Volume 17 - Issue 4

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IJERD : Volume 17 - Issue 4

(July-August - 2021)


Dr. (Mrs.) Pratibha Kumar, Mr. Karan Chaudhry

Blockchain Technology
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In this paper we study the concept of blockchain technology which is rapidly changing the way we transact information and do business. Discussing its origins and features, we will look into its various applications such as in finance, supply chain and healthcare.
....

[1]. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/blockchain.asp
[2]. https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/uk/Documents/Innovation/deloitte-uk-what-is-blockchain-2016.pdf
[3]. https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesbusinesscouncil/2020/09/28/what-makes-a-blockchain-project-successful/?sh=7eb945982b44
[4]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=55aTGNx5vug
[5]. https://builtin.com/blockchain

Citation
Dr. (Mrs.) Pratibha Kumar, Mr. Karan Chaudhry "Blockchain Technology" International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 17, Issue 4 (July-August 2021)
MID 1704.067X.0001. India
Page 01-05
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Arpad Fekete, Tamas Karches

Markov Chain Analysis Of Rainfall Sum In A Small Hungarian Municipality
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The sequential process of rainy and rainless days as a physical system has been studied with Markov chains since the 1960s. However, in recent years there have been several publications in which the Markov chain analysis of annual precipitation sum has also been applied. This is a rather novel approach to the statistical analysis of precipitation sums, although the process itself is already known in several other hydrological processes. In this paper, the annual precipitation sums in a small municipality of Hungary and its region applying Markov chain were analysed based on 30-year data series. The data set was subjected to a normality test, and each year was classified into five categories (states) based on the amount of rainfall that year. With the help of a transition probability matrix, the invariant distributions of each category..........
invariant distribution, Markov chain, rainfall sum, return interval, transition matrix

[1]. Láng, I., Csete, L., Jolánkai, M. Global climate change –impact and responses in Hungary. Agrokémia és Talajtan. 2007. No. 57. Pp. 199-202. (In Hungarian)
[2]. Bartholy, J., Pongrácz, R., Gelybó, Gy. Regional climate change expected in Hungary for 2071-2100. Appl. Ecology & Env, Res. 2007. No. 5. Pp. 1-17.
[3]. Pongrácz, R., Bartholy, J., Miklós, E. Analysis of projected climate change for Hungary using ENSEMBLES simulations. Appl. Ecology and Env. Res. 2011. No. 9. Pp. 387-398.
[4]. Pongrácz, R., Bartholy, J., Kis, A. Estimation of future precipitation conditions for Hungary with special focus on dry periods. Időjárás. 2014. No. 118. Pp. 305-321.
[5]. Péczely, Gy. Science of Climate, Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó, Budapest, Hungary, 1979. (In Hungarian)

Citation
Arpad Fekete, Tamas Karches "Markov Chain Analysis Of Rainfall Sum In A Small Hungarian Municipality" International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 17, Issue 4 (July-August 2021)
MID 1704.067X.0002. Hungary
Page 06-13
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Nassir Abuhamoud, Sana Fadil, Samer Alsadi, Baba Omar

Attenuation of Dust and Sand Storms of Microwave Signal at Sabha City
  • Abstract
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Dust and sand storms attenuation is one of the main problem in usage of microwave bands for terrestrial and DB satellite at desert areas. This paper present and enforce a mathematical version to are expecting the microwave sign attenuation because of dust and sand storm withinside city of Sabha. The foremost enter parameters for the version are visibility, sign frequency, the quantity of dust particular sand humidity. The offered version successfully predicts the microwave sign attenuation. The effects display that the attenuation will increase with frequencies and humidity and reduces with visibilities. The observe located out that the very best values of attenuation in sabha city varies from 0.13 to 9.78 dB/km at humidity 60%. The final results of this observe will facilitate the layout of dependable conversation structures through thinking about the attenuation traits because of atmospheric situations that may permit mitigation of channel fading circumstance through adaptively choosing suitable propagation parameters.
Attenuations, Dust and Sand Storm, Libya, Microwave, Communication.

[1]. Abuhdima, E. M., Saleh, I. M., (2010). Effect of sand and dust storms on microwave propagation signals in southern Libya. IEEE, 695–698.
[2]. Abuhamoud N., (2014). Evaluation of L2 Trigger Impact on Fast Mobile IPv6 Handover. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE), v.4.
[3]. Abuhamoud N., Geepalla E., (2015). Using Spatio-Temporal Role Based Access Control for Physical Access Control Specification: Towards Effective Cyber-Physical Systems. International Journal of Innovative Science and Modern Engineering (IJISME), v.3.
[4]. Elabdin Z., Islam M. R., Khalifa O., Raouf H. E. Salamial M., (2008). Development of mathematical model for the prediction of microwave signal attenuation due to dust storm. IEEE, 1156–1161.
[5]. Fadil S., Abuhamoud N., (2016). Link Budget of GEO Satellite (Nile Sat) at Ku-band Frequency. The First Scientific Symposium of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EEES), Tripoli-Libya.

