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IJERD : Volume 14 - Issue 5

Version - 1 (May - 2018)


Dr. T. A. Briggs, Dr. Mathew, Shadrack Uzoma

Model Development for Pressure-Flow Capacity Relations for Gas Pipelines Flow Optimization
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The flow of natural gas in gas pipelines has been attended with the problem of pressure drop along the pipeline. The magnitude of the pressure drop is known to be affected by certain flow variables such as flow velocity or volumetric flow rate, bulk flow temperature, ambient conditions, nominal pipe diameter, pipe roughness (relative or absolute), etc. Other factors that will affect throughput and pressure drop relationship are design and construction of the piping system, piping materials, pipe wall thickness, terrain of a place, enlargement and contraction along the pipes, pipe conditions (vacuum and weight of the overlying materials be it water or earth mass), etc. It is well established that the flow of natural gas in gas pipelines is not essentially single phase flow situation...............
Pressure-Flow Relations; Flow Optimization; Weymouth Equation; Modified Panhandle B Equation; Pipeline Efficiency; Pipeline Efficiency; Compressibility Factor; Average Flow Pressure; Pump Constant, Pump Isentropic Efficiency.

[1]. Economidies M. J.,Demardios A. S. and Saputelli L, ―Energy Sources and Energy Intensity for the Twenty-First Century‖, Paper SPE 75504 presented at the SPE Gas Technology Symposium, Calgary, April 30-May 2, 2002.
[2]. SHADRACK MATHEW UZOMA & ABAM D. P. S., ―Flow Optimiazation Models In Gas Pipelines (Modified Panhandle-B Equation as Base Equation)‖, Journal of Science and Technology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pp 31-41, April 2013.
[3]. SHADRACK MATHEW UZOMA & ABAM D. P. S., ―Flow Optimiazation Models In Gas Pipelines (Weymouth Equation as Base Equation)‖, African Science and Technology Journal Siren Research Centre for African Universities, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pp 109- 123, April 2013.
[4]. ABAM D. P. S. & SHADRACK MATHEW UZOMA, ―Flow Optimiazation Models In Gas Pipelines (Panhandle-A Equation as Base Equation)‖, Journal of Science and Technology Research, Vol. 6, No. 3, Pp 1-16, December, 2013.
[5]. Drew T.B., E.C. Koo and W.H. McAdams. Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng. 28, 1930156.

Citation
Dr. T. A. Briggs, Dr. Mathew, Shadrack Uzoma "Model Development for Pressure-Flow Capacity Relations for Gas Pipelines Flow Optimization" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5 (May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0001. Nigeria
Page 01-08
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Dr. Mathew, Shadrack Uzoma, Dr. T. A. Briggs

Computer Simulation of Precise Dew Point Initiation in Gas Pipelines Network System
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Mathematical models have been developed to ascertain the exact position of commencement of dew point in gas pipelines network system transmitting gaseous components or complex hydrocarbon mixtures. Attainment of dew point in gas transmission pipelines leads to flow separation. Inadvertently, two-phase flow situation will result with liquid and gas holdups coexisting. The liquid holdup eventually settles at low points in the pipe as condensates. The condensate so formed obstructs flow leading to increased pressure drop along the line. The driving force of a flowing fluid stream is a function of the overall line pressure drop and line throughput. The higher the two militating factor, the higher the pumping and compression power. It is very worthy to note the exact point on a gas pipeline at which condensation will set in; drain plugs could be installed at such points for periodical removal of the condensate so formed. This will offset the high cost of investment on gas pipelines assets facilities.
Burial Depth, Dew Point Temperature, Gas Fraction Mass flow-rate, Specific Heat Capacity, Internal fluid Convective Heat Transfer, Thermal Conductivity, Mixture Velocity, Heat Flux, Residual Heat, Flow Resident Time, Heat Flux.

[1]. Ikoku, Chi. U. (1984): "Natural Gas Production Eng'g", John Wiley and Sons Inc, New York.
[2]. Guo, B.; Ghalambor, A. and Xu, C. (2005): "A Systematic Approach to Producing Liquid Loading in Gas Wells", paper SPE94081, presented at the
[3]. SPE production operations symposium, Oklahoma City, April 17-19. Dojey, A.; Jafferet, C.; Cornot-Gandolph, S.; Jullin, S and Valans, M. (1997):
[4]. "Natural Gas Production, Processing and Transport", Edition Techrup, Paris, France.
[5]. George D. L., Barajas A. M., Burkey R. C., The need for accurate hydrocarbon dew point determination [J]. Pipeline & Gas Journal, 2005 September.

