Volume 16 - Issue 7

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IJERD : Volume 16 - Issue 7

(July - 2020)


Chandan Kumar, Md. Gufran Jawed, Krishna Kant Pandey, Navin Kumar, Dhiraj Kumar, Dr. Krishna Murari

Influence of Corn Starch as Admixture in Coconut Fiber Concrete
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
In the past few years much more attentions in the construction industry for the development of construction techniques and improving high performance construction materials. As per Increasing environmental awareness and economical mindset in construction leads to adoption of natural material. Coconut fiber is one of the natural materials which is used in construction. Features of coconut fiber are reasonable, non-corrosiveness, low thermal conductivity, high strength and low weight ratio as compare to traditional concrete. This project paper discusses the enhancement of fiber reinforced concrete by partial replacement of cement with coconut fiber in the proportions of 0, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3% on M30 grade concrete with the addition of 1% corn starch which enhance the workability of concrete. The diameter and length of coconut fiber is taken 0.4 mm and 30 mm respectively.
Coconut fiber, Composite Materials, Corn starch, Compressive strength, Split tensile strength.

[1]. Neville A.M, "Properties of concrete, 4th edition, Pearson Education, Inc. and Dorling Kindersley Publishing,Inc.1995. pp- 506- 517 & 563-569.
[2]. Shetty M.S. "Concrete Technology‟, S.Chand& company Ltd; New Delhi, 2008 pp- 349- 419.
[3]. Gambhir M.L, "Concrete Technology‟, 2nd edition, Tata Mc Graw-hill publishing company Ltd., New Delhi, pp- 100-103 & 333-339.

[4]. IS:456-2000; IS:2386-Part-1-1963; IS:383-1970.―Specificationfine aggregates from natural sources for concrete.
[5]. IS:456-2000; IS:2386-Part-1-1963; IS:383-1970.--- Specification coarse aggregates from natural sources for concrete.
[6]. IS: 10262-2009-- Method of test for aggregate for concrete

Citation
Chandan Kumar, Md. Gufran Jawed, Krishna Kant Pandey, Navin Kumar, Dhiraj Kumar, Dr. Krishna Murari "Influence of Corn Starch as Admixture in Coconut Fiber Concrete" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2020)
MID 1607.067X.0001. India
Page 01-07
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Gokmen Pacal, Dr. Virginia P. Sisiopiku, Dr. Mohammed Hadi

Traffic Signal Operation, Optimization, Maintenance and Management Practices in the Southeast US
  • Abstract
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Adequately designed, managed, operated, and maintained traffic signal systems provide substantial operational, environmental, economic, and safety benefits. While technological advancements can enable improvements in traffic signal operation, optimization, maintenance and management (TSOOMM); such benefits cannot be realized unless transportation authorities are ready to embrace the new technologies and adopt them. In order to understand the needs and opportunities for intervention in TSOOMM, it is important to examine the current practices and document the facilitators and barriers that drive those practices. Along these lines, this study developed and conducted a comprehensive survey of traffic signal operation, optimization and management practices in the Southeast United States............
Survey of practice; traffic signal control; signal optimization; signal management; signal timing; data; new technologies.

[1]. Reed T, and Kidd J. Global Traffic Scorecard. February 2019. INRIX Res, vol.1
[2]. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). 2013. 2012 Urban Congestion Trends: Operations – The Key to Reliable Travel. FHWA Office of Operations
[3]. U.S. Department of Transportation's Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office. 1995. Costs Database. Retrieved April 28, 2020, from https://www.itscosts.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/CostHome Washington, DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers
[4]. National Transportation Operations Coalition (NTOC). October 17, 2005. 2005 National Traffic Signal Report Card. ITE J.
[5]. National Transportation Operations Coalition (NTOC). 2007. 2007 National Traffic Signal Report Card. ITE J.
[6]. National Transportation Operations Coalition (NTOC) .2012. 2012 National Traffic Signal Report Card. Institute of Transportation Engineers. ITE Journal, vol. 82

Citation
Gokmen Pacal, Dr. Virginia P. Sisiopiku, Dr. Mohammed Hadi "Traffic Signal Operation, Optimization, Maintenance and Management Practices in the Southeast US" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2020)
MID 1607.067X.0002. USA
Page 08-18
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I Made Sudarma, Ni Wayan Suniti, dan Ni Nengah Darmiati