Citation
Nassir Abuhamoud, Sana Fadil, Samer Alsadi, Baba Omar "Attenuation of Dust and Sand Storms of Microwave Signal at Sabha City" International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 17, Issue 4 (July-August 2021)
MID 1704.067X.0003. Libya
Page 14-21
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Baba Omar, Nassir Abuhamoud, Samer Alsadi

Experimental Study of Design and Implementation Classical Controller into Fuel cell/Battery Hybrid System
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In this study of power management, the hybrid system consists of a 1.2kW Nexa PEM fuel cell, three 12V batteries, DC/DC converters to power Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The control strategy is control the power between the FC and the battery by using PID controller is based on the following principle: The PEMFC is the main power supply for the electric engine driving the propeller and has to be operated at optimal efficiency. In the case that the FC cannot completely supply the power demands, the battery will provide short burst power demands as required. Simultaneously the FC should keep the battery sufficient charged at all times. The maximum NexaPEM fuel cell efficiency is about 50% at part load and drop to 38% at full power. All the goals above were achieved through control of the voltage and current of the step-down bidirectional DC6350F-S converter in batteries side.
control, power management, hybrid system, fuel cell

[1]. Blackwelder, M. J. and Dougal, R. A. (2004), "Power Coordination in a Fuel Cell-Battery Hybrid Power Source using Commercial Power Controller Circuits", Journal of Power Sources, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 139-147.
[2]. Brodd, R. J. (1993), "Overview: Rechargeable Battery Systems", WESCON/'93. Conference Record, pp. 206.
[3]. Lee, H. S., Jeong, K. S. and Oh, B. S. (2003), "An experimental Study of Controlling Strategies and Drive Forces for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 215-222.
[4]. Zhenhua Jiang, Lijun Gao and Dougal, R. A. (2005), "Flexible Multiobjective Control of Power Converter in Active Hybrid Fuel Cell/Battery Power Sources", Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 244-253.
[5]. Romeo, G., Moraglio, I. and Novarese, C. (2007), "ENFICA-FC: Preliminary Survey & Design of 2-Seat Aircraft Powered by Fuel Cells Electric Propulsion", Vol. 1, pp. 602.

Citation
Baba Omar, Nassir Abuhamoud, Samer Alsadi "Experimental Study of Design and Implementation Classical Controller into Fuel cell/Battery Hybrid System" International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 17, Issue 4 (July-August 2021)
MID 1704.067X.0004. Libya
Page 22-27
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Isma. M. Abdorlhman, A. M. Almathnani, Abobaker. E. Abobaker, Amnh K. Saber, Samer Alsadi

Evaluation of salinity effect on growth and productivity of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana)
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For many years, saline lands have been a problem for agricultural investment, so this study aimed to evaluate the growth and productivity of Rhodes grass under the conditions of the environmental stress of salinity on two types of soils (sandy soil and sandy clay soil) in Wadi Al Shate region (in southern Libya) in summer 2013. By determining the percentage germination and growth indicators of seedling and measurement of some of the apparent characteristics of the vegetative and root, as well as the study of the most soil characteristics affecting plant growth. The results showed the ability of the plant to grow during soil salinity up to 300 mM/L sodium chloride but with significant damage, and it is noticed that it excretes these salts through the vegetative part of the plant.............
Growth, Productivity, Rhodes Grass, Salinity.

[1]. Abadi, A. and Nasser, S. 2010. A Comparative Physiological Study on the Salt Tolerance of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Vignasinensis L. University of Dhi Qar, Iraq.
[2]. Aspinall, D. 1986. Wet abolic effect on water and salinity stress in relation to expansion of leaf surface Aust .J. plant physiol, 13: 59 - 73.
[3]. A.O.A.C. 1990. Association of official Analysis chemistry.15 the ed, Washington D.C.Us.A.
[4]. Al-Adgham, S. A. and Al-Suel, M. M. 2014. Effect of the use of some plant hormones on the cultivation of maize and barley under salinity conditions. Thesis of master degree, Faculty of Science - Department of Botany, University of Misurata - Libya.
[5]. Al-Dulaimi, H. N. 1990. Effect of different levels of salinity in some morphological and physiological stabilizers of two types of barley plant Hordeumvulgare L. Faculty of Education / Ibn al-Haytham, University of Baghdad - Iraq.

Citation
Isma. M. Abdorlhman, A. M. Almathnani, Abobaker. E. Abobaker, Amnh K. Saber, Samer Alsadi "Evaluation of salinity effect on growth and productivity of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana)" International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 17, Issue 4 (July-August 2021)
MID 1704.067X.0005. Libya
Page 28-38
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Gadissa Mosisa, Vighneswara Rao.K

Production, Characterization and Optimization of Biodegradable Plastic from Corn starch and Sugarcane Bagasse
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There is an increasing need for biodegradable plastics because of they are environmentally friendly and can replace petroleum-based non-degradable plastics which pollute the environment. Recently huge efforts are exerted in substitution of petroleum based polymers by biodegradable ecofriendly composites because of the toxic effect of the synthetic polymers. Petroleum base polymers are not sustainable as they depend on depleting fossils. This work studies the effect of Bagasse (sugarcane byproduct) fiber weight fraction on starch based composite.............
Bioplastic, Starch, Sugarcane fiber, tensile strength, water absorption, elongation at break

[1]. Abdillahi, H., Chabrat, E., Rouilly, A. & Rigal, L. (2013). Influence of citric acid on thermoplastic wheat flour/poly(lactic acid)blends. II. Barrier properties and water vapor sorption isotherms. . Industrial Crops and Products, 50, 104– 111.
[2]. Abdul Khalil, I.U.H. B A. Zaidon, D. Hermawan, and Y.S. Hadi,. (2012). Materials and Design, . 42,353-368.
[3]. Ahmed, M.S. and Mohammad, F.A. (2014). Theoretical Modal Analysis of Freely and Simply Supported RC Slabs. . International Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial and Mechatronics Engineering, 8, 2026-2030.
[4]. Assefa Z, Admassu S. (2013). Development and Characterization of Antimicrobial Packaging Films. J Food Process Technol 4, 235.doi:10.4172/2157-7110.1000235.
[5]. ASTM. ( 2008). ASTM D638-08 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics. . West Conshohocken, PA, USA: ASTM International

Citation
Gadissa Mosisa, Vighneswara Rao.K "Production, Characterization and Optimization of Biodegradable Plastic from Corn starch and Sugarcane Bagasse" International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 17, Issue 4 (July-August 2021)
MID 1704.067X.0006. Ethiopia
Page 39-50
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Christos Mourtzios, Katherine Siakavara

Synthesis of a printed loop rectenna using metamaterials for effective RF energy harvesting
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Radio-frequency (RF) energy harvesting (RFEH) has gained significant scientific attention as an efficient and promising method of enabling self-sustainable wireless sensors and networks. Metamaterial-enabled structures have been widely deployed to enhance the performance of a plethora of RF devices, especially in the microwave frequency regime. In this paper, a novel approach is presented on designing a low profile and compact rectenna (antenna and rectifier) employing a printed loop antenna integrated with a uniform Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) structure operating at the 940MHz frequency regime. The presented analytical results proved that the proposed hybrid rectenna is superior to a respective rectenna without the EBG arrangement..............
rectenna, Electromagnetic Band-Gap antennas, printed loop antennas, wireless energy harvesting, metamaterials

[1]. Abdulhameed, M. K., et al. 2019. Radiation control of microstrip patch antenna by using electromagnetic band gap. International Journal of Electronics and Communications (AE ), 110:152835, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2019.152835.
[2]. Abdulhameed, M., Isa, M. S. M., Ibrahim, I. M., Zakaria, Z., Mohsen, M. K., Attiah, M. L., Dinar, A. M. 2020. Side lobe reduction in array antenna by using novel design of EBG. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 10:1, 308-315, ISSN: 2088-8708. DOI: 10.11591/ijece.v10i1.
[3]. Assimonis, S. D. and Fusco, V. 2018. RF Energy harvesting with dense rectenna-arrays using electrically small rectennas suitable for IoT 5G embedded sensor nodes. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on 5G Hardware and System Technologies (IMWS-5G), Dublin, Ireland, 1-3. doi:10.1109/IMWS-5G.2018.8484384.
[4]. Avago Technologies, 2020. Data Sheet HSMS-285x. https://pdf1.alldatasheet.com/datasheetpdf/view/1072262/AVAGO/H SMS-285X.html
[5]. AVX-Advanced Electronic Components, 2020. https://www.avx.com

Citation
Christos Mourtzios, Katherine Siakavara "Synthesis of a printed loop rectenna using metamaterials for effective RF energy harvesting" International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 17, Issue 4 (July-August 2021)
MID 1704.067X.0007. Greece
Page 51-62
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Series-2

M. Rasouli Gandomani

A new approach for solving fractional partial Differential equations via a collocation method based on Muntz- Legendre polynomials
  • Abstract
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In this paper, a numerical method for calculating the approximate solution of fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs) using a collocation method based on Muntez-Legendre polynomials has been presented. Having specific properties, Muntz-Legendre polynomials are one of the most suitable basis for solving partial differential equations with fractional orders via a collocation method. In this method, we convert FPDEs to a system of algebraic equations, which can be solved by computer using symbolic methods. The presented method is more accurate and more efficient than other methods presented in other papers, we examine this issue using a number of examples.
Fractional partial differential equations, collocation method, Muntz-Legendre polynomials

[1]. Salvatore Butera, Mario Di Paola. A physically based connection between fractional calculus and fractal geometry. Annals of Physics 350 (2014) 146–158 Contents
[2]. J.A. Tenreiro Machado , Maria Eugénia Mata . Pseudo Phase Plane and Fractional Calculus modeling of western global economic downturn. Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 22 (2015) 396–406
[3]. Andrew W. Wharmby , Ronald L. Bagley. The application of the fractional calculus model for dispersion and absorption in dielectrics I. Terahertz waves. International Journal of Engineering Science 93 (2015) 1–12
[4]. L. Vinnett, M. Alