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IJERD : Volume 14 - Issue 1

Version - 1 (January - 2018)


Anmar Salih, Anthony O. Smith

A Comparison of Grid and Cloud Computing Technology
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Cloud computing has evolved in this decade and become an intriguing field of study for researchers. Platforms and architectures are continuing to be developed, and every couple of years, new cloud computing techniques are discovered, with some of them deemed as revolutionary breakthroughs. One of the most amazing aspects of cloud computing is that researchers can develop a service and deliver it to users most likely through the Internet, without the need for an upgrade to the user side hardware. Cloud computing is the most famous but not the only paradigm to offer tremendous compute capability. Another form of comparable computing is grid computing which also offers the capability to process data in less time. This survey reviews both grid and cloud computing in order to clarify the understanding of applications, architecture, and topologies. We analyse three basic delivery models for cloud computing. Finally, we explore about link multiple clouds network, also known as inter-cloud or cloud of clouds.
Grid computing, Cloud computing, Inter-cloud computing, Cloud architecture, Grid architecture.

[1]. V. Yu, F Richard and Leung, Advances in mobile cloud computing systems. CRC Press, 2013.
[2]. G. Mittal, N. Kesswani, and K. Goswami, "A Survey of Current Trends in Distributed, Grid and Cloud Computing," IJASCSE, vol. 2, no. 3, 2013.
[3]. S. M. Hashemi and A. K. Bardsiri, "ARPN Journal of systems and software cloud computing vs. grid computing 1," vol. 2, no. 5, 2012.
[4]. I. Foster, Y. Zhao, I. Raicu, and S. Lu, "Cloud computing and grid computing 360-degree compared," in Grid Computing Environments Workshop, 2008. GCE'08, 2008, pp. 1–10.
[5]. R. Buyya, C. S. Yeo, and S. Venugopal, "Market-Oriented Cloud Computing: Vision, Hype, and Reality for Delivering IT Services as Computing Utilities."

Citation
Anmar Salih, Anthony O. Smith "A Comparison of Grid and Cloud Computing Technology" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0001. India
Page 01-10
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Rajneesh Kumar, Anil K. Vashisth, Suniti Ghangas

Analytical solution of bioheat transfer equation with variable thermal conductivity in skin
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Temperature dependent thermal properties of tissue is an important factor to achieve realistic models in thermal treatments. Tissue temperature dependent thermal conductivity is used to model the Pennes' bioheat transfer equation in skin with one relaxation time. Three different time-dependent surface heat flux, namely, continuous, periodic and ramp type are applied on skin surface without heat loss at the bottom. Laplace transform method is applied to solve the problem and the significant effect of variable conductivity parameter 1 k is observed on the tissue temperature distribution.
Bioheat transfer; Skin tissue; Variable thermal Conductivity; Laplace transform.

[1]. H.H. Pennes, "Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperature in the resting forearm," J Appl Physiol, vol.
1,pp. 93-122, 1948.
[2]. C. Cattaneo, "A form of heat conduction equation which eliminates the paradox of instantaneous propagation," Comp Rend, vol. 247, pp. 431-433, 1959.
[3]. P. Vernotte, "Les paradoxes de la theorie continue de l'equation de la chaleur," Comp. Rend., vol. 246, pp.
3154-3155, 1958.
[4]. F. Xu , T.J. and K.A. Seffen, "Biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue," Acta Mech Sin, vol. 24, pp.
1-23, 2008.
[5]. C. Rossmann and D. Haemmerich, "Review of temperature dependence of thermal properties, dielectric
properties, and perfusion of biological tissues at hyperthermic and ablation temperatures," Crit Rev Biomed Eng, vol. 42, pp. 467-492, 2014.

Citation
Rajneesh Kumar, Anil K. Vashisth, Suniti Ghangas "Analytical solution of bioheat transfer equation with variable thermal conductivity in skin" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0002. India
Page 11-17
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Javier Holguin-De La Cruz

Deployment Strategy Analysis and Optimization of Police Patrols in an Emergency Response System Using Stochastic Simulation
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
We approach this problem from an operations research and logistics in the service and government sector perspective, based on the analysis of resource allocation in a safety Emergency Response System (ERS) of a large city in Mexico, to decrease response time of police patrols considering a reference ideal response time. Our research incorporates the second half of the 7th police district to previously published results of seven police districts, since this district includes the equivalent of two districts. This research utilizes a discrete stochastic model based on characterized demand and system performance of 23 continuous days. The model first reproduces actual operations to validate its behaviour. Subsequently, alternative scenarios were configured to incorporate the ideal international response time reference of three minutes, and identify required resource configuration strategies for each police quadrant. Similar to previous research, results found that the recommended allocation level of resources was realistic to be accomplished.
Police patrols allocation, Emergency Response Systems, EMR, Response time, Public safety

[1]. INEGI, "Encuesta Nacional de Victimización y Percepción sobre Seguridad Pública ENVIPE 2016," Instituto Nacional de Estadística Geografía e Informática, Aguascalientes, Ags., México, Boletín de Prensa No. 399/16 1-2, 2016.
[2]. Y. Zhang and D.E. Brown, "Police patrol districting method and simulation evaluation using agent-based model & GIS," Security Informatics, vol. 2, pp. 1-13, 2013.
[3]. N. Devia and R. Weber, "Generating Crime Data Using Agent-Based Simulation," Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, vol. 42, pp. 26-41, 2013.
[4]. T. Piyadasum, B. Kalansuriya, M. Gangananda, M. Malshan, D.H.M.N. Bandara, S. Marru, "Rationalizing Police Patrol Beats Using Heuristic-Based Clustering," in Proc. 2017 Moratuwa Engineering Research Conference (MERCon), 2017, p. 431.
[5]. S.J. D'Amico, S. Wang, R. Batta, and C.M. Rump, "A Simulated Annealing Approach to Police District Design," Computers and Operations Research, vol. 29, pp. 667-684, 2002.

Citation
Javier Holguin-De La Cruz "Deployment Strategy Analysis and Optimization of Police Patrols in an Emergency Response System Using Stochastic Simulation" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0003. México
Page 18-23
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Prof. Charles Lucian

Effectiveness of Two-Stage Stabilization for Improvement of Geotechnical Properties of Expansive Soils
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The effectiveness of two-Stage mixing operation of stabilization of expansive soils by firstly treating the soil with lime, leaving it to mellow and then treating it with cement is investigated in this study through laboratory experiments. The initial lime consumption (ICL) or lime fixation point (Lm) of the soil that refers to the amount of lime required for early cation exchange and flocculation reactions, and still providing sufficient amount of free calcium and high residual pH necessary to initiate long-term pozzolanic reaction, was determined to be 3.5%. Therefore, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% of lime (by weight) was added to the soil and cured for 7, 14 and 28 days after which laboratory experiments were conducted. Cement contents of 2%, 4% and 6% were used on lime-modified soil samples...........
Two-stage stabilization, expansive soil, smectite, montmorrilonite, mellowing, swell potential, swell pressure, lime modification, workability.