The Potential of Exophytic Microbes in Control Empty Panicle Disease of Rice Plant (Oryza sativa L.)
  • Abstract
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Empty panicle disease found in the study was caused by Fusarium sp. which according to reference is F. moniliformin (the perfect stage is called Gibberella fujikuroi). The microbial colonies of healthy rice leaves found in the predominant fungus were Streptomycetes sp., Aspergillus sp. and Nucordia sp. of 2 x 103 cfu, while the dominant fruit exophyte was Aspergillus sp. of 4 x 103 cfu, as well as for stem exophytes. Then followed by Miselia sterilia for 3 x 103 cfu and Phytophthora sp., Nucordia sp., Fusarium sp. 2 x 103 cfu each. The diversity index obtained from the analysis of exophytic microbes was 2.1622 with a dominance index of 0.9230.The highest inhibitory yield of fruit exophytes was Meselia setrilia at 4 dai (days after inoculation), 6, 8 and 10 dai the inhibitory power was 80 ± 0.58% and 96 ± 0.58% at 6 dai but for 8 and 10 dai each inhibitory power is 100%, while for the highest leaf exophytes achieved by Aspergillus sp...........
empty panicle, exophyte microbes, diversity and dominance index, and inhibition.

[1]. Barnett, H.L. and B.B. Hunter. 1998. Illustrated Genera of Imperfect Fungi. Fourth Edition. APS Press. The American Phytopththological Society St. Paul. Minnesota.
[2]. Dolar, F.S. 2001. Antagonistic effect of Aspergillus melleus Yukawa on soilborne pathogens of Chickpea. Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi, 8(2): 167-170.
[3]. Ferianita-Fachrul, M., H. Haeruman, dan L.C. Sitepu. 2005. Komunitas Fitoplankton Sebagai Bio-Indikator Kualitas Perairan Teluk Jakarta. FMIPA-Universitas Indonesia Depok (Indonesian language).
[4]. Indrawati. G., R.A. Samson, K. Van den Tweel-Vermeulen, A. Oetari dan I. Santoso. 1999. Pengenalan Kapang Tropik Umum. Yayasan Obor Indonesia. Universitas Indonesia (University of Indonsia Culture Collection) Depok, Indonsia dan Centraalbureau voor Schirmmelcultures, Baarn, The Netherlands (Indonesian language).
[5]. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). 1983. Field problems of tropical rice. Manila (Philippines): IRRI

Citation
I Made Sudarma, Ni Wayan Suniti, dan Ni Nengah Darmiati "The Potential of Exophytic Microbes in Control Empty Panicle Disease of Rice Plant (Oryza sativa L.)" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2020)
MID 1607.067X.0003. India
Page 19-24
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S.P Thatoi, S. Swain, M.C. Tripathy

Design and Analysis of Fractional Order Transistor Amplifier
  • Abstract
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The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of fractional order RC based transistor amplifier with its fractional counterpart. Here, the fractional order capacitor is being designed in domino logic in passive symmetric realization both in simulation and experimental level and the phase angle evaluated is being compared with the actual order. The fractional capacitor is being designed by calculating certain equations and determining the values of resistances and capacitances for required order of the fractional capacitor. The fractional order capacitor designed in MATLAB Simulink is implemented in BJT based RC coupled amplifier and the frequency domain analysis is obtained and compared with the orders of fractional capacitor (α=0.6, 0.8 and 1.0). The order of α providing the maximum bandwidth resulting in minimum selectivity is being observed
.................

[1]. S. Swain, S. P. Thatoi, M. C. Tripathy,"Modeling and Performance Improvement of Multistage Fractional Order BJT Amplifier", International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, Vol. 10, issue. 2, pg. 26596- 26599, ISSN 2321 3361 © 2020 IJESC (July 2020)
[2]. I.Petras, Fractional-order nonlinear systems: Modeling, analysis and simulation, Higher education press, Beijing, (2011).
[3]. S. Westerlund, Capacitor theory, IEEE Transaction on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 1(5), 826{839 (October 1994).
[4]. J.C. Wang, Realizations of generalized warburg impedance with RC ladder net- works and transmission lines, Journal of The Electrochemical Society: Electro- chemical Science and Technology, 134(8), 1915{1920 (August 1987).
[5]. D.Sierociuk, I. Podlubny and I. Petras, Experimental evidence of variable-order behavior of ladders and nested ladders, 1{8 (July 2011), arXiv:1107.2575.

Citation
S.P Thatoi, S. Swain, M.C. Tripathy "Design and Analysis of Fractional Order Transistor Amplifier" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2020)
MID 1607.067X.0004. India
Page 25-33
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Dr. Megala, Aman dosi , Aditya singh tanwar, Om narayan pandey

Drinking Water Activated By Plasma
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In this paper Plasma injection in water offers one of the chance to non-thermally inject advanced oxidation technologies in the liquid water, this includes purification by chemical processing. Nowadays generation needs to probably revolutionize the purification of water that will be fit for drinking, also contemporary techniques for the chemical processing by eradication of the catalysts(physical). As such, this area represents a rising and energetic region of research. Limitations of traditional plasma injection strategies include constrained through-put ability, electrode erosion, and decreased system volume, high concentration of regulated and unregulated contaminants, and sometimes more harmful chemicals are produced. This project consist of direct plasma injection with the help of a slayer exciter circuit for the purification of water.
.................

[1]. UN General Assembly Resolution Number GA/10967.
[2]. Grand Challenges for Engineering, Nat. Acad. Eng., 2008.
[3]. TheHistoryofDrinkingWaterTreatment,Feb.2000.EPA-816-F-00-006.
[4]. J. S. Zogorski, J. M. Carter, T. Ivahnenko, W. W. Lapham, M. J. Moran, B. L. Rowe, P. J. Squillace, and P. L. Toccalino, ―Volatile organic compounds in the nation's ground water and drinking water supply wells,‖ U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, U.S. Geological Survey Rep. Circular 1292, 2006.
[5]. Organic compounds Assessed in Chattahoochee River Water Used for Public Supply near Atlanta, Georgia, 2004-05, U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2011-3062, Jun. 2011.
[6]. T. Tisler and J. Zagorc-Kocan, ―The ‗whole-effluent' toxicity approach,‖ Int. J. Environ. Pollution, vol. 31, pp. 3–12, Nov. 2007.
[7]. O. T. Love, R. J. Miltner, R.G. Eilers, and C.A. Frank-Leist, ―Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water,‖ EPA-600/8-83-019, May 1983.

Citation
Dr. Megala, Aman dosi , Aditya singh tanwar, Om narayan pandey "Drinking Water Activated By Plasma" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2020)
MID 1607.067X.0005. India
Page 34-42
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Dr. Mohit Kamra

Rapid Prototyping - An Engineering Tool in Dentistry
  • Abstract
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Rapid prototyping, is a computer assisted designing and manufacturing technology that automatically constructs physical models from computerized three-dimensional data . This technology has recently been successfully applied in medical fields such as implant surgical guides, maxillofacial prosthesis, frameworks of removable dentures, wax patterns for dental prosthesis, zirconia prosthesis and moulds for metal castings and complete dentures. This technique of printing can reduce the time of surgery for giving a better understanding of the real-time surgery operation over the human body and these free accessible applications can increase design accuracy with possible minimal expense..
Rapid Prototyping, Stereolithography, Dental prosthesis ..

[1]. D. Hyndhavi . S.B Murthy . Rapid Prototyping Technology- Classification and Comparison International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology . Volume: 04 Issue: 06 | June -2017 . pp 3107-3111.
[2]. T M A Kohli. "3D Printing in Dentistry – An Overview". Acta Scientific Dental Sciences 3.6 (2019): pp 35-41.
[3]. Dr. P. N Rao, Dr. Y. Lerner, V. Kouznetsov . Rapid Prototyping Applications in Metal Casting. Journal - Institution of Engineers, Malaysia. Vol. 64 No. 3 2003. pp 1-7.
[4]. Madhav VNV, Daule R. Rapid prototyping and its application in dentistry. 2013;2(2). pp 57-61.
[5]. Islas M., Noyola M., Martinez R., Pozos A., Garrocho A., 2015: Fundamentals of Stereolithography, an Useful Tool for Diagnosis in Dentistry.-Odovtos -Int. J. Dental Sc., 2015.17-2 (May-August): pp 15-21..