Citation
Dr. Mathew, Shadrack Uzoma, Dr. T. A. Briggs "Computer Simulation of Precise Dew Point Initiation in Gas Pipelines Network System" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5 (May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0002. Nigeria
Page 09-14
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John Lander Ichenwo, Olushola Tomilayoolapade

The Mathematics Of Modeling Directional Wells – A Computer Approach
  • Abstract
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  • Reference
  • Full Article
The main objective of a successful drilling operation lies in the construction of safe and economically efficient wells, success of which depends on hitting the target (pay) zone. Although, drilling oil/gas well is a very complex operation yet a good, efficient and safe drilling operation depends on a good well plan. Well trajectory planning requires a mixture of different parameter of interest; the offset data, the contour mapping, computer technical know-how, core data, safety report, etc., but in the end, it drip down to optimum identification of the well path, which is a function of exact mathematical model used to precisely calculate the wellbore trajectory............
...........

[1]. Adams, N., 1985. Drilling Engineering a Complete Well Planning Approach. Tulsa (Oklahoma): Penn Well Publishing Company.
[2]. Baihly, J., Grant D., Fan, L., and Bodwadkar, S. 2007. Horizontal Wells in Tight Gas Sands – A Methodology for Risk Management To maximize Success. Paper SPE 145 110067 presented at the SPE annual Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, 11-14 November.
[3]. Baker Hughes INTEQ, 1995. Drilling Engineering Workbook Training & Development, 80270H Rev. B, Houston, United States of America.
[4]. Blankenship, D., Finger, J., 2010. Handbook of Best Practices for Geothermal Drilling, Prepared for the International Energy Agency,Geothermal Implementing Agreement Sandia National Laboratories. Albuquerque, New Mexico.
[5]. Farah, F. O. (2013). DIRECTIONAL WELL DESIGN, TRAJECTORY ANDSURVEY CALCULATIONS, WITH A CASE
STUDY IN FIALE, ASAL RIFT, DJIBOUTI .Grensasvegur 9,IS-108 Reykjavik, Iceland : GEOTHERMAL TRAINING
PROGRAMME Orkustofnun.

Citation
John Lander Ichenwo, Olushola Tomilayoolapade "The Mathematics Of Modeling Directional Wells – A Computer Approach" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5(May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0003. India
Page 15-22
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Abdulameer Qasim Hassan

Study the Structural Behavior of Buildings Susceptible To Vibration Due To Road Bumps
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
Vibration generated due to road bumps has a significant effect on the behavior of nearby buildings;this must be taken into account during design. This paper includes the study of the behavior of buildings through the stresses in it. Therefore, two types of buildings were used, one structural building and the other is brick building (nonstructural) and these buildings are two types one and two floors. The soil was taken sand and clay soil to indicate the type of soil suitable for that absorption of vibrations. ANSYS program is used to analyze the problem and study some variables affected on the behavior of buildings, such as the speed and mass of vehicles, the type of road bumps ( plastic, Asphalt and concrete), the width of the road bump and the distance between the building and road bumps............
...........

[1]. Auersch, L.,"The excitation of ground vibration by rail traffic"., theory of vehicle-track-soil interaction and measurements, Journal of Sound and Vibration, November 2004.
[2]. Kawecki, J., Stypuła, K.,"Ensuring the vibration comfort to people residing in buildings exposed to the impact of communication"., CracowUniversity of Technology Publishing House, ISBN 978-83-7242-710-6.,2013.
[3]. Emslie, I.,"Design and Implementation of speed humps: Supplement to National".,Guidelines for Traffic Calming. Pretoria: Department of Transport,1997.
[4]. Al-Hunaidi, M.O.,"Traffic-induced Vibration In Buildings - Use Of Site Cut-off Frequency As A Remedial Measure".,Transactions on the Built Environment Vol. 14, ISSN 1743-3509
[5]. AnsysManual , Version 14.0

Citation
Abdulameer Qasim Hassan "Study the Structural Behavior of Buildings Susceptible To Vibration Due To Road Bumps" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5(May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0004. Iraq
Page 23-28
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Shailesh Ghanshyam Chaudhari, Sarika Saxena

