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IJERD : Volume 9, Issue 9

Dipali P. Doshi, Atul K. Desai, Chandresh H. Solanki

Innovative Techniques of micropiles for embankment foundation
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
In this study embankment foundation is treated with micropiles using MIDAS GTS 2D software. The embankment foundation is having clayey silt, soft soil and coarse sand which is treated by micropile. Reduction in settlement is observed in embankment foundation. Micropiles are small diameter reinforced piles having diameter less than 300mm, grouted in place with neat cement. They are constructed in seismic areas due to its flexibility and ductility. Micropiles are used for foundation support of new structures and retrofitting of old structures which were not built as per the requirement of seismic codes. They increase the bearing capacity of the soil and reduce the settlement. Based on this study it is concluded that micropiles are used in any soil type and ground condition.
Index Terms—micropile, flexibility, embankment, FE analysis, reduction, seismic areas, settlement
[1] Abusharar et al. (2008) ―Finite element modeling for the consolidation behavior of multi column supported
road embankment‖ Elsevier, computers and geotechnics 36 (2009) pp 676-685.
[2] Chylinski Richard, FAIA and Timothy P. McCormick, ―Foundations retrofitting technique ―.
[3] Dietz Cologne Klaus and Schürmann André (2006) ―Foundation Improvement of historic buildings by
micro piles, Museum Island, Berlin and St. Kolumba ― 7th ISM workshop, Schrobenhausen 2006,
[4] Federal Highway Administration (2005), ―Micropile Design and Construction Guidelines: Implementation
Manual,‖ USDOT Publication No. FHWA-SA-97-070
[5] Improvement of the Bearing Capacity of Soil by Inserts of Group and Reticulated Micropiles,‖ Proceedings,
International Conference on In-situ Soil and Rock Reinforcement, Paris, France, pp. 83–89.
Dipali P. Doshi, Atul K. Desai, Chandresh H. Solanki "Innovative Techniques of micropiles for embankment foundation" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 9 (January 2014)
MID 0909.067X.0001. India
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Kadam P.A., Dr. S.D.Khamitkar, Dr.S.B.Thorat

Understanding Contemporary advances in Reverse Engineering Tools

  • Abstract
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Reverse engineering is the process of analyzing software. Reverse engineering is essential for providing security to applications and it has been an active research topic today. Presently there are number of R.E.(Reverse Engineering) tools available in the market. We have observed that every tool has its own speciality and drawbacks. In this paper we have rigorously studied some of the tools.
Reverse Engineering, Software Engineering, Decompilation, Software Testing.
[1]. MamtaGarg & Manoj Kumar Jindal "Reverse Engineering – Roadmap to Effective software Design by in" International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, May 2009. P.No.186-188.
[2]. Spencer Rugaber and Richard Clayton , "The representation problem in reverse engineering", In Proceedings of the Working Conference in Reverse Engineering, Baltimore, Maryland, pp. 8–16, IEEE Computer Society, 1993.
[3]. K. Bennett and V. Rajlich , "Software maintenance and evolution: A roadmap", In A. Finkelstein, ed., The Future of Software Engineering, ACM ISBN: 1-58113-253-0, 2000, pp. 73-90
[4]. Berndt Bellay, Harald Gall, "An Evaluation of Reverse Engineering Tool Capabilities" Distributed Systems Group, Technical University of Vienna, A-1040 Vienna, Austria, Europe
[5]. Gerald C. Gannod , Betty H. C. Cheng "A Framework for Classifying and Comparing Software Reverse Engineering and Design Recovery Techniques"
Kadam P.A., Dr. S.D.Khamitkar, Dr.S.B.Thorat "Understanding Contemporary advances in Reverse Engineering Tools" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 9 (January 2014)
MID 0909.067X.0002. India
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Smt R.Sri Rama Devi

Development of Heat & Corrosion Resistant Castings for Power Plant Applications
  • Abstract
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In today's fast advancing world, the main index of progress and advancement of any country lies mainly with the power generating capacity. Power producing ways may be Thermal, Hydro, Nuclear or any other non-conventional energy resources such as solar, wind, tidal energy etc. India is also progressing very well in terms of power generation. This project work covers the development of an Adjusting Piece Casting which is a HEAT & CORROSION RESISTANT CASTING FOR POWER PLANT APPLICATIONS through investment casting process. It covers in detail the Mechanical, Foundry and Metallurgical aspects of the development and optimization of the critical parameters.
[1]. Metal Casting Principles & Practice by Prof. TV Ramana Rao.
[2]. Feeding system design and evaluation using Temperature Gradient (Feed path) Maps by M. Sutaria, D. Joshi, M. Jagadeshwar & B. Ravi.
[3]. Foseco Foundryman's Handbook, by John R. Brown.
a. Progress in Investment Castings, by Ram Prasad.
[4]. The Effect of Pour Time and Head Height on Air Entrainment, by Malcolm Blair, Raymond W. Monroe, Christoph Beckermann.
[5]. Science and Technology of Casting Processes (Progress in Investment Castings) by Ram Prasad.
Smt R.Sri Rama Devi "Development of Heat & Corrosion Resistant Castings for Power Plant Applications" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 9 (January 2014)
MID 0909.067X.0004. India
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Anuradha, Biswajit Paul, Jagdish

Microbial Degradation of Nitrate Salts Utilized as Oxidizing Agent in Slurry Explosives
  • Abstract
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Nitrate salts of ammonia, calcium, sodium, potassium are the oxygen suppliers for slurry explosives. These oxidizing agents are used in two or more combinations for providing the oxygen balance and to enhance the energy output required for breaking the rocks. Expired slurry explosives become unusable, hence requires destruction. The users and manufactures find these unusable slurry explosives very difficult to destroy or decompose. A suitable procedure is designed using microbial means to decompose the slurry explosives. Microbial action on Ammonium Nitrate is considered to break the gel lattices of the explosive more over. Cross-linking of gel will be broken to release other ingredients of the explosive like water and other salts including fuels, gumming materials etc. The oxygen balance for the formulation of slurry explosive will be disturbed due to decomposition of the Ammonium Nitrate and fuels responsible for explosive properties. The growth of bacterial namely Pseudomonas and Bacillus which are found suitable to decompose the Ammonium Nitrate and to disturb the Oxygen balance.
Ammonium Nitrate, Calcium Nitrate, Sodium Nitrate, Microbial Degradation, Slurry Explosive.
[1]. P. Chikkatur, A Resource And Technology Assessment Of Coal Utilization In India, Coal Initiative Reports Kennedy School Of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, Ma White Paper Series. 2008.
[2]. S. Bhandari, Engineering Rock Blasting Operations, Department Of Mining Engineering, Jnu University, Jodhpur, India, 1997.
[3]. Taylor & Francis Group, Explosives And Blasting, Llc, 2005.
[4]. J. Akhavan, The Chemistry Of Explosives, Second Edition, Rsc Paperbacks, The Royal Society Of Chemistry, Cambridge Cb4 Owf, Uk, 2004.
[5]. M. A.Cook, The Science Of High Explosives. Huntington, New York, 1971.
Anuradha, Biswajit Paul, Jagdish "Microbial Degradation of Nitrate Salts Utilized as Oxidizing Agent in Slurry Explosives" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 9 (January 2014)
MID 0909.067X.0005. India
Page 18-23
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C.S. Sai Prathyusha, K.Harinath Reddy, P.Suresh Babu

Power Quality Enhancement in Distribution Systems Using D-STATCOM with Fuzzy Controller
  • Abstract
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There has been increase in the demand for reliable and high quality power distribution systems. In power distribution systems quality in distribution of power is desired. The problems that occur frequently in such systems include low power factor, harmonic distortion and voltage sags. In order to achieve this Distributed Static Compensator (D-STATCOM) is used. This device along with LCL passive filter when used with power distribution systems the quality of power gets improved. By injecting current into the distribution system, the D-STATCOM improves the quality in power distribution. The extensive simulations made in MATLAB's SIMULINK revealed that the proposed approach is effective.
Index Terms:- Voltage sags, D-STATCOM, LCL passive filter,
[1]. Anaya-Lara O, Acha E., "Modeling and Analysis Of CustomPower Systems by PSCAD/EMTDC", IEEE Transactions onPower Delivery, Volume 17, Issue: 2002, Pages: 266-272.
[2]. Haque, M.H., "Compensation Of Distribution Systems Voltagesags by DVR and D-STATCOM", Power Tech Proceedings, 2001IEEE Porto, Volume 1, PP.10-13, September 2001.
[3]. G.Yalienkaya, M.H.J Bollen, P.A. Crossley, "Characterizationof Voltage Sags in Industrial Distribution System", IEEEtransactions on industry applications, volume 34, No. 4,July/August, PP.682-688, 1999
[4]. Bollen, M.H.J.,"Voltage sags in Three Phase Systems", PowerEngineering Review , IEEE, Volume 21, Issue :9, September 2001,PP: 11-15.
[5]. A.E. Hammad, Comparing the Voltage source capability of Presentand future Var Compensation Techniques in Transmission System,IEEE Trans, on Power Delivery . volume 1. No.1 Jan 1995.
C.S. Sai Prathyusha, K.Harinath Reddy, P.Suresh Babu "Power Quality Enhancement in Distribution Systems Using D-STATCOM with Fuzzy Controller" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 9 (January 2014)
MID 0909.067X.0006. India
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Harishchandra Hebbar , Sumanth Mushigeri, Niranjan U C

Medical Image Retrieval – Performance Comparison using Texture Features
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
Image retrieval is a specialized search to find images of interest. User may give a keyword, sketch or image itself to image search engine to retrieve back relatively similar images from the already stored image database. The similarity used as the search criteria could be based on features such as text, tag, color distribution of images (histogram), texture, shape, etc. The limitation of the text based retrieval is subjected to human interpretation of the mages in the form of combination of few texts/ key words. This is a very cumbersome process and could be highly error prone also. However, when it comes to medical images low level features of the image are more important than the semantics of the images. The low level features generally include color, texture and shape. The extraction of these features needs to be done for every image and to be pre-stored in the database to retrieve the images quickly. The retrieval method based on the content is known as Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR).
CBIR, GLCM, Contrast, Dissimilarity, Homogeneity, Angular Second Moment, Entropy, Precision, Recall, Retrieval time.
[1]. Kwak DM, et al: Content-based ultrasound image retrieval using a course to fine approach. Ann N Y Acad Sci 980:212–224, 2002.
[2]. Lim J, Chevallet J-P: Vismed: A visual vocabulary approach for medical image indexing and retrieval. in Second Asia Information Retrieval Symposium. 2005. Jeju Island, Korea.
[3]. Shyu CR, et al: ASSERT: a physician-in-the-loop content-based image retrieval system for HRCT image databases. Comput Vis Image Underst 75(1/2):111–132, 1999.
[4]. Doyle S, et al: Using manifold learning for content-basedimage retrieval of prostate histopathology. in MICCAI 2007Workshop on Content-Based Image Retrieval for BiomedicalImage Archives. Brisbane, Australia, 2007.
[5]. Gletsos M, et al: A computer-aided diagnostic system to characterize CT focal liver lesions: design and optimization of a neural network classifier. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 7(3):153–162, 2003.
Harishchandra Hebbar, Sumanth Mushigeri , Niranjan U C "Medical Image Retrieval – Performance Comparison using Texture Features" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 9 (January 2014)
MID 0909.067X.0007. India
Page 30-34
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Akshay Kumar R, Neetushree R M, Krithika Badarinath, Dr. H. N. Ravishankar, Dr. Utpal S.Tatu