Citation
Dr. Mohit Kamra "Rapid Prototyping - An Engineering Tool in Dentistry International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2020)
MID 1607.067X.0006. India
Page 43-48
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J. Jaya Prakash, R. Vidjeapriya

Critical Path Method and Time-Cost Tradeoff Analysis – A Review
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This paper aims to incorporate the knowledge on Critical Path Method (CPM) of scheduling and Time Cost Tradeoff (TCT) analysis, to understand their limitations, and latest advancements in research so as to further the existing research to obtain breakthrough in practical application.The review was done by sourcing the literature with a strict acceptance criteria which ensures that only quality original works are cited,and then categorizing the obtained literature to form a structured review.The limitations and unawareness of modern methodologies among project managers, their rigidity in being practically applicable on site despite being extremely beneficial and the lack of research in considering the Time Value of Money as a factor of variability in estimation of cost are seen through the various literature studied.The future research through the process of implementing Time Value of Money and incorporating the overheads into the analysis of Time-Cost Tradeoff to obtain results synchronous to real-time data,which has not been rigorously researched even after proof of its benefits decades ago, are discussed alongside the practical implications of simplifying the same
Time-Cost Tradeoff, Critical Path Analysis, Resource Management, Time-based Management, Cost Control, Construction Management, Cost Allocation, Optimization.

[1]. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, Fourth Edition. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania: Project Management Institute (PMI). 2017.
[2]. Aliyu A.M. (2012), ―Project Management Using Critical Path Method (CPM): A Pragmatic Study‖, Global Journal of Pure And Applied Sciences, Vol. 18, No. 3&4, pp. 197-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v18i3-4.11
[3]. AlSehaimi A., Koskela L. and Tzortzopoulos P. (2013), ―Need for alternative research approaches in construction management: case of delay studies‖, Journal of Management in Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 407–413.https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000148
[4]. Aminbakhsh S. and Sönmez R. (2016), ―Applied discrete particle swarm optimization method for the large-scale discrete time–cost trade-off problem‖, Expert System with Applications, Vol. 51, pp. 177-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2015.12.041
[5]. Amiri M. J. T., Haghighi F. R., Eshtehardian E. and Abessi O. (2018), ―Multi-project Time-cost Optimization in Critical Chain with Resource Constraints‖, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 22, No. 10, pp. 3738-3752.https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-017-0691-x.

Citation
J. Jaya Prakash, R. Vidjeapriya "Critical Path Method and Time-Cost Tradeoff Analysis – A Review" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2020)
MID 1607.067X.0007. India
Page 49-58
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Iman O. Gawad, Radwa A. Omira

Urban Soundscape Ecology: Considering Users Perception
  • Abstract
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Public spaces impose an excessive impact on individuals' overall comfort and wellbeing. The acoustic environment in urban outdoor spaces represents, along with users' interaction and improving the public space elements, a fundamental objective of any city planning in order to design spaces that accommodate the complex dynamics of public life. As Cairo, Egypt, is considered one of the most overcrowded and largest capitals worldwide, it's soundscape resembles the richest and most diverse that could be experienced. The city's sonic environment is fueled up by the mass of activities and cultural demographic diversity. However, the lack of sufficient urban management observed through the last few years led to the deterioration of this historic city, and a general retrogression in the quality of life of its inhabitants. Recently, it was noticed that during the design and planning processes, architects and urban planners in Egypt, excessively focus on the visual aspects rather than the sensual dimension of public spaces
....

[1]. Southworth, M. (1969), 'The Sonic Environment of Cities', Environment and Behaviour 1(1), 49_70.
[2]. ISO (2014), 'Acoustics _ Soundscape _ Part 1: Defnition and conceptual framework', (ISO/FDIS 12913-1:2014(E).
[3]. Zonneveld IS, Forman RTT (1990) Changing landscapes: an ecological perspective. Springer, NY
[4]. Schafer, R.M. (1994) The soundscape: the tuning of the world. Inner Traditions International Limited, Rochester
[5]. Krause, B.L. (1987) Bioacoustics, habitat ambience in ecological balance. Whole Earth Rev. 57:14–18

Citation
Iman O. Gawad, Radwa A. Omira "Urban Soundscape Ecology: Considering Users Perception" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2020)
MID 1607.067X.0008. India
Page 59-72
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Series-2