DNA-Glucose Interaction: Thermodynamic Study
  • Abstract
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Pages 1 and 2: Contents Page 3: Figure S1. CD spectra of Duplex (D2) in the presence of 100 mM NaCl, KCl , with and without 1 mM MgCl2 with an increasing concentration of glucose. Page 4: Figure S2. CD spectra of Duplex (D3) in the presence of 100 mM NaCl, KCl , with and without 1 mM MgCl2 with an increasing concentration of glucose. Page 5: Figure S3. Thermal melting spectra of Duplex (D2) in the presence of 100 mM NaCl, KCl , with and without 1 mM MgCl2 with an increasing concentration of glucose. Page 6: Figure S4. Thermal melting spectra of Duplex (D2) in the presence of 100 mM NaCl, KCl , with and without 1 mM MgCl2 with an increasing concentration of glucose. Page 7: Table S1: Thermodynamic Parameters for the interaction of Duplex (D1) with an increasing concentration of glucose.
...........

..................

Citation
Shailesh Ghanshyam Chaudhari, Sarika Saxena "DNA-Glucose Interaction: Thermodynamic Study" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5(May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0005. India
Page 29-32
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P.Phanidhar, S.R. Murthy

Nanocrystalline Barium Ferrites for Microwave Absorber Applications
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
Nanocrystalline Barium Ferrite (BaFe12 O19) have been prepared by microwave sintering method at different sintering temperatures. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The crystalline size of these samples has been varies from 40 nm to 60nm. The lattice constant and bulk density of these samples increase with an increase of sintering temperature. The temperature variation of electrical conductivity (ζ) of these samples was measured by two probe method. The electrical conductivity in these ferrites has been explained on the basis of hoping mechanism. The plots of log ζ T versus 103/T are show a transition near the Curie temperature............
Barium ferrite, Microwave-hydrothermal method, Microwave Sintering, Electrical conductivity, Dielectric properties.

[1]. I. Nedkov, A. Petkov, V. Karpov, IEEE Trans. Magn. 26(5) (1990) 1483-1484.
[2]. Y. Feng, T. Qiu, C. Shen, X. Li, IEEE APMC2005 Proc. (2005)
[3]. J. Qiu, M. Gu, H. Shen, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 295(3) (2005) 263-268.
[4]. A. Ghasemi, A. Saatchi, M. Salehi, A. Hossienpour, A.Morisako, X. Liu, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 203(2) (2006) 358-365.
[5]. E. Kiani, A.S.H. Rozatian, M.H. Yousefi, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 361 (2014) 25-29.
[6]. R.C. Pullar, Hexagonal ferrites: Prog. Mater. Sci. 57 (2012) 1191-1334.

Citation
P.Phanidhar, S.R. Murthy "Nanocrystalline Barium Ferrites for Microwave Absorber Applications" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5(May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0006. India
Page 33-37
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P V Narendra Kumar, Dr Ch.Chengaiah, J V K Prasad

Estimation of Generation Cost For Multi Capacity Thermal Power Generators Using MATLAB
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
This document gives The cost generated per unit in a thermal power station is dependent on fixed cost and variable cost. The duty of an electrical engineer is to generate power without outage of power keeping the cost of power generated per unit as low as possible. An engineer can able to reduce the cost of generated power only when he knows on what factors the cost of generated power depends. Hence he must know on what factors the fixed cost and variable cost may depend. The Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) has the power of deciding the tariff for electricity generated by various power stations. Tariff is calculated on the basis of fixed cost and variable cost. The power plants have fixed and variable costs. The fixed cost dependent on return on equity, interest on capital loan, depreciation, interest on working capital, operation & maintenance cost and the cost of secondary oil.............
Plant load factor, fixed cost and variable cost, Generation Cost, Cost Index, Electricity Act, Electricity tariff, MATLAB

[1]. S C Shrivastava , Joint Chief (Engg) CERC, New Delhi , ―Bulk Power Generation Tariff - Commercial Issues and Regulatory Perspective‖, Department of Industrial and Management Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, 18 – 23 July, 2011
[2]. Vilas S. Motghare, R. K. Cham , ―Generation Cost Calculation for 660 MW Thermal Power Plants,‖ IJISET - International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, Vol. 1 Issue 10, December 2014.PP 660-664.
[3]. Tariff Determination Methodology for Thermal Power Plants in India.
[4]. National productivity council volume on energy management
[5]. R. K. Rajput, Power Plant Engineering: Laxmi Publications, Delhi, ( Edition 3) 2006