[1] Afrin, H. A Review on Different Types Soil Stabilization Techniques. International Journal of Transportation Engineering and Technology; Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 19-24, 2017.
[2] Arefal-Swaidani, Hammoud, I. and Meziab, A. Effect of adding natural pozzolana on geotechnica properties of lime-stabilized clayey soil. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Vol. 8, Issue 5, pp. 714-725, 2016.
[3] Amadi, A.: Evaluation of Changes in Index Properties of latentic soil Stabilized with Fly Ash. Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies, Issue 17. pp. 69-78, 2010
[4] Ajayi-Majebi, A., Grissom, W. A., Smith, L. S. and Jones, E. E..Epoxy-Resin-Based Chemical Stabilization of a Fine, Poorly Graded Soil System, Transportation Research Record 1295, pp. 95 – 108, 1991

Citation
Prof. Charles Lucian "Effectiveness of Two-Stage Stabilization for Improvement of Geotechnical Properties of Expansive Soils" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0004. TANZANIA
Page 24-31
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Günther Schuh, Ramon Kreutzer, Marius Sodermanns

Utility Potentials of Cyber-Physical Systems´ Field Data
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Digitization, Industry 4.0 and digital business models are changing the global competition. In future, the digital connectivity of almost all industrial products will be enabled due to increasingly inexpensive and more powerful sensors. The field data generated in this way offers potential for manufacturing companies to differentiate themselves from competitors as well as to counteract the increasing commoditization of physical products. With the help of cyber-physical systems (CPS), a wide variety of utility potentials can be tapped for various players in the environment of manufacturing companies. However, these utility potentials have not yet been described in a differentiated and structured way. Consequently, the systematic implementation is only partly carried out in practice. The aim of this paper is therefore to elaborate stakeholders in the environment of manufacturing companies, which can benefit from field data of CPS. Furthermore, it is also intended to explain which concrete utility potentials can be realized
Utility potentials, cyber-physical systems, field data, smart services, digitization.

[1]. E. Geisberger and M. Broy, "agendaCPS: Integrierte Forschungsagenda Cyber-Physical Systems," 2012.
[2]. H.-J. Bullinger, A.-W. Scheer, and K. Schneider, eds., Service Engineering: Entwicklung und Gestaltung innovativer Dienstleistungen: mit 24 Tabellen, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
[3]. M. Bruhn and K. Hadwich, eds., Servicetransformation: Entwicklung vom Produktanbieter zum Dienstleistungsunternehmen, Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden, 2016.
[4]. U. Lindemann, ed., Handbuch Produktentwicklung, Hanser, München, 2016.
[5]. H. Meier and E. Uhlmann, Integrierte Industrielle Sach- und Dienstleistungen: Vermarktung, Entwicklung und Erbringung hybrider Leistungsbündel, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.

Citation
Günther Schuh, Ramon Kreutzer, Marius Sodermanns "Utility Potentials of Cyber-Physical Systems´ Field Data" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0005. Germany
Page 32-43
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S.B.Kumar, P.K. Singhal

Investigation of Circularly Polarized Fractal Antenna At 2.1ghz For LTE Application
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
In this paper a circularly polarized (CP) microstrip antennas with fractal boundary are presented. The proposed antennas are designed by cutting diagonally symmetric rectangular slot & truncating opposite corners to get circular polarization. The indentation factor is optimized to have good result at 2.1GHz for Long term evolution(LTE) downlink application. The simulated and measured results are in good agreements. The axial ratio is about 1.72dB.The presented antenna has advantage over physical size 0.25λ0×0.25λ0×0.012λ0.The
Overall performance of parameters of presented antenna is very good. Fractal boundary, long term evolution, Indentation factor, Indentation radius

[1]. S.Sesia. I.Toufik, and M Baker, LTE-The UMTS Long Term Evolution: From Theory to practice Chichester. U.K: Wiley, 2009.
[2]. Leonardo Lizzi and Andrea Massa, "Dual Band Printed Fractal Monopole Antenna for LTE Applications,"IEEE Antennas and WirelessPropagationLetters, vol.10, pp.760-7763,DOI.10.1109/LAWP.2011.2163051.
[3]. V.V.Reddy and N V S N Sarma, "Poly Fractal Boundary Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna for WLAN/Wi-MAXWirelessApplication,"DefenseScienceJournal,Vol.65,pp.379-384,DOI:10.14429/dsj.65.8905,2015.
[4]. R.A.Bhatti, S.Yi, and S.Park, "Compact antenna array with port decoupling for LTE –standardized mobile phones,"IEEE Antenna Wireless Propagation Letter, vol 8, pp1430-1433, 2009.
[5]. AshwiniK. Arya, Nguyen Viet Anh, Raos.Aziz,Byeong yong Park and Seong-Ook Park, "Dual Polarized Dual Antennas for 1.7-2.1GHz-LTE Base Station,"IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters,vol.14,2015.

Citation
S.B.Kumar, P.K. Singhal "Investigation of Circularly Polarized Fractal Antenna At 2.1ghz For LTE Application" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0006. India
Page 44-50
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Yogesh Nathuji Dhoble, Sirajuddin Ahmed

Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment in Subtropical Region: Aerobic Vs Anaerobic Process
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
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  • Full Article
Sustainable wastewater treatment technologies are gaining attention of policy-makers and industries for meeting the required pollution guidelines laid down by the regulators of the countries and conservation of natural resources. In both developing and industrial countries adoption of sustainable and economically viable sewage treatment systems are necessary for optimum treatment, recovery and its utilization. This paper provides a comparative analysis of technologies used and latest applications of technological developments in wastewater treatment for subtropical climate. The paper mainly focuses on anaerobic and aerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in subtropical climate. It is recommended that, where region is semiurban or rural area and land is available, natural treatment technologies or DEWATS like system may be utilized. In urban region, it is recommended that UASB followed by suitable post treatment conforming to the effluent standards, may be adopted.
Aerobic, anarobic, sustainable, treatment

[1]. Antonio Felix Domingu. Case study: Brazil national water agency capacity develop. In UN-Water Annual International Zaragoza Conference. Water and Sustainable Development: From Vision to Action., 2015.
[2]. Sunil S Adav, Duu-Jong Lee, Kuan-Yeow Show, and Joo-Hwa Tay. Aerobic granular sludge: recent advances. Biotechnology advances, 26(5):411–423, 2008.
[3]. Rasheed Ahmad, Shaista Begum, Chunlong Zhang, Tanju Karanfil, Esra Ates Genceli, Abhishek Yadav, and Sirajuddin Ahmed. Physico-chemical processes, 2005.
[4]. Sirajuddin Ahmed, Viktor Popov, and Ramesh Chandra Trevedi. Constructed wetland as tertiary treatment for municipal wastewater. Proceedings of the ICE-Waste and Resource Management, 161(2):77–84, 2008.
[5]. YingYu An, FengLin Yang, Benjamin Bucciali, and FookSin Wong. Municipal wastewater treatment using a UASB coupled with cross-flow membrane filtration. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 135(2):86–91, 2009.