Jesús U. Liceaga-Castro, Irma I. Siller-Alcalá, Eduardo Liceaga-Castro

Noise Reduction Disturbance Observer Global Stability and Robustness Conditions Based on the Nyquist Stability Criteria
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Global and robust stability conditions of controllers based on linear noise reduction disturbance observers (NR-DOB) are presented. These fundamental properties are analyzed by applying the Nyquist stability criteria of the overall scheme. Under this framework the stability and robustness of the control scheme are clearly exposed and established. The effectivity of the control strategy here proposed is shown through a series of illustrative examples in which systems with delays, non-minimum phase zeros or un-stable poles are considered.
....

[1]. Wei Xie, "High frequency measurement noise rejection based on disturbance observer". Journal of the Franklin Institute 347, pp.1825–1836, 2010.
[2]. Wen-Hua Chen. "Disturbance Observer Based Control for Nonlinear Systems". IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 9 (4), pp. 706-710 [10.1109/TMECH.2004.839034], 2006.
[3]. VaijayantiS.Deshpande, B.Mohan, P.D.Shendge and S.B.Phadke. "Disturbance observer-based sliding mode control of active suspension systems". Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 333, pp. 2281–2296Z. 2014.
[4]. Jun Yang, Shihua Li ∗, Xisong Chen, Qi Li. "Disturbance rejection of dead-time processes using disturbance observer and model predictive control". Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Vol. 89, pp. 125–135. 2011.
[5]. Sujay D. Kadam1 and L. M. Waghmare. "Control of Integrating Processes with Dead-Time using PID Controllers with Disturbance Observer based Smith Predictor". 2013 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications (CCA) Part of 2013 IEEE Multi- Conference on Systems and Control. 2013.

Citation
Jesús U. Liceaga-Castro, Irma I. Siller-Alcalá, Eduardo Liceaga-Castro "Noise Reduction Disturbance Observer Global Stability and Robustness Conditions Based on the Nyquist Stability Criteria" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2020)
MID 1607.067X.0001. México
Page 01-17
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R.Padmanaban, S.Ashik Ahamed

Use of M-Sand in Concrete Manufacturing, Mix Design & Quality expectations from the User Industry
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
Manufactured sand is one of the fine aggregate used in production of concrete as an alternate to natural river sand or any other sand used for construction. Manufactured sand differs from natural sand in its physical and mineralogical properties. The physical characteristic of M-Sand influences the workability, High concrete strength and durability of concrete. Even though the compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete made by M-sand exceeds that of made by natural sand, there must be a requirement of adequate and strict quality control in manufacturing process of M-Sand. Using M-Sand in concrete is most economical also. This paper presents use of M-Sand in concrete manufacturing, Mix design and quality expectations from the user industry.
M-Sand, Workablity, High concrete strength, Durablity, depletion, Quality requirements,

[1]. M.S. Shetty, Concrete Technology, (New Delhi, S. Chand & Company Ltd., 2012),
[2]. IS: 383. Specification for Coarse and Fine aggregates from Natural Sources of Concrete. Bureau of Indian Standards.New Delhi, India; 1970.
[3]. IS: 456. Code of practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete (Fourth Revision). Bureau of Indian Standards. New Delhi, India; 2000. [4]. IS: 10262. Concrete Mix Proportioning – Guidelines. Bureau of Indian Standards. New Delhi, India; 2009.
[5]. Public Works Department (PWD) and they issued a guidelines vide "Technical Circular No. AEE / T10 / 57017, dated 12.07.2017 by the ENGINEER-IN-CHIEF (BUILDINGS).

Citation
R.Padmanaban, S.Ashik Ahamed "Use of M-Sand in Concrete Manufacturing, Mix Design & Quality expectations from the User Industry" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2020)
MID 1607.067X.0002. India
Page 18-23
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Yuniarto Agus Winoko, Rifqi Wisnu Rinarko, Umi Anis Ro'isatin

The Comparison of Octane 90 Mixed Fuel with Bioaditive towards The Performance of The Otto Engine
  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
Innovations regarding alternative fuels beganto be put forward, either searching for new fuels to replace fossil fuels or adding certain ingredients to fuel oil. One of the ways is to use bioaditive, where this material is mixed into the fuel to the combustion process perfectly of the engine combustion chamber. Cajeput oil is one type of bioaditive. The study uses cajeput oil because it is easily available on the market and is relatively inexpensive. The aim is to determine how much mixing cajeput oil with 90 octane fuel and to compare what the maximum torque is produced when it is mixed. The method in the study uses the full open throttle method with engine speed between 1500 to 6500rpm.
..............

[1]. Yuniarto A. Winoko, Kasijanto, Santoso. Pengujian Daya dan Emisi Gas Buang . Edisi Revisi. Malang: Polinema Press. 2018:23.
[2]. Setyawan.N.A. Pengaruh Penambahan Bioaditif Minyak Kayu Putih Pada Bahan Bakar Premium Terhadap Performa, Konsumsi Bahan Bakar dan Emisi Gas Buang Sepeda Motor Thesis:Semarang: UNNES; 2015.
[3]. Utomo.R.Agus, Arsana.I.Made. Pengaruh Penambahan Bioaditif Minyak Kayu Putih Pada Bahan Bakar Pertalite Terhadap Performa, Konsumsi Bahan Bakar dan Emisi Gas Buang Sepeda Motor Honda CSI 150 PGM-FI. 2020;9 (2):29-25.
[4]. Kadarohman.A. Jurnal Pengajaran MIPA. Eksplorasi Minyak Atsiri Sebagai Bioaditif Bahan Bakar Solar. 2009;14. (2):121.
[5]. P.Iwan, M. Ena, H. Priyagung. Pengaruh Bio Aditif Minyak Kayu Putih Pada Bahan Bakar Pertalite. UNISMA. 2017.

Citation
Yuniarto Agus Winoko, Rifqi Wisnu Rinarko, Umi Anis Ro'isatin "The Comparison of Octane 90 Mixed Fuel with Bioaditive towards The Performance of The Otto Engine" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2020)
MID 1607.067X.0003. INDONESIA
Page 24-27
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S. Vallabhy, D. Madhanagopalan, Gadamsetty Savarkar, P. V. S. Sai Goutham, M. Edison

Characterization of Historic Lime Mortars in Cultural Heritage Building in Udaipur, Rajasthan
  • Abstract
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Material characterization of the historical building and associated structures was used to develop a suitable method intervention that is sympathetic to the original materials. Mortars is the most damaged materials therefore, historical mortar from Bichli Haveli historical building and associated structure has been characterized by visual examination, optical microscopy, X ray fluorescence and the results have been compared. The historical mortar is mainly comprised of calcite, quartz and feldspar. The mortar condition has been divided into hard mortar, soft mortar and soft friable mortar. Various test were conducted like Micro Morphological and Elemental (SEM-EDAX), Mineralogical (XRF) and Thermal Analysis (TGA-DSC) in order to identify the micro structure. The chemical consistency and durability of each composition.
XRF, SEM-EDAX, TGA-DSC, Bichli Haveli

[1] Marco Bovo, Claudio Mazzotti, Marco Savoia [2017] "Structural Characterization of an Historical Building by Means of Experimental Tests on Full-Scale Elements" , Advances in Civil Engineering Volume 2017, Article ID 6819546.

[2] Athuman M. K. Ngoma "Characterisation and Consolidation of Historical Lime Mortars in Cultural Heritage Buildings and Associated Structures in East Africa " .

[3] R. Ravisankar, A. Naseerutheen, A. Chandrasekaran "Energy dispersive X Ray fluorescence analysis of ancient potteries from vellore district Tamil Nadu , India with statistical approach", Journal of Radiation research and applied science.

[4] A. Palomo, M.T. Blanco-Varela, S. Martinaz- Ramirez "Historic Mortars: Characterization and Durability", Journal of New Tendencies for Research.

[5] Alick, L., Hughes, H. (2002). Binder Microstructure in Lime Mortars: Implications for the Interpretation of Analysis Results. Engineering Geology & Hydrogeology, 36, 3, 257-263.

Citation
S. Vallabhy, D. Madhanagopalan, Gadamsetty Savarkar, P. V. S. Sai Goutham, M. Edison "Characterization of Historic Lime Mortars in Cultural Heritage Building in Udaipur, Rajasthan" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2020)
MID 1607.067X.0004. India
Page 28-36
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