Volume 16 - Issue 10

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IJERD : Volume 16 - Issue 10

(October - 2020)


Rajbir Singh, Gyanendra Singh

Safety Interventions in Urban Planning For Vulnerable Road Users
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The fast and unprecedented growth of urban centers has not resulted in safe travel. Deaths/ 100 accidents are much higher in many cities than the national average. The most vulnerable group of road users VRUs include Pedestrians, bicyclists and two wheeler riders comprising of 60-90% of the total fatalities in cities. At the city level, efforts to improve transport infrastructure often involve road widening, junction improvement for motorized vehicles, and construction of elevated roads. Infrastructure is not planned for majority VRU trips. This often limits the freedom of movement and safety of pedestrians and bicyclists and encourages private vehicle trips threatening sustainable urban transport needs. The paper summarizes various studies and accident prediction models developed for cities and conclude that promoting mixed land use to reduce trips, designing infrastructure keeping in mind the needs of VRUs and ensuring an easy and safe last mile travel after exiting a public transport may be some of the key interventions at the planning stage.
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[1]. Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India, 2013, ncrb.gov.in/adsi2013/ADSI-2013.pdf
[2]. Aguero-Valverde, J., and Jovanis, P. P. (2006) Spatial analysis of fatal and injury crashes in Pennsylvania. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 38, pp. 618-625.
[3]. Aultman-Hall, L. & Adams, M.F. (1998). Sidewalk bicycling safety issues. Transportation Research Record, 1636, 71-76.
[4]. Aultman-Hall, L. & Hall, F.L. (1998). Ottawa-Carleton commuter cyclist on- and off-road incident rates. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 30, 29-43.
[5]. Aultman-Hall, L. & Kaltenecker, M.G. (1999). Toronto bicycle commuter safety rates. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 31, 675-686.

Citation
Rajbir Singh, Gyanendra Singh "Safety Interventions in Urban Planning For Vulnerable Road Users" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 10 (October 2020)
MID 1610.067X.0001. India
Page 01-08
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Tamas Karches, Peter Orgovanyi, Edit Vadkerti

Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from an Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Technology
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Prediction of the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential for carrying out life cycle analysis of a pollutant. Meeting the effluent quality requirement for liquid phase is based on the regulations, but due to the process conversion products from the wastewater appear in the gaseous phase. An estimation of GHG emissions is the first step to apply process control and optimisation. In this study a middle-sized WWTP in Hungary was examined and based on analytical methods to emission was predicted. Environmental and process variables were also taken into account and the effect on the GHG emission was analysed.
Activated sludge, Bridle model, Greenhouse gas, Wastewater treatment

[1]. IPCC (2001): Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. In Chapter 4, Atmosferic Chemistry and Greenhouse gases. Science Report, https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar3/wg1/chapter-4-atmospheric-chemistry-and-greenhouse-gases/ (Accessed 20.03.2020).
[2]. Gajaraj, S., – Hu, Z. (2014). Integration of microbial fuel cell techniques into activated sludge wastewater treatment processes to improve nitrogen removal and reduce sludge production. Chemosphere, 117, 151-157.
[3]. Ibrahim, Ahmeed Saadi – Salim, Hikmat Said Al (2012): Estimation of Carbon dioxide and Methane Emissions Generated from industrial (WWT) plants. Journal of Purity, Utility Reaction and Environment, Vol. 1. No. 8. 426–434.
[4]. Keller, J. – Hartly, K. (2003): Greenhouse gas production in wastewater treatment: process selection is the major factor. Water Science and Technology, Vol. 47. No. 12. 43–48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2003.0626
[5]. Monteith, H. D. – Sahely, H. R. – Maclean, H. L. – Bagley, D. M. (2005): A rational procedure for estimation of greenhouse-gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Water Environment Research, Vol. 77. No. 4. 390–403.

Citation
Tamas Karches, Peter Orgovanyi, Edit Vadkerti "Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from an Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Technology" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 10 (October 2020)
MID 1610.067X.0002.
Page 09-12
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Rajbir Singh Rathee

Biomedical Waste Management in the wake of Covid-19: Challenges and Current state of Affairs in India
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The prevailing crisis in the area of biomedical waste management (BMW) has been exacerbated by the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic.Proper handling of biomedical waste is of utmost importance as hazardous and infectious nature of the waste can have severe repercussions for the human life as well as the environment. Also, it poses a number of challenges for safe collection, storage, transportation and disposal of the infectious waste.In this context, Government of India laid down Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules in 1998 which have been updated from time to time as per the need of hour. Recently, Government has revised the guidelines multiple times due to rapid increase in the number of Covid-19 related cases and deaths. In this scenario, thisreview article discusses about:(a) the revised guidelines along with practical issues in their effective implementation and (b) the impact of Covid-19on biomedical waste generation and challenges faced for its management in India.
Biomedical Waste, COVID-19, India, Waste Management Challenges.

[1]. Wang J, Shen J, Ye D, Yan X, Zhang Y, Yang W, Li X, Wang J, Zhang L, Pan L. Disinfection technology of hospital wastes and wastewater: Suggestions for disinfection strategy during coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in China. Environmental Pollution. 2020 Apr 24:114665.

[2]. COVID, CSSE. "Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". 2020.https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html.

[3]. Govt of India. Ministry of Environment and Forests Gazette notification No 460 dated July 27, New Delhi. 1998:10–20.

[4]. World Health Organization (WHO). Wastes from healthcare activities. Fact sheet No. 253, Geneva. 2009.
[5]. ASSOCHAM India (2018), Unearthing the Growth Curve and Necessities of Bio-Medical Waste Management in India-2018

Citation
Rajbir Singh Rathee "Biomedical Waste Management in the wake of Covid-19: Challenges and Current state of Affairs in India" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 10 (October 2020)
MID 1610.067X.0003. India
Page 13-19
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V.Ravindra, Uttam Bhunia, P.N. Vishwakarma, V V Rao, S.K. Sarangi

Development of Cost Effective Lab Scale 6 Tesla Superconducting Magnet
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Research in the area of developing low cost superconducting magnets is rapidly increasing to meet the demand in the areas of clean energy production, compact electrical machines and high field facilities for characterization of advanced materials. Keeping in view of these facts, a lab scale cost effective superconducting magnet system (6 Tesla) is designed and developed in house using Nb- Ti wire (0.43 mm nominal diameter, Cu: SC Ratio of 2:1). This paper describes astep by step procedure of former making, coil winding and testing procedure. Training of the superconducting magnet by repeated quenching is also described in this paper. Further, the axial variation of the magnetic field in the 1" bore confirms a uniform zone (±1%) in the central region over a length of 4 cm. The current to field ratio measured experimentally tallies with the theoretical calculation.
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[1]. M.N. Wilson Superconducting Magnets, Oxford University Press 83 ISBN 0-019-854805-2
[2]. R.G. Sharma, Superconductivity: Basics and Applications to Magnets (Springer, New York, 2015)
[3]. "Fundamental Elements of Applied Superconductivity in Electrical Engineering", Yinshun Wang, Wiley Press, 2013.
[4]. "Design and Development of High Temperature Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage for Power Applications- A Review", Poulomi Mukherjee and V. V. Rao, Physica C: Superconductivity and its applications, Volume 563, August 2019, pp. 67–73.
[5]. "10 MW Class Superconductor Wind Turbine Generators", by Gregory Snitchler, Bruce Gamble, Christopher King, and Peter Winn, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 21, No. 3, June 2011.
[6]. "Development and Testing of a 1G based High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Double Pancake Coil for HTS Synchronous machines", V A S Muralidhar Bathula, U K Chowdhury and V. V. Rao, Physica C: Superconductivity and its applications, Volume 562, March 2019, pp. 36–41.
[7]. www.snehamtapes.com/tapes_electrical.html

Citation
V.Ravindra, Uttam Bhunia, P.N. Vishwakarma, V V Rao, S.K. Sarangi "Development of Cost Effective Lab Scale 6 Tesla Superconducting Magnet" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 10 (October 2020)
MID 1610.067X.0004. India
Page 20-28
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Dr. Tarek M. Attia