Citation
Yogesh Nathuji Dhoble, Sirajuddin Ahmed "Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment in Subtropical Region: Aerobic Vs Anaerobic Process" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0007. India
Page 51-66
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Baltha Manoj Kumar, Baltha Sravanthi

Roll of Feed water Heaters in 120 Mw Thermal Power Plant
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The purpose of present is to analyses the roll of feed water heaters that would have satisfactory thermal performance in 120MW thermal power plant. Here the performance of the feed water heaters are analyzed by finding the terminal temperature difference(TTD) drain cooling approach(DCA) and temperature rise of the heaters. Impact of by passing the feed water heaters, optimizing the cleaning of feed water heaters, placement of feed water heaters, reasons for failures of feed water heaters, investigations for effective design of feed water heaters, cycle performance impacts are analyzed in this project. The whole project is carried out in 120MW steam turbine thermal power plant in Kothagudem Thermal Power Station at Paloncha.
Turbine ,Feed pumps ,Water heaters , Deaerator ,Boliers

[1]. Maury Klein, The Power Makers: Steam, Electricity, and the Men Who Invented Modern America Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2009 ISBN 1-59691-677-X

[2]. Babcock & Wilcox Co. (2005). Steam: Its Generation and Use (41st ed.). ISBN 0-9634570-0-4.

[3]. Thomas C. Elliott, Kao Chen, Robert Swanekamp (coauthors) (1997). Standard Handbook of Powerplant Engineering (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-019435-1.

[4]. Smith, Timothy A. Tempered Water Systems. Plumbing Systems & Design, May/June 2003. pp. 42-44

[5]. Boiler Feed Model Pumps" (PDF).

Citation
Baltha Manoj Kumar, Baltha Sravanthi "Roll of Feed water Heaters in 120 Mw Thermal Power Plant" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0008. India
Page 67-73
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Simon Raymond

Site Attachment Inhibition Therapeutics: A New Mode of Action Pathway in Antimicrobial Therapy
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
Concern with respect to antimicrobial resistance and the associated health threat has gained increasing attention and there has been difficulty in making progress globally. Given the lack of success by the two pathways established to date which have focused on: 1) "replication of infective agent" and, 2) "immune system enhancement," the current researcher has conceptualized and developed the new, or third, mode of action pathway represented by "site attachment inhibition (or, negation of cellular attachment by infective agents)." The current author anticipates site attachment inhibition therapeutics to include (A) drug (medication) based therapies in treatment of established infections, and (B) stem cell based treatment (including prenatal and earlier, spanning back to oogenesis and spermatogenesis) incorporating new generation immunization
..............

[1]. Raymond S (2016) Development of New Strategic Pathways for Antiviral Therapy J Clin Cell Immunol 7: 5.
[2]. Raymond S (2016) Consciousness and the Development of New Strategic Pathways for Antiviral Therapy A Focused Analysis on HIV International Journal of Sciences Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 29: 146-154.
[3]. Raymond S (2016) The Development of New AntimicrobialPathways Combating the Threat of Antimicrobial Resistance International Journal of Science Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 30: 22-28.

[4]. Raymond S (2016) Combating the global threat of antimicrobial resistance and antiviral deficiencies Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) 3: 676-680.
[5]. Raymond S (2016) the role of infectious disease and inflammation in psychiatric illness Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) 3: 510-513.
[6]. Annual Conference on Microbial Pathogenesis (2017) Infectious Disease, Antimicrobials and Drug Resistance Aug 23-24, Toronto, Canada.

Citation
Simon Raymond "Site Attachment Inhibition Therapeutics: A New Mode of Action Pathway in Antimicrobial Therapy" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0009. Australia
Page 75-78
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Version - 2 (January - 2018)


Yu-Fang Xia, Yu-Qing Jin, Guo-Wei Jia

Hankel determinants of RNA secondary structure sequences
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Let 1 0 ( ) l n n S   be secondary structure.............
RNA secondary structure; Hankel determinant;Motzkin numbers; enumeration; sequence

[1]. M. Aigner, Motzkin numbers, European J. Combin 19 (6) (1998) 663-675.
[2]. M. Aigner, Caltalan and other numbers: a recurrent theme, in: H. Crapo, D. Senato (Eds.), Algebraic Combinations and Computer Science, Springer, Berlin, 2001, 347390.
[3]. N.T. Cameron, A.C. M. Yip, Hankel determinants of sums of consecutive Motzkin numbers, Linear Algebra Appl. 434 (3) (2011) 712-722.
[4]. T. Doslic, D. Svrtan, D. Veljan, Enumerative aspects of secondary structures, Discrete Math. 285 (2004) 67-82.
[5]. M. Elouafi, A unified approach for the Hankel determinants of classical combinatorial numbers, J.
Math. Anal. Appl. 431 (2015) 1253-1274

Citation
Yu-Fang Xia, Yu-Qing Jin, Guo-Wei Jia "Hankel determinants of RNA secondary structure sequences" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0001. China
Page 01-04
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H.C. Mouneswarachar, PradipKumarDixit

Role of Multiple Arcs on Flashover of Contaminated Porcelain Disc Insulators
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Mechanism of pollution flashover is complex as it depends on numerous factors. Thus, several simplifying assumptions were introduced in developing a model to formulate an expression for the predetermination of flashover voltage. To simplify the study, both static and dynamic models assume that there is a single dominant arc on insulator surface whereas a large number of investigations carried out in field and laboratory showed that several local discharges would take place on the insulator surface in the same time. The present work deals with the study of role of multiple arcs on flashover voltage of polluted insulators. Experiments were carried out on three porcelain disc insulators with presence of single............
Critical Arc Length,Flashover, Multiple Arc, Pollution, Porcelain

[1]. Badachi, Chandrasekhar A., and Pradipkumar Dixit. "Analytical model to predict the pollution flashover voltages of porcelain disc insulators." Acta Electrotechnik et Informatic a 15.1 (2015): 42-49.
[2]. F.A.M. Rizk, "Mathematical Models for Pollution Flashover", Electra, Vol. 78, pp. 71-103, 1981.

[3]. Slam, M. El-A., Abderrahmane Beroual, and H. Hadi. "Analytical computation of discharge characteristic constants and critical parameters of flashover of polluted insulators." IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical insulation 17.6 (2010).