Citation
P V Narendra Kumar, Dr Ch.Chengaiah, J V K Prasad "Estimation of Generation Cost For Multi Capacity Thermal Power Generators Using MATLAB" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5(May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0007. India
Page 38-44
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V. Chittaranjan, C. Rajesh, N. Venkata Niranjan kumar

Mechanical Behaviour & Quantitative Analysis of Ceramic Fiber Reinforced Silica Matrix
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
A composite is a structural material which consists of two or more constituents combined at a macroscopic level. The constituents of a composite material are a continuous phase called matrix and a discontinuous phase called reinforcement. Matrix gives shape and protects the reinforcement from the environment. It also makes the individual fibres of the reinforcement act together and provides transverse shear strength and stiffness to the laminated composites. The present work deals, epoxy based composite filled with ultra-light micro-silica is prepared by traditional hand layup method, using ceramic fibre as reinforcement. The effect of various percentages of micro-silica is investigated on the tensile strength, compression strength, impact resistance and thermal stability of the composite using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis(TGA) analysis. The result reveals that, up to 15% addition of micro-silica enhanced the mechanical properties, thermal stability and increase the weight. However, the addition of micro-silica beyond 15% decreases the enhanced properties of the composites.
Ceramic Fibre Reinforcement, Mechanical properties, Silica-matrix & TGA.

[1]. A.R. Bunsell, M.-H. Berger, Fine Ceramic Fibers, Marcel Dekker, New York 1999
[2]. Chawla K.K., Composite materials, Springer – Verlag, 1987
[3]. Chenggang Chen, Ryan S. Justice, Dale W. Schaefer and Jeffery W. Bauer, "Highly dispersed nanosilica–epoxy resins with enhanced mechanical Properties", Polymer.
[4]. D. Belitskus, Fiber and Whisker Reinforced Ceramics for Structural Applications, Marcel Dekker, New York 1993.
[5]. D.E. Myers, C.J. Martin, and M.L. Blosser. "Parametric Weight Comparison of Advanced Metallic, Ceramic Tile and Ceramic Blanket Thermal Protection Systems, Technical Memorandum 210289, NASA, 2000.

Citation
V. Chittaranjan, C. Rajesh, N. Venkata Niranjan kumar "Mechanical Behaviour & Quantitative Analysis of Ceramic Fiber Reinforced Silica Matrix" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5(May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0008. India
Page 45-48
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G. Praveen Kumar, S. Jagannath Reddy, Anil Kumar Bodukuri

Internal Combustion Engine Using Acetylene As An Alternative Fuel
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
All most all the Vehicles use Crude Oil extracts as their fuel, the consumption of the fuel is increasing greatly with the increase in number of Vehicles on road. However , the Crude Oil reserves in the Earth crust is not going to improve .So there is a need for an alternative fuel which could meet the demands of the future and this alternative fuel must not be a derivative of Crude Oil. Many fuels were tested on the Internal Combustion Engines, Acetylene is one of the tested fuels. The present paper involves the use of Acetylene as a primary fuel and Alcohol as a Secondary fuel in order to avoid the knocking phenomenon in an internal combustion engine. Using Acetylene as a fuel had its own crests and troughs, the paper investigates working of SI engine on acetylene with minor changes being done to the Carburetor. Thus reducing the limitations of using acetylene as a fuel, this makes it fit for use on economic and environment standard. It is more powerful and ecofriendly alternative fuel option.
Alternative fuel, Secondary Fuel , SI engine, Acetylene, Carburetor.

