts to define a task in terms of certain factors and assess risk in terms of the three factors. The factors considered are: the number of activities, the duration of the activities and the resources required to complete the activities along with its availability. An algorithm is given to compute the contribution from each factor which ultimately determines the Risk Assessment Score(RAS). This score can form the basis of decision making or even can be used to identify the factors responsible for increased RAS and design measures to minimise the RAS which in turn can ensure reduced uncertainty. This model is more or less generic by not specifying any particular area of decision making and hence can be considered in any decision making condition where ever the three factors can be ascertained.
Risk assessment, task, plan, decision, activities, resources.
[1]. R.S. Pressman, 'Software Engineering', 5th Edition, McGRAW-HILL
[2]. Lahon M, Singh J Y, 'Task Oriented Risk Assessment (TORA)', International Journal of Computer Application, Volume 66, 2013.
[3]. Karen L. Myers ,David E. Wilkins, 'The Act Formalism Version2.2' ,SRI International, Artificial Intelligence Center, myers@ai.sri.com, wilkins@ai.sri.com, Working Document: Revisions as of September 25,1997
[4]. John J. Rakos, 'Software Project Management for Small to Medium Sized Projects',(1998, Prentice Hall)
[5]. Jalote,P , 'Software Project Management in Practice'(2001, Addison-Wesley Professional)....
Citation
MaushumiLahon "Risk Assessment Score (RAS) as an Indicator of Decision Making" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 7 (January 2014)
MID 0907.067X.0008. India
Page 55-59
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