Evaluation of selected medicinal plants for their in vitro activity against trypanosomiasis
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
Trypanosomiasis, Surra, sleeping sickness, African lethargy is a parasitic disease of people and animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses and donkeys, caused by protozoa of the species Trypanosomabrucei and transmitted by the tsetse fly. The disease is characterized by severe anaemia, weight loss, reduced productivity, infertility and abortion, with death occurring in some animals during the acute phase of the disease. Off late, the parasite has gained resistance towards the conventional drugs. The vaccines currently used have low efficacy which lead to the development of alternative drugs. Natural drug from the plants are gaining popularity because of several advantages such as fewer side effect, better patient tolerance, relatively less expensive and its acceptance. Ethanol extracts of Punicagranatum and Catharanthusroseus and Ethyl acetate extracts of Ocimumtenuiflorum are tested for their potential in possessing the anti-trypanosomal activity. The extracts of these three plants were obtained through the solid-liquid extraction using a Soxhlet apparatus. Thus obtained extracts were concentrated in a rotary vacuum evaporator and used for the In vitro studies. In vitro testing of these three extracts in three different concentrations of 20 mg/ml, 10mg/ml and 2 mg/ml in 10% DMSO was carried out in duplicates in 96 well micro titre plates on the blood infected with Trypanosomaevansi by Rapid matching method. Punicagranatum extract of 20mg/ml concentration was found to be most effective showing maximum decline in the motility of trypanosomes. Thin Layer Chromatography, carried out to screen and determine the compounds present in each extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids and the bitter compounds.
Trypanosomaevansi, Punicagranatum, Catharanthusroseusm, Ocimumtenuifloru
[1]. Priotto G, Kasparian S, Mutombo W et al. "Nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy for second-stage African Trypanosoma bruceigambiense trypanosomiasis: a multicentre, randomised, phase III, non-inferiority trial", 2009. [2]. Maya JD, Cassels BK, Iturriaga-Vásquez P, et al. "Mode of action of natural and synthetic drugs against Trypanosoma cruzi and their interaction with the mammalian host". Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part a Mol. Integr.Physiol.146 (4), 2007. [3]. Roca C, Pinazo MJ, López-Chejade P, Bayó J, Posada E, López-Solana J, Gállego M, Portús M, Gascón J; Chagas-Clot Research Group, "Chagas Disease among the Latin American Adult Population Attending in a Primary Care Center in Barcelona, Spain", 2011. [4]. Powar RM; Shegokar, VR; Joshi, PP; Dani, VS; Tankhiwale, NS; Truc, P; Jannin, J; Bhargava, A., "A rare case of human trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi" 2006. [5]. Hamilton PB, Stevens JR, Gaunt MW, Gidley J, Gibson WC."Trypanosomes are monophyletic: evidence from genes for glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and small subunit ribosomal RNA". Int. J.Parasitol. 34(12): 1393-404,2004.
Akshay Kumar R, Neetushree R M, Krithika Badarinath, Dr. H. N. Ravishankar, Dr. Utpal S.Tatu "Evaluation of selected medicinal plants for their in vitro activity against trypanosomiasis" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 9 (January 2014)
MID 0909.067X.0008. India
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P.Sreenivasulu, P.B.Chennaiah, Dr. M. Suryakalavathi

Optimization of Real Power Losses and Voltage Stability Limit Enhancement by Using Bacteria Foraging Algorithm
  • Abstract
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The present paper focuses mainly on two keys issues of power systems that is Minimization of real power loss and Maximization of voltage stability Limit (VSL).Optimal location and parameters of UPFC along with transformer taps are tuned with a view to simultaneously optimize the real power losses and voltage stability limit of interconnected transmission network. This issue is formulated as multi-objective, multivariable problem with an objective function incorporating both real power losses and voltage stability limit(VSL) and the UPFC location, its injected voltage and transformer tap positions are as the multi-variables. The Biologically inspired Evolutionary algorithm Known as Bactria foraging algorithm is proposed in this paper for solving the multi-objective multivariable problem. The Proposed algorithm is tested on IEEE 39 bus power system for optimal location of UPFC and the results are presented.
Voltage stability, Bacteria foraging, continuation power flow (CPF), multi-objective, Multivariable, Optimal power flow (OPF)
[1]. Hadi saadat power system analysis McGraw-Hill series in electrical and computer engineering Senior Consulting Editor, Stephen W. Director, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
[2]. P. Ristanovic, "Successive linear programming based OPF solution," Optimal Power Flow: Solution Techniques, Requirements and Challenges, IEEE Power Eng. Soc., pp. 1–9, 1996.
[3]. D.I. Sun, B. Ashley, B. Brewer, B.A. Hughes, W.F. Tinney, Optimal power flow by Newton approach, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems 103 (1984) 2864–2875
[4]. S. Granville, "Optimal power dispatch through interior pont methods," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1780–1787, Nov. 1994.
[5]. M. Noroozian, L. Angquist, M. Ghandhari, and G. Anderson, "Use of UPFC for optimal power flow control," IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1629–1634, Oct. 1997.
P.Sreenivasulu, P.B.Chennaiah, Dr. M. Suryakalavathi "Optimization of Real Power Losses and Voltage Stability Limit Enhancement by Using Bacteria Foraging Algorithm" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 9 (January 2014)
MID 0909.067X.0009. India
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M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