An Overview of Recent Developments in Energy Efficiency of Wireless Networks and Emerging Technologies in 5G Networks
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
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  • Full Article
During the last two decades, there has beena tremendous growth in wireless communication services, whichhas dramatically increased the number of necessary radioaccess components to provide the adequate capacity andacceptable quality of service (QoS). The power cost for operatingthis huge number of radio Base Stations (BSs) is underserious consideration by the mobile communicationindustry and recent research efforts have focused on energyefficient design and optimization of the radio access of the next-generation networks in order to reduce the energy consumption andmobile network operator'soperational expenditure (OPEX).In this paper, we have surveyed various techniques for the energy efficiency of the upcoming 5G networks.........
5G;Energy Efficiency;Green Communication;Small Cells; MIMO;D2D;SWIPT.

[1]. Ericsson mobility report. Technical report (Nov. 2019).
[2]. IMT Vision Framework and Over- All Objectives of the Future Development of IMT for 2020 and Beyond, document Rec. ITU-R M.2083-0, Sep. 2015.
[3]. G. Kyriazis, A. Rouskas, "Design and operation of energy efficient heterogeneous mobilenetworks", Wireless Netw (2016) 22:2013–2028
[4]. EARTH. Energy Aware Radio and Network Technologies Project. [Online]. Available: https://www.ict-earth.eu/default.html
[5]. C. Han et al., ``Green radio: Radio techniques to enable energy-efficientwireless networks,'' IEEE Com. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, Jun. 2011, pp. 46-54.

Citation
Dr. Tarek M. Attia "An Overview of Recent Developments in Energy Efficiency of Wireless Networks and Emerging Technologies in 5G Networks" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 10 (October 2020)
MID 1610.067X.0005. Egypt
Page 29-43
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Prachi Dhankhar, Pradheep Manisekarn, Surendra Pal Singh

A Novel Approach to Improve Medical Image storage and security by using Wavelet Coding Method
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Today's world, an immense number of therapeutic images and clinical information are generated in both 2D and 3D by numerous advanced imaging techniques, in general Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Ultrasound Imaging (US), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Nuclear Medicine (Scintigraphy), Computed Tomography (CT), Digital Tomography (CT) images, and more. This paper presents the basis for the development of research problems and data collection for current structures, methods and techniques, and for research scholars to understand the existing contribution of different image compression techniques and the merits and demerits of each type. This article offers an overview of best-in - class image data compression and standards such as JPEG and JPEG-2000 that are generally and widely used in the field of image processing..............
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[1]. P. Manisekaran, M. R. A. Dhivakar and P. Kumar, "Enhanced Image Encryption using multiple iterated Arnold Coupled Logistic Map Lattices," 2020 Fourth International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC), Erode, India, 2020, pp. 514-521, doi: 10.1109/ICCMC48092.2020.ICCMC-00096.
[2]. P. Manisekaran, M. R. A. Dhivakar and P. Kumar, "On the Analysis of Space-Amplitude Diagram in Chaotic based Image Encryption," 2020 International Conference on Electronics and Sustainable Communication Systems (ICESC), Coimbatore, India, 2020, pp. 295-301, doi: 10.1109/ICESC48915.2020.9155605.
[3]. Ali M A A, and Deriche M A, Implementation and evaluate the no-reference image quality assessment based on spatial and spectral entropies on the different image quality databases" In proc. 3rd IEEE-International Conference on Information and Communication Technology, pp.188–194, 2015.
[4]. Ahuja S P, Mani S and Zambrano J, "A Survey of the State of Cloud Computing in Healthcare," Network and Communication Technologies, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 12-19, 2012
[5]. Adelson E. H., Simoncelli E., and HingoraniR.,"Orthogonal pyramid transforms for coding," Proc. SPIE, vol.845, Cambridge, MA, pp. 50-58, Oct. 1987

Citation
Prachi Dhankhar, Pradheep Manisekarn, Surendra Pal Singh "A Novel Approach to Improve Medical Image storage and security by using Wavelet Coding Method" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 10 (October 2020)
MID 1610.067X.0006. India
Page 44-51
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