[4]. Anjana, S., and C. S. Lakshminarasimha. "Computation of flashover voltages of polluted insulators using dynamic arc model." Sixth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering. No. 30.09. 1989.
[5]. Sundarajan R. and Gorur R.S., "Dynamic arc Modelling of Pollution flashover of insulators under dc voltage", IEEE EI, vol.28, No.2, April 1993, pp.209-218.

Citation
H.C. Mouneswarachar, PradipKumarDixit "Role of Multiple Arcs on Flashover of Contaminated Porcelain Disc Insulators" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0002. India
Page 05-11
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Juan Manuel Izar-Landeta, Juan Izar-Tenorio, Raúl Hernández-Molinar

Calculation of the Reorder Point for Items with Exponential And Poisson Distribution of Lead time Demand
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
This paper aims the estimation of lead time, and the reorder point that produce minimum inventory cost, using the Exponential and Poisson distributions for each of the corresponding products under study, when a service level is required. It has been considered several important factors like account stockouts and safety stock maintenance. The estimation process explores carefully what happens to the reorder point and inventory cost when the service level changes. It is evident that the variation of the minimum inventory cost as a function of the reorder point, has been different for both items.............
Reorder point, Lead time demand, Lead time, Safety stock, Inventory cost.

[1]. E. A. Silver, "Inventory management: An overview, Canadian publications, practical applications and suggestions for future research," Information Systems and Operational Research, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 15-28, 2008.
[2]. C. Barry, "The best of inventory," Multichannel Merchant, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-45, 2007.
[3]. B. Bixby, "Five Ways to Stop Wasting Cash in Inventory," CSDecisions, p. 21, April 2013.

Citation
Juan Manuel Izar-Landeta, Juan Izar-Tenorio, Raúl Hernández-Molinar "Calculation of the Reorder Point for Items with Exponential And Poisson Distribution of Lead time Demand" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0003. México
Page 12-21
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Basudev Das

Embedded Generation:A Step Ahead In Power Sector Reforms
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
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  • Full Article
There is increased demand of electrical energy with growing global economy and higher income. The development of economy may be hampered due the crisis of conventional fossil fuel. For this reason there is an increasing trend to interface EG with the existing distribution networks to meet growing energy demand and to offer more services to customers and the distribution networks. EG also helps to reduce the air pollution. This paper reviews the advantages, disadvantages of EG and requirements necessary for connecting EG with a distribution network.
EG, FACTS, distribution network, reliability, stability, power flow, power quality.

[1]. Willis, H. Lee, Scott, Walter G.:"Distributed Power Generation", Published by Marcel Dekker, Inc.,USA
[2]. Jenkins, N., Allan, R., Crossley, P., Kirschen, D., and Strbac, G.: " Embedded Generation", Published by The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, United Kingdom
[3]. Gertmar, Lars – "Power Electronics and Wind Energy", ABB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden
[4]. Karki, Rajesh, Billinton, Roy: "Reliability / Cost Implication of PV and Wind Energy Utilisation in Small Isolated Power Systems",ieee transaction on energy conversion, vol. 16, no. 4, december 2001
[5]. Report prepared by international energy agency on "distributed generation in li beralised electricity markets" oecd/iea 2002

Citation
Basudev Das "Embedded Generation:A Step Ahead In Power Sector Reforms" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0004. India
Page 22-24
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S. Venkataiah, S. Uthanna

Studies on Structural And Optical Properties of DC Reactive Magnetron Sputtered Zro2 Thin Films
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
This work deals with deposition of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) thin films by DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. ZrO2 films were formed on silicon and quartz substrate held at room temperature by sputtering metallic target of zirconium at different oxygen partial pressures in the range 5x10-5- 6x10-4 Torr and at a fixed sputter pressure of 3x10-3 Torr. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on the chemical composition, structure and optical properties of the deposited ZrO2 films was studied. The films formed at oxygen partial pressures ≥ 3x10-4 Torr were of ZrO2. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that deposited films were amorphous in nature. Fourier transform infrared absorption studies confirmed the existence of characteristic vibration modes of ZrO2. The films exhibited high optical transmittance in the visible range and fundamental absorption edge shifted towards higher energy side with increase of oxygen partial pressure. Optical band gap of the films increased from 5.47 eV to 5.68 eV and refractive index increased from 1.87 to 2.14 with increase of oxygen partial pressure from 5x10-5 Torr to 6x10-4 Torr respectively.
ZrO2 thin films; DC Magnetron sputtering; Structure; Optical properties

[1]. B. Kralik, E. K. Chang and S. G. Louie, Phys. "Structural properties and quasiparticle band structure of zirconia", Phys. Rev. B, vol. 57, pp. 7027-7032, 1998.
[2]. J. Gao, Y. He and D. Wan, "Fabrication and high temperature oxidation resistance of ZrO2/ Al2O3 micro-laminated coating on steel substrates", Mater. Chem. Phys., vol. 123, pp. 731-736, 2010.
[3]. J. Okabayashi, S. Toyoda, H. Kumigashira, M. Oshima, K. Usuda, M. Niwaand G. L.Liu, "Chemical reaction and metallic cluster formation by annealing temperature control in ZrO2 gate dielectrics on Si", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, pp. 5959-596, 2004.
[4]. R. W. Lambert, T. Ayling, A. F. Hendry, J. M. Cerson, D. A. Berrow, K. S. Mc Hendry, C. J.Scott, A. McKee and W. Meredith, "Facet passivation processes for the improvement of Al-containing semiconductor laser diodes", J. Laser Technol., vol. 24, pp. 956-961, 2006.
[5]. K. Joy, L. V. Maneeshya, J. Thomasand P. V. Thomas, "Effect of sol concentration on the structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescence properties of zirconium oxide thin films", Thin Solid Films, vol. 520, pp. 2683-2686, 2012.

Citation
S. Venkataiah, S. Uthanna "Studies on Structural And Optical Properties of DC Reactive Magnetron Sputtered Zro2 Thin Films" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0005. India
Page 25-32
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A Alani, K Prabhakara Rao

Iot Based Smart Healthcare System
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The rapid development of Internet of things (IoT) technology makes it possible for connecting various smart objects together through the Internet and providing more data interoperability methods for application purpose. Recent research shows more potential applications of IoT in information intensive industrial sectors such as healthcare services. However, the diversity of the objects in IoT causes the heterogeneity problem of the data format in IoT platform. Meanwhile, the use of IoT technology in applications has spurred the increase of real-time data, which makes the information storage and accessing more difficult and challenging. Here in this paper a more efficient machine to machine communication is achieved for health care data's.
Internet of Things (IOT),Machine to Machine communication (M2M), Pulse Oximeter, EoR.