PEACE BEGINS WITH "J"?... (A New theory on philosophy of word "AMEN")
  • Abstract
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A scientific based research article focus that the whole Cosmo universe and matters of universe including human shall be considered as "created" by the Supernatural Human. The Heart of supernatural human considered emanates fundamental creative radiation called "J-RADIATION". The supernatural human shall be called by name "AKKILEN". Akkilen shall mean "Dark Colour Human" and Peace Maker. It is speculated that the research focused in this article shall provide solutions to the current misconception theories about shape of model Cosmo universe and origin of first life. The prehistoric three tiny dot triphthong alphabet shall be considered as the law of Universe and silent alphabet and absolutely free from sound.
1) Philosophy of structure of "Supernatural Human"
2) Philosophy of "Model Cosmo universe"
3) Philosophy of "J-Radiation"
4) Philosophy of "J-Logic"
5) Philosophy of "J-Lullaby"
6) Philosophy of "Cosmo Cradle"
7) Philosophy of "First born Human"
8) Philosophy of "3 generation matter"
9) Philosophy of "Creation"
10) Philosophy of "PEACE"
11) Philosophy of "J-CELL"
12) Philosophy of "White and Dark Sound"
[1]. Intensive Internet "e-book" study through, Google search and wikipedia
[2]. M.Arulmani, "3G Akkanna Man", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2011
[3]. M. Arulmani; V.R. Hemalatha, "Tamil the Law of Universe", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2012
[4]. Harold Koontz, Heinz Weihriah, "Essentials of management", Tata McGraw-Hill publications, 2005
[5]. M. Arulmani; V.R. Hemalatha, "First Music and First Music Alphabet", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2012
M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha "PEACE BEGINS WITH "J"?... (A New theory on philosophy of word "AMEN")" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 9 (January 2014)
MID 0909.067X.0010. India
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Prachi singh

Sensor Association Rules: A survey
  • Abstract
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Recently, knowledge Discovery Process has proven to be a promising tool for extracting behavioral patterns regarding sensor nodes from wireless sensor networks. This paper presents a review of the available literature on the sensor association rules to find behavioral patterns between the sensor data.
Wireless Sensor Networks, Association Rule Mining
[1]. R. Agrawal, T. Imielinski, and A. N. Swami, "Mining Association Rules Between Sets of Items in Large Databases", Proc. ACM SIGMOD conference on management of Data, 1993, pp. 207-216.
[2]. K.K. Loo, L Tong, B. Kao, and D. Chenung, "Online Algorithms for Mining Inter-Stream Association from Large Sensor Networks," Proc. Ninth Pacific-Asia Conf. Knowledge Discovery and data Mining (PAKDD "05), may 2005.
[3]. K. Romer, "Distributed Mining of Spatio-temporal Event Patterns in Sensor Networks," proc. Euro-American Workshop Middleware for Sensor Networks (EAWMS "06) June 2006.
[4]. M. Halatchev and L. Gruenwald, "Estimating Missing Values in Related Sensor Data Streams," Proc. 11th Int‟l Conf. Management of Data (COMAD ‟05), Jan. 2005.
[5]. Azzedine Boukerche and Samer Samarah, "A New Representation Structure for Mining Association Rules from Wireless Sensor Networks", PARADISE University of Ottawa, Canada, 2007
Prachi singh "Sensor Association Rules: A survey" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 9, Issue 9 (January 2014)
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