[1]. Lakshmanan T, Ahmed AK, Nagarajan G (2012) Effect of Water Injection in Acetylene Diesel Dual Fuel DI Diesel Engine. ASME 2012 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, Canada.
[2]. Mahla SK, Kumar S, Shergill H, Kumar A (2012) Study the performance characteristics of acetylene gas in dual fuel engine with diethyl ether blends. Int J EmergTe 3: 80-83.
[3]. Gunea C, Razavi MRM, Karim GA (1998) The effects of pilot fuel quantity on dual-fuel engine ignition delay. SAE 982453.
[4]. Nathan SS, MallikarjunaJM, Ramesh A (2010) An experimental study of the biogas–diesel HCCI mode of engine operation. Energ Convers Manage 51: 1347–1353.
[5]. Jai VardhanSrivastav, Harsh VardhanSrivastava (2016) Acetylene Gas as an Alternative Fuel for Spark Ignition Engine. International journal for Scientific Research & Development. Volume 4, Issue 4 pp 145-148.

Citation
G. Praveen Kumar, S. Jagannath Reddy, Anil Kumar Bodukuri "Internal Combustion Engine Using Acetylene As An Alternative Fuel" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5(May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0009. India
Page 49-54
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P. Sreenivasulu, S.Altaf Hussain, Pramod Kumar

Optimal Water Treatment In Pharma Industry
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
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  • Full Article
Pharmaceutical Industry needs high quality of water as a major solvent and utility. Most of the Pharmaceutical Industry uses Ground water as a primary means, however some industries use, water from other sources like rivers and lakes. The specifications of water stipulated by several regulating agencies are stringent, therefore all stringent norms are to be met, at optimal cost of purification. Present paper deals with optimal water treatment process developed through different techniques including membrane filtration and Ultra filtration. Water for study was collected from different sources in Hyderabad, especially from the close vicinity to Pharmaceutical industrial zone. Several experiments were conducted and an optimal method has been derived for use in Pharmaceutical Industry.
Drinking Water, Pharma Industry, Treatment through membrane

[1]. Evaluation of surface water quality for drinking purpose using fuzzy inference system, Ground water for Sustainable Development, Volume 6 ,March 2018: 235-244
[2]. Kirby RM, Bartram J and Carr R. Water in food production and processing: quantity and quality concerns, Food Control 2003; 14: 283-299.
[3]. Gray NF. Biology of wastewater treatment. Dublin: Imperial College press, 2004: 53.
[4]. Allende A, Tomas-Barberan FA and Gil MI, Minimal processing for healthy traditional foods, Trends in Food Science&Tech 2006; 17: 513-319.
[5]. Voutchkov N. Tapping the Ocean for Fresh Water in Carlsbad: http://
www.waterandwastewater.com/www_services/news_center/publish/article_00778.shtml (20. 6. 2006).

Citation
P. Sreenivasulu, S.Altaf Hussain, Pramod Kumar "Optimal Water Treatment In Pharma Industry" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5(May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0010. India
Page 55-63
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D. Anitha, T.Bala Narsaiah, V.V.Basava Rao, G.Srinivasa Rao

Experimental RTD Studies In Circulating Fluidized Bed
  • Abstract
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In the present study the tracer experiments were carried out in a 0.0762m ID and 3m height specially designed laboratory scale liquid – Solid circulating fluidized bed apparatus by using plastic beads act as solid media and Water as fluidizing media. Dispersion Coefficients were calculated, effect of bed height, liquid velocity and solids flux on the Dispersion Coefficient was thoroughly studied.
Residence time, liquid solid circulating fluidized bed, Dispersion number.

[1]. Fan L.S., Gas-Liquid-Solid fluidization engineering, Butterworth, Boston, 1989.
[2]. Chen, Y.M, Jang, C.S, Cai, P., and Fan, L.S, On the formation of particle cluster in a liquid-solid transported bed, Chem, Eng. Sci., 46, 2253-2268, 1991.
[3]. Bi, H.T. and Zhu, J-X, Static instability analysis of circulating fluidized beds and concept of high density riser, AICHE Journal, 1272-1280, 1993.
[4]. Jin, Y., Liang, W-G., and Yu, Z-Q, Synthesis of linear alkyl benzene using liquid- solids circulating fluidized bed reactors, Chinese patent 94, 105, 710, 1994.
[5]. Di Felice, R (1995), Hydrodynamics of liquid fluidization, Chem. Eng. Sci., 50, 1213-1245.