[1] Sharma S, Tim US, Gadia S, Wong J. ―Proliferating Cloud Density through Big Data Ecosystem, Novel XCLOUDX Classification and Emergence of as-a-Service Era‖.pp.-1-20 (2015)
[2] Rintala, Mikko, Jussi Sormunen, Petri Kuisma, and Matti Rahkala. "Automation System Products and Research."(2014).
[3] Sandeep Patel, Punit Gupta, Mayank Kumar Goyal, "Low Cost Hardware Design of a Web Server for Home Automation Systems", Conference on Advances in Communication and Control Systems (CAC2S), 2013
[4] Golzar, M.G. ; AsanPardazan Co. ; Tajozzakerin, H.R., "A New Intelligent Remote Control System for Home Automation and Reduce Energy Consumption", Mathematical/Analytical Modeling and Computer Simulation (AMS), 2010, IEEE.
[5] Alkar, A.Z., Hacettepe Univ; Roach, J. ; Baysal, D., "IP based home automation system", Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on (Volume: 56, Issue: 4), November 2010, IEEE

Citation
A Alani, K Prabhakara Rao "Iot Based Smart Healthcare System" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0006. India
Page 33-38
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Krishna Chaitanya Atmakuri, Dr. V Anandam, Dr. N Srinivasu

A Survey Paper on Spatial - Temporal Outliers Influencing Air Quality
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Air quality is estimated using various parameters which vary with space and time i.e., which are spatio-temporal. An object that has at least one spatial and one temporal property can be defined as a spatiotemporal object. The spatial properties are location and geometry of the object. The temporal property is time interval for which the object is valid. The spatio-temporal object usually contains spatial, temporal and thematic or non-spatial attributes. This survey paper focuses on spatio-temporal data influencing air quality of heavily polluted regions called hotspots over a period of time, also identifying the parameters which cause movement of pollutants. Based on dataset, effect of these outliers on air quality at the point of origin and their influence on the surrounding regions because of movement of pollutants which are denoted as outliers throughout the paper leading to the changes in air quality of those regions is summarized.
Air Pollution Spatial Mining, Anomaly Detection, Imbalanced Data.

[1]. Anderson JO, Thundiyil JG, Stolbach A: Clearing the air: A review of the effects of particulate matter air pollution on human health. J Med Toxicol 2012, 8:166–175.
[2]. Pope CA III, Dockery DW: Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: Lines that connect. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 2006, 56:709–742.
[3]. Brunekreef B, Forsberg B: Epidemiological evidence of effects of coarse airborne particles on health. Eur Respir J 2005, 26:309–318.
[4]. Beelen R, Hoek G, Fischer P, van den Brandt PA, Brunekreef B: Estimated long-term outdoor air pollution concentrations in a cohort study. Atmos Environ 2007, 41:1343–1358.
[5]. Beelen R, Hoek G, Pebesma E, Vienneau D, de Hoogh K, Briggs DJ: Mapping of background air pollution at a fine spatial scale across the European Union. Sci Total Environ 2009, 407:1852–1867.

Citation
Krishna Chaitanya Atmakuri, Dr. V Anandam, Dr. N Srinivasu "A Survey Paper on Spatial - Temporal Outliers Influencing Air Quality" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0007. India
Page 39-43
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Koushik Dutta, Nomi Baruah, John Bharali Baruah

A Rigorous Study of P-CMM in Indian IT Industry
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
This paper is an empirical study of the application of key process areas (KPAs) of People Capability Maturity Model in Indian IT industry is defined. It is found that the IT industry mostly the large-scale software enterprises, highly focuses on the KPAs in their respective organization. This project involves in identifying how the people management is done in software companies in the recent years and analyzing the roles and practices from our survey, we have proposed an approach to rectify people capability management. People Capability Management is a hugely important part of putting together and managing high performance software engineering people. It has known to make IT people more responsive, more productive and more efficient. People Capability Management has brought revolution to the IT sector after its introduction by which companies are now able to maintain a healthy relationship with all its employees, thereby encouraging them to work efficiently with less stress and achieve desired goal within stipulated time.
IT industry, KPAs, P-CMM, People, Survey.

[1]. B. Curtis, W.E. Hefley and S. A. Miller, People Capability Maturity Model (P-CMM), Version 2.0, Software Engineering Institute, 2009.
[2]. Y.C. Chen, K.C. Hsieh and M.T. Wu , The Study of Second Level of People Capability Maturity Model on the Industrial Control Industry in Taiwan, vol. 19, 2012.
[3]. D. Sangeeta, PCMM: A New Paradigm in TQM and Human Resources, Foundation for Organizational Research & Education (2010). [Online]. Available: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/Abhigyan/227355993.html
[4]. B. Boehm and R. Turner. Balancing Agility and Discipline: A Guide for the Perplexed. Boston: Addison-Wesley, 2004.
[5]. A. J. Lee, Exploring the Role of People Capability Maturity Model and Identifying People-Related Critical Success Factors in Large-Scale Organization with Agile Practice, 18.09.2017.

Citation
Koushik Dutta, Nomi Baruah, John Bharali Baruah "A Rigorous Study of P-CMM in Indian IT Industry" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0008. India
Page 44-50
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Niranjani .R, Anchana Devi .C

Photocatalytic Degradation of Pesticide Phorate Using Copper Nanoparticles
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The present study was designed to analyse the degradation of Phorate in the water sample by photocatalytic activity of nanoparticles. The physico-chemical characteristics was analysed before and after treatment to check the efficiency of Copper nanoparticles in degrading the pesticidePhorate. The application of nanoscale particles in pollution control is an emerging technology. It is considered to be more efficient because of its low cost and simplicity. In this study, degradation of pesticide phorate was studied using chemically synthesized copper nanoparticles. The results showed that phorate was rapidly degraded by copper nanoparticles under solar light, and the physico chemical parameters improved after treating with copper nanoparticles. Maximum degradation of phorate using copper nanoparticles was obtained after 60 minutes which was measured photometrically at 540nm.
Copper nanoparticles, Phorate, Photocatalytic degradation and SEM

[1]. N Almqvist , " Fractal analysis of scanning probe microscopy images", Surf Sci 355, 221–228, 1996

[2]. D N Arul , R C Paul and A Gedanken , Synthesis, characterisation and properties of metallic copper nanoparticles. Chem. Mater. 10, 1446-1452, 1998.

[3]. Asim Umer, Shahid Naveed, Naveed Ramzan, Muhammad Shahid Rafique, Muhammad Imran, "A green method for the synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles using L-ascorbic acid"Materia-Rio De Janeiro,9 ,197-203,
[4]. S Asthana , S Pal and M Sharma , " Solar assisted nanoZnOphotocatalytic mineralization- The green technique for the degradation of detergents". IJCPA, 1(3), 141-147, 2014

[5]. Ayesha Khan, Audil Rashid, RafiaYounas. " A chemical reduction approach to the synthesis of copper nanoparticles" , International Nano Letters, 6(1), 21-26, 2016

Citation
Niranjani .R, Anchana Devi .C "Photocatalytic Degradation of Pesticide Phorate Using Copper Nanoparticles" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0009. India
Page 51-58
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Mrs.Anindita Das Mondal

Dynamic Behaviour of Asynchronous Generator In Stand-Alone Mode Under Load Perturbation Using MATLAB/SIMULINK
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The world's conventional resources will be depleted in few hundred years. To avoid energy crisis, uses of renewable energy resources are increasing day by day. A Asynchronous generator with stand-alone mode is the better option to produce electricity in varying speed in wind turbines. This paper deals with the dynamic behavior of Asynchronous Generator operated in stand-alone mode under load perturbation.
Stand-alone mode, wind turbine, asynchronous generator, capacitor bank

[1]. E.D Basset, F. M. Potter , "Capacitive excitation for induction generators" , AIEE Trans. (Electrical Engineering), Vol. 54. pp.540-545, March 1935.
[2]. E. Muljadi, J. Sallan, M. Sanz and C. P. Butterfield, "Investigation of Selfexcited Induction Generators for Wind Turbine Applications," in Thirty- Fourth Industry Applications Conference Annual Meeting, Phoenix, October 1999.
[3]. D. Sutanto, and B.Mismail, H.R. outhred, C. Grantham, K.C Daly, "Transient simulation of capacitively self-excited induction generator," Electr. Energy conference, 1987,Adelaide.

Citation
Mrs.Anindita Das Mondal "Dynamic Behaviour of Asynchronous Generator In Stand-Alone Mode Under Load Perturbation Using MATLAB/SIMULINK" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0010. India
Page 59-63
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Version - 3 (January - 2018)


Rakhman Sarwono, Hendris Hendarsyah Kurniawan

Study Of The Degradation Of Biomass (News Paper Waste, Cassava Cork And Α-Selulosa) In Sub- And Supercritical Water Hydrothermal Liquefaction
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of news paper waste, cassava cork and α-cellulose were investigated. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave at different reaction temperature and the fixed of solid water ratio of 1 gram in 50 ml water. The temperature reactions are 300, 370, 400, and 450 oC were investigated. The α-cellulose gave a lower conversion rate, and the cassava cork gave a higher conversion rate in each temperature reaction. Cassava cork has higher soluble liquid and gaseous products. The bio-oil component was dominated by organic acids, the second component was alcohol/ketones and the least component was alkanes/alkenes.
HTL, temperature, composition, solid, soluble liquid

[1]. Jindal, M.K. and Jha, M.K. (2016). Hydrothermal Liquefaction of wood: a critical review. DE GRUYTER. Rev. Chem. Eng. 2016; aop, doi: 10.1515/revce-2015-0055
[2]. Huang, H.J., Yuan, X.Z., Zeng, G.M., wang, J.Y., Li, H., Zhou,C.F., Pei, X.K., You,Q., Cheng, L. (2011). Thermochemical liquefaction Characteristics of microalgae in sub- and supercritical ethanol. Fuel processing Technology. 92, 147 – 153.
[3]. Wettstein, S.G., Alonso, D.M., Gurbuz, E.I., and Dumesic, J.A. (2012). A road map for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to chemical and fuels. Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering,1:218 – 224.
[4]. Kruse, A., and Gawlik, A.(2003). Biomass conversion in water at 330 – 410 oC and 30 – 50 MPa. Identification of key compounds for indicating different chemical reaction pathways. Ind. Eng.Chem. Res. 42(2), 267 – 279.
[5]. Sasaki, M., Feng, Z., Fukushima, Y., Adschiri, T., Arai, K.(2000). Dissolution and hydrolysis of cellulose in subcritical and supercritical water. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 31: 2883-2890.

Citation
Rakhman Sarwono, Hendris Hendarsyah Kurniawan "Study Of The Degradation Of Biomass (News Paper Waste, Cassava Cork And Α-Selulosa) In Sub- And Supercritical Water Hydrothermal Liquefaction" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0001. Indonesia
Page 01-06
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Basudev Das

Embedded Generation: A Step Ahead In Power Sector Reforms
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
There is increased demand of electrical energy with growing global economy and higher income. The development of economy may be hampered due the crisis of conventional fossil fuel. For this reason there is an increasing trend to interface EG with the existing distribution networks to meet growing energy demand and to offer more services to customers and the distribution networks. EG also helps to reduce the air pollution. This paper reviews the advantages, disadvantages of EG and requirements necessary for connecting EG with a distribution network.
EG, FACTS, distribution network, reliability, stability, power flow, power quality.

[1]. Willis, H. Lee, Scott, Walter G.:"Distributed Power Generation", Published by Marcel Dekker, Inc.,USA
[2]. Jenkins, N., Allan, R., Crossley, P., Kirschen, D., and Strbac, G.: " Embedded Generation", Published by The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, United Kingdom
[3]. Gertmar, Lars – "Power Electronics and Wind Energy", ABB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden
[4]. Karki, Rajesh, Billinton, Roy: "Reliability / Cost Implication of PV and Wind Energy Utilisation in Small Isolated Power Systems",ieee transaction on energy conversion, vol. 16, no. 4, december 2001
[5]. Report prepared by international energy agency on "distributed generation in li beralised electricity markets" oecd/iea 2002

Citation
Basudev Das "Embedded Generation: A Step Ahead In Power Sector Reforms" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0002. India
Page 07-09
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Asha, Dr. G. Mahadevan

An Improved Cross Layer Architecture to Upgrade Quality of Services in MANET
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The demand of multimedia application is growing day-by-day because of lots of multimedia services e.g. videos streaming. These multimedia services demands high quality of services for best user experience. In this field of commodification MANET has proved its significance. MANET is a self-organizing network which is not dependent on any infrastructure. But at the same time, because of the mobility of the nodes it suffers QoS problem that creates performance issue. In this work we have adopted optimized cross layer architecture in MANET, which works well across all networks. It gives good performance in terms of throughput and packet delay factor, which is shown in result section in the form of graphs.
..........