Citation
D. Anitha, T.Bala Narsaiah, V.V.Basava Rao, G.Srinivasa Rao "Experimental RTD Studies In Circulating Fluidized Bed" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5(May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0011. India
Page 64-69
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Version - 2 (May - 2018)


Ali Hasin Bawah

Acylation And Structural Characterization Of 5-(2,6- Dichlorobenzyl)-1,3,4-Thiadiazole-2-Amine
  • Abstract
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This paper will focus on possible new properties in hetero ring thanks to new compounds obtained by means of adding various substitute groups in thiadiazoles, which may contribute to medicine and industry. The main objective of this paper is to carry out synthesis and characterization of new compounds containing substitute thiadiazole ring and their substitute acyl groups, which have potential biological activity. Firstly, 5-(2,6-dichlorobenzyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-amine (2) was synthesized with high yields. Then, the target compounds N-(5-(2,6-dichlorobenzyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl)-3,4,5-substitute benzamide derivatives (4a-n) were synthesized from reactions of these compounds with various acyl chloride derivatives with medium-high yields (76-91%).
Thiadiazole, acylation, heterocyclic.

[1]. Nelson J. A., Rose L. M. and Bennett L.L., "Effect of 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole on Ribonucleotide Pools of Leukemia L1210 Cells" Cancer Research, 36: 1375-1378 (1976).
[2]. Gulerman, N., Rollas, S., Ulgen, M. and Gorrod, J. W., "Synthesis and evaluation of some substituted 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives", Boll Chim. Farmaceutico-Anno, 7: 375–379 (1995).
[3]. Pulvermacher, G., "Ueber einige akommlinge des thiosemicarbazids und umsetzungpoducte derselben", Berlin, 27: 613-630 (1894).
[4]. Partt, E. F. and Kamlet, M. M., "Reaction rates by distillation. IX the condensation of anilines with benzadeydes", J. Org. Chem., 26: 4029-4032 (1961).
[5]. Young G., and Eyre W., "III-Oxidation of benzalthiosemicarbazone" J. Chem. Soc. Trans, 79: 54-60 (1901.

Citation
Ali Hasin Bawah "Acylation And Structural Characterization Of 5-(2,6- Dichlorobenzyl)-1,3,4-Thiadiazole-2-Amine" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5(May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0001. Libya
Page 01-07
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Dr. Amamer Khalil Masoud Ahmidat

Concept of Computer Security
  • Abstract
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After many years of work on computer security, computers are not secure till now. The main reason is that security is expensive to set up and a nuisance to run, so people judge from experience how little of it they can get away with. Since there's been little damage, people decide that they don't need much security. In addition, setting it up is so complicated that it's hardly ever done right. While we await a catastrophe, simpler setup is the most important step toward better security. In a distributed system with no central management like the Internet, security requires a clear story about who is trusted for each step in establishing it, and why. The basic tool for telling this story is the ―speaks for‖ relation between principals that describes how authority is delegated, that is, who trusts whom. The idea is simple, and it explains what's going on in any system I know. The many different ways of encoding this relation often make it hard to see the underlying order.
...............

[1]. Howell and Kotz, End-to-end authorization, 4th Usenix Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implementation, San Diego, Oct. 2000, www.usenix.org/publications/library/ proceedings/ osdi00/howell.html
[2]. Lampson, Protection. ACM Operating Systems Rev. 8, 1 (Jan. 1974), 18-24, research.microsoft.com/lampson/09 Protection/Abstract.html
[3]. Lampson et al, Authentication in distributed systems: Theory and practice. ACM Trans. Computer Systems 10, 4 (Nov. 1992), pp 265-310, www.acm.org/pubs/citations/ journals/tocs/1992- 10-4/p265-lampson
[4]. Myers and Liskov, A decentralized model for information flow control, Proc. 16th ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles,Saint- Malo, Oct. 1997, 129-142, www.acm.org/ pubs/citations/proceedings/ops/268998/p129-myers
[5]. Oasis, Web services security, oasis-open.org/committees/wss.

Citation
Dr. Amamer Khalil Masoud Ahmidat "Concept of Computer Security" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5(May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0002. Libya
Page 08-16
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Matin Vahora, Tian (Richard) Zhao, Zheng (Jeremy) Li

Design and Analysis of Artificial Human Wrist Joint
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
Invention of artificial human wrist joint has been very useful in biomedical application as well as patients of wrist joint. In this paper design artificial human wrist joint and analysis motion of wrist joint by using of solid-works s and ANSYS software. This paper describes the anatomy of wrist joint and design of artificial wrist joint. A preliminary prototype is developing to characterize the design concept.
Artificial human wrist joint, design, mathematical model, analysis, solids work model.

[1]. https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases--conditions/arthritis-of-the-wrist/
[2]. https://www.healthline.com/health/arthritis-wrist
[3]. A Patient's Guide to Artificial Joint Replacement of the Wrist
[4]. https://www.britannica.com/science/wrist-anatomy
[5]. https://www.google.com/search?q=wrist+joint&tbm=isch&tbs=rimg
[6]. https://epublications.marquette.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1176&context=theses_open
[7]. http://www.kean.edu/~jeadams/docs/Kinesiology/Kines_Power_Points/Kines_PPT_PDF_Chap3.pdf

Citation
Matin Vahora, Tian (Richard) Zhao, Zheng (Jeremy) Li "Design and Analysis of Artificial Human Wrist Joint" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5(May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0003. India
Page 17-21
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Tamas Karches

Sewage Treatment Plant Upgrade Applying Wastewater Process Simulation
  • Abstract
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Cost-effective operation of wastewater treatment plant is a basic need in engineering, but time to time it requires optimisations and re-visiting process parameters since the operational environment constantly changes. Alternation of load, extraneous wastewater sources from industry may lead to instabilities in operation, which could be managed only with full understanding of the actual environment. Process simulation is a helpful tool to predict the effect of future operational mode or reactor setup saving energy and cost. In this study the operation performance of a 2 MLD wastewater treatment plant in Hungary was analysed with the tool of process simulations. First the model was calibrated applying the actual operation and reactor setup, then new alternatives were tested and the model results were compared. As a result of the calculations, in addition to the effluent quality improvement the sludge production could be improved by approximately 20% and the aeration need decreased by 30%.
Activated sludge, Operation, Process simulation, Reactor model, Wastewater treatment

[1]. A. D. Andreadakis, "Physical and chemical properties of activated sludge floc," Water Research. vol. 27, issue 12, pp. 1707–1714, 1993.
[2]. R. Bura, M. Cheung, B. Liao, J. Finlayson, B.C. Lee, I. G. Droppo and S. N. Liss, "Composition of extracellular polymeric substances in the activated sludge floc matrix," Water Science and Technology. vol. 37, issue 4-5, pp. 325–333, 1998.
[3]. D. S. Parker, W. J. Kaufman and D. Jenkins, "Physical conditioning of activated sludge floc," Journal Water Pollution Control Federation. pp. 1817–1833, 1971.
[4]. D. S. Parker, W. J. Kaufman and D. Jenkins, "Floc breakup in turbulent flocculation processes," Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division. vol. 98, issue 1, pp. 79–99, 1972.
[5]. T. Mino, M. C. M. Van Loosdrecht and J. J. Heijnen, "Microbiology and biochemistry of the enhanced biological phosphate removal process," Water research. vol. 32, issue 11, pp. 3193–3207, 1998.

Citation
Tamas Karches "Sewage Treatment Plant Upgrade Applying Wastewater Process Simulation" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5(May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0004. Hungary
Page 22-26
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Oladipo Folorunso, Ayenitemitope

Harmonics Analysis Of A Single Phase Inverter Using Matlab Simulink
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
This paper focus on modelling and simulation of single phase inverter. An inverter is a circuit that converts DC sources to AC sources. The model is implemented using MATLAB/Simulink software with the SimPower System Block Set based on computer simulation. In order to find the harmonics content and total harmonic distortion (THD), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis is used using MATLAB Simulink software. It is shown that the performance of the inverter circuit with the harmonics filtering circuit having a THD value of 28.79% is better than the inverter circuit without the harmonics filtering circuit having a THD value of 87.53%.
SimPower, THD, FFT, inverter.

[1]. Folorunso O, Ojo A.O, Ajibade A., (2015). Harmonic analysis and it mathematical philosophy.
[2]. International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigation. Vol4., issue 44, ISSN: 2251-8843
[3]. Kulkarni, W. S. (2003). Harmonic Analysis of three phase PWM inverter systems using MATLAB. American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition.
[4]. Mburu, M. B. (2009). A Pure Sine Wave Inverter for House Backup.
[5]. Paul, P. (2010). Performance and Analysis of DC-AC Pure Sine Wave Inverter.
[6]. Radhakrishna Das, J. K. (2016). Harmonic Analysis of Single Phase Inverter . International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering , 1, 6.

Citation
Oladipo Folorunso, Ayenitemitope "Harmonics Analysis Of A Single Phase Inverter Using Matlab Simulink" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5(May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0005. Nigeria
Page 27-32
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Sai Krishna Koleti, Rahul Reddy Boyapalli, Ravi B

Design and Analysis of Steering System for E-Bike
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The competitive and ever progressive world made mankind to channel the available natural resources for its own benefit devoid of the unfathomable conditions that would prevail in near future. The fear of running out of fuel reserves, forced mankind to depend on other forms of energy. Electrical energy had been amusing mankind with its diverse ways of existence, with which mankind was successful to exploit this energy in many fields. One of such field that needs generic concern of human kind is automobile engineering. This field had been successfully exploited and the production of electric vehicles was made feasible. E bike known for its advantages over petroleum engine in regards with the emission is likely to emerge in the market and become one of the fastest and progressing vehicle. With the scope of enhancing the performance of the e bike we have channelled efforts of all the team to achieve optimum design in Steering system. The prescribed engineering process for design is documented in the following report, including problem definition, project scheduling, design research, design development, and design analysis. The overall objectives are to increase the vehicle performance, quality and overall efficiency...............
Rake, Trial, Opposing Torque, Tree turning angle, Turning radius, Lean angle.

[1]. "Rake & Trail Calculator". RB Racing. Retrieved 2013-12-14.
[2]. Josh Putnam. "Steering Geometry: What is Trail?". Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-04- 07.
[3]. "An Introduction to Bicycle Geometry and Handling". C.h.u.n.k. 666. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 2011- 04-07.
[4]. Brown, Sheldon. "Bullmoose Bars". Sheldon Brown. Retrieved 2010-09-16.
[5]. Brown, Sheldon. "Whatton Bars". Sheldon Brown. Retrieved 2010-06-26.
[6]. "Handlebars for Touring and Commuting". Sheldonbrown.com. Retrieved 2013-10-14

Citation
Sai Krishna Koleti, Rahul Reddy Boyapalli, Ravi B "Design and Analysis of Steering System for E-Bike" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5(May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0006. India
Page 33-37
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Sai Krishna Koleti, Rahul Reddy Boyapalli, Ravi B

Design And Analysis Of Suspension System For E-Bike
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The competitive and ever progressive world made mankind to channel the available natural resources for its own benefit devoid of the unfathomable conditions that would prevail in near future. The fear of running out of fuel reserves, forced mankind to depend on other forms of energy. Electrical energy had been amusing mankind with its diverse ways of existence, with which mankind was successful to exploit this energy in many fields. One of such field that needs generic concern of human kind is automobile engineering. This field had been successfully exploited and the production of electric vehicles was made feasible. E bike known for its advantages over petroleum engine in regards with the emission is likely to emerge in the market and become one of the fastest and progressing vehicle. With the scope of enhancing the performance of the e bike we have channelled efforts of all the team to achieve optimum design in Suspension system. The prescribed engineering process for design is documented in the following report, including problem definition, project scheduling, design research, design development, and design analysis. The overall objectives are to increase the vehicle performance, quality and overall efficiency..............
Suspension, Shock absorbers, Rake, Trial, Active coils, Swingarm.

[1]. Wilson, Hugo (1993). The Ultimate Motorcycle Book. Dorling-Kindersley.p.181. ISBN 0-7513-0043-8.
[2]. "Motorcycle Handling and Chassis Design: The Art and Science" -Tony Foal.
[3]. We have also learned most of the Swingarm types from Wikipedia.
[4]. K Pavan Kumar, S Praveen Kumar and G Guru Mahesh "static analysis of a primary suspension spring used in locomotive" IJMERR, Vol. 2, No. 4, October 2013.
[5]. Smith, Carroll, Engineer to Win. MBI Publishing Company, Minnesota, 1984.
[6]. Gaffney, Edmund F., and Anthony R. Salinas. Introduction to Formula SAE® Suspension and Frame Design. No. 971584. SAE Technical Paper, 1997.

Citation
Sai Krishna Koleti, Rahul Reddy Boyapalli, Ravi B "Design And Analysis Of Suspension System For E-Bike" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 14, Issue 5(May 2018)
MID 1405.067X.0007. India
Page 38-41
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