[1]. A. Roche, C. B. Westphall, PACK-So Graf von Mecklenburg, "Quality of Service for Ad-hoc Wireless Network", Computer Science Society, SCCC 2002. Proceedings, 22nd International Conference of the Chilean, 2002, pp.l00-l05.
[2]. V. Vidhyasanker, B.S. Manoj, and C. Siva Ram Murthy, " Slot Allocation Schemes for Delay Sensitive Traffic Support in Asynchronous Wireless Mesh Networks", the International Journal of Computer and Telecommunications Networking, Vol.50, Issue 15, 2006, pp. 2595-2613.
[3]. R. Braden, D. Clark, and S. Shenker, "Integrated Services in the Internet Architecture: an overview", 1994, IETF RFC 1633.
[4]. S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, "An Architecture for Differentiated Services", 1998, IETF RFC 2475.
[5]. Egilmez, H.E. Tekalp, A.M., "Distributed QoS Architectures for Multimedia Streaming Over Software Defined Networks," in Multimedia, IEEE Transactions on , vo1.16, no.6, pp.1597- 1609, Oct. 2014

Citation
Asha, Dr. G. Mahadevan "An Improved Cross Layer Architecture to Upgrade Quality of Services in MANET" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0003. India
Page 10-13
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Syarifah KeumalaIntan, Sandra Santosa

The Influence of Reynolds Number As Inhibits the Formation of Biofilms Inthe Pipeline Inthe Food Industry
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Biofilms are formed in piping systems (with water-flow media) in the food industry where nutritional supplies are available regularly for bacteria. Biofilm consists of cells of microorganisms that are firmly attached to a surface so that it is in a stationary state , and not easily separated or moved. In the food industry where water is used both as one of the utility fluids as well as the processes that flow in the piping system, many biofilms are formed and will cause clogging in pipelines. Blockage affects the inefficiency of the process as well as the cost of production. One way to avoid biofilm quick formation is to decrease the water flow rate in the piping system. This study aims to see the impact of laminar and turbulent flow types on the speed of biofilm................
Biofilm, laminar flow,turbulent flow, clogging, Reynolds number

[1]. Marshall el al., 1971, Mechanismof the Initial events in the Sorption in The Marine Bacteria to Surfaces ,J.Gen. Microbiol 68
[2]. Costerton,J.W and Lewandowski,Z, 1995, Microbial Biofilm, Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman,Montana59717
[3]. Chmielewski, R.A.N and Frank, J.F., 2006, Biofilm Formation and Control in Food Processing Facilities, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Vol.2, Issue1.
[4]. Frank, J. F. danKofti, R. A. 1990. Surface adherent growth of Listeria monocytogenes associated with increased resistance to surfactant sanitizers and heat., J. food Proto 53: 550-554.
[5]. Dunsmore D.G., Twomey A., Whittlestone W.G., Morgan H.W. (1981): Design and performance of systems for cleaning product-contact surfaces of food equipment: a review. Journal of Food Protection, 44: 220–240

Citation
Syarifah KeumalaIntan, Sandra Santosa "The Influence of Reynolds Number As Inhibits the Formation of Biofilms Inthe Pipeline Inthe Food Industry" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0004. Indonesia
Page 14-18
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Meet DevendrabhaiNaik, Dr.MurariMohon Roy, Margesh Ashok Amin

Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emissions of Emulsified Biodiesel Operated Diesel Engine at Various Engine Operating Conditions
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
An experimental investigation on a light-duty diesel enginewas conducted to determine the effect of emulsified biodiesel's performance and emissions. Biodiesel was produced on site by a transesterification process from canola oil, emulsified with 5vol% and 10vol%of water. In order to prepare the emulsified fuel, two different types of emulsifiers, Sorbian Monooleate (Span 80) and Polyoxymethylene Sorbian Monooleate (Tween 80), were used. The engine was operated at three different speeds 1000, 2100 and 3000 rpm and at each speed, three loads were applied: low (≈20%), medium (≈50%) and high(˃80%).Properties such as density, viscosity and calorific value of emulsified fuel were measured...............
Biodiesel, Emulsification, Emissions and Performance, Diesel Engine,Transesterification process, Fuel properties.

[1] https://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/biodiesel_production.html
[2] Rakopoulos D.C., Rakopoulos C.D., Giakoumis E.G., Papagiannakis R.G., Kyritsis D.C. Influence of properties of various common bio-fuels on the combustion and emission characteristics of high-speed DI (direct injection) diesel engine: Vegetable oil, bio-diesel, ethanol, n-butanol, diethyl ether. Energy 2014;73:354–366.
[3] http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/alternative-fuels/fuel-facts/biodiesel/3511
[4] Baskar P., Senthilkumar A. Effects of oxygen enriched combustion on pollution and performance characteristics of a diesel engine. EngSciTechnol, Int J 2016;19(1):438–443.
[5] McCarthy P., Rasul M., Moazzem S. Analysis and comparison of performance and emissions of an internal combustion engine fuelled with petroleum diesel and different bio-diesels. Fuel 2011;90(6):2147–2157.

Citation
Meet DevendrabhaiNaik, Dr.MurariMohon Roy, Margesh Ashok Amin "Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emissions of Emulsified Biodiesel Operated Diesel Engine at Various Engine Operating Conditions" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0005. India
Page 19-31
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Yogesh Kudale, Devyani Padwal, Pradeep Kopnar

Gravity Driven Electricity Generation Mechanism
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Sustainable energy generation is major need in the current scenario. Electricity demand is drastically increasing with development and modernization. Power generation using gravitational force is a way to fulfil this demand. Galaxy, stars, planets, asteroids, meteors, etc. are the elements of universe with gravitational force being common in them. This paper explains how energy can be produced using the gravitational force of the earth, without using any external fuel. Sprocket, chain and weights are the mechanical components which provide input for the generation of power. Once the weights are attached at a particular distance, weight of the chain increases on one side than that of other, which in turn rotates the chain sprocket assembly continuously. This assembly is connected to the generator and then to the battery which generates electricity without any interruption.
Sustainable energy, external fuel, gravitational force, mechanical components, power generation.

[1]. Mr. Rakesh S. Ambade, Mr. Roushan Prabhakar, Mr. Rupesh S. Tayade, "A Review on Gravity Power Generation," International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, vol 3, issue 4, April 2014.
[2]. Mr. Digvijay S. Jadhav, Mr. Sagar N. Hullule, Mr. Nitin N. Jejurkar "GRAVITY POWER GENERATION," International Journal of Advance Research in Science and Engineering, vol. 5, issue 03, march 2016.
[3]. Md.Muqtar Ahmed, Heena Naaz, "Power Generation through Gravity and Kinetic Energy," International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2014.
[4]. Patrick J. Kelly, "Practical Guide to Free-Energy Devices," Version: 32.5 Release date: 12 December 2017.

Citation
Yogesh Kudale, Devyani Padwal, Pradeep Kopnar "Gravity Driven Electricity Generation Mechanism" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0006. India
Page 32-36
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S.S.ponde, S.S. Lomte M

A survey on energy efficient mac protocols in Wireless sensor networks
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Users nowadays require mobile solutions to their day to day work, therefore, the demand for wireless devices is at its peak. One such device is the wireless sensor networks (WSN), which are helpful in a variety of application. The mobility comes with the price of power and efficiency, as a limited amount of power is available for the system to consume. In the past years, researchers have devised multiple techniques to overcome the problems of wireless devices. In this paper, we are going to review such techniques, for example, EBMA, Energy efficient EBMA, TDMA, LEACH and much more.
Wireless sensor networks, Power Consumption, EBMA, LEACH

[1]. G. M. Shafiullah, Salahuddin A. Azad, and A. B. M. Shawkat Ali, "Energy-Efficient Wireless MAC Protocols for Railway Monitoring Applications", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, VOL. 14, NO. 2, JUNE 2013

[2]. GMShafiullah, Adam Thompson, Peter J Wolfs, Shawkat Ali, "Energy-Efficient TDMA MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Applications", Proceedings of International Workshop on Internet and Distributed Computing Systems (lDCS' 08) 24 December 2008, Khulna, Bangladesh.

[3]. G. M. Shafiullah, Salahuddin A. Azad, and A. B. M. Shawkat Ali, "Reduction of Power Consumption in Sensor Network Applications using Machine Learning Techniques"

[4]. Injong Rhee, AjitWarrier, Mahesh Aia, Jeongki Min, and Mihail L. Sichitiu, "Z-MAC: A Hybrid MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 16, NO. 3, JUNE 2008.

Citation
S.S.ponde, S.S. Lomte M "A survey on energy efficient mac protocols in Wireless sensor networks" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0007. India
Page 37-43
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Karthik A.V., Shramit Naik, Ganesh, Abhishek Nayak

Development of Portable Solar Still Using Reflectors
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The purpose of this project is to design a water desalination system that can purify water from nearly any source, a system that is relatively cheap, portable, and depends only on renewable solar energy. The motivation for this project is the limited availability of clean water resources and the abundance of impure water available for potential conversion into potable water, In addition, there are many coastal locations where seawater is abundant but potable water is not available. Our project goal is to efficiently produce clean drinkable water from solar energy conversion..............
Solar still, saline water, solar distillation

[1]. Hiroshi Tanakaa, Yuh-Shan Hob, "Global trends and performances of desalination research"2011 Desalination Publications.

[2]. Jinesh s. Machale, prachi d. Thakur, piyush s. Lalwani andGayatri m. Apte, "Solar water purification with the help of cspTechnology",Sci. Revs. Chem. Commun.: 3(2), 2013, 128-132 ISSN 2277-2669
[3]. JumaYousufAlaydi, "Modelling of a Parabolic Solar-Collector System for WaterDesalination",Global Journal of Researches in Engineering Civil And Structural Engineering
[4]. Volume 13 Issue 1 Version 1.0 Year 2013 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA) Online ISSN: 2249-4596 & Print ISSN: 0975-5861
[5]. Prof. Alpesh Mehta, ArjunVyas, NitinBodar, DharmeshLathiya, "Design of Solar Distillation System", International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol. 29, April 2011

Citation
Karthik A.V., Shramit Naik, Ganesh, Abhishek Nayak "Development of Portable Solar Still Using Reflectors" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0008. India
Page 44-52
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K.Bhanu Kiran, Dr.M.Ramkumar Prabhu

Power Flow Control between Two Transmission lines by Capacitive Reactance
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Solid state power electronic devices or Flexible AC Transmission Systems technologies has brought an scope for electric utilities to operate their bulk power flow network close to their thermal limits while maintaining and/or improving network security or reliability. High-power electronic devices can provide unprecedented control over electricity flow in transmission networks. These devices responds quickly enough to changing network conditions to provide real-time power flow control, which is essential when large numbers of power transactions occur in a fully deregulated electric industry. In this paper a MATLAB / SIMULINK model of Electronic Controller has been developed for quick power flow control between two Areas connected by two transmission lines. This is achieved by increasing /decreasing its capacitive reactance online. The TCSC also helps in limiting and damping the angular/frequency swings caused by the disturbances. The simulations are carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), power system stability, Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC).

[1]. Wang, H.F , "Phillips-Heffron model of power systems installed with STATCOM and applications" Generation,Transmission and Distribution IEE Proceedings Volume 146, Issue 5, Pages: 521-527, 1999
[2]. Wang, H.F, "Modeling multiple FACTS devices into multi-machine power systems and applications" Electrical power & Energy systems,vol.25,pp.227- 237,2003
[3]. D.Shen and P.W.Lehn, "Modeling, Analysis, and Control of a Current Source inverter-based STATCOM," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery,Vol .17, No.1, pp.248- 253, 2002
[4]. A.M.Kulkarni,K.R.Padiyar,"Damping of power swings using series facts controllers," Electrical Power and Energy systems, vol.21, pp.475-495, 1999.
[5]. N.Tambey, M.L.Kothari, "Damping of power system oscillations with UPFC,"IEE Proc.Trans. Distrib. Vol. 150, March 2003.

Citation
K.Bhanu Kiran, Dr.M.Ramkumar Prabhu "Power Flow Control between Two Transmission lines by Capacitive Reactance" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0009. India
Page 53-61
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Margesh Ashok Amin, Dr. Murarimohon Roy, Meet Devendrabhainaik

Effects of EGR on Performance and Emissions of A Light-Duty modern DI Diesel Engine Fueled With Blends of Diesel, Kerosene, and Biodiesel
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The extensive research on a light-duty modern 2-cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine was conducted with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), using different blends of diesel, kerosene and biodiesel.The engine was operated at three speeds (1000,2100 and3000 rpm), and at each speed, three different loads(low load ≈ 20%;medium load ≈50%; and high load ≈80%) were applied. Three EGRconditions were investigated non-EGR (0%),10% EGR,and 15% EGR.The effect of EGR on the performance parameterssuch as brake-specific energy consumption (BSEC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE), and on emission parameters such as nitrogen oxides (NOX),carbon monoxide(CO), unburned hydrocarbons(HC) and smoke was investigated at various engine operating conditions. The main objective of thework was to reduce NOX emissions of a diesel engine fueled with different blends of diesel,kerosene and biodiesel, by using different EGR rates,and to improve other performance and emission parameters.
EGR, Diesel engine, Base fuel, Biodiesel, Performance and emissions

[1]. Sheehan J, Camobreco JD, Graboski M, Shapouri H. Life cycle inventory of biodiesel and petroleum diesel for use in an urban bus, Final report for U.S. Dept. of Energy's Office of Fuel Development and the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Office of Energy, by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1998; NERL/SR-580-24089.
[2]. USEPA. A comprehensive analysis of biodiesel impacts on exhaust emissions. EPA420-P-02-001; 2002.
[3]. S. Ghosh, D. Dutta. Performance and emission parameters analysis of gasoline engine with EGR.International Journal of Engineering Research and Development.2012; 4: 08-12.
[4]. Hussain. J, Palaniradja. K, Alagamurthi. N, Manimaran. R. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Performance and Emission of a Compression Ignition Engine with Staged Combustion (Insertion of Unburned Hydrocarbon).International Journal of Energy Engineering. 2012; 2(6): 285-292.
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Citation
Margesh Ashok Amin, Dr. Murarimohon Roy, Meet Devendrabhainaik "Effects of EGR on Performance and Emissions of A Light-Duty modern DI Diesel Engine Fueled With Blends of Diesel, Kerosene, and Biodiesel" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2018)
MID 1401.067X.0010. India
Page 62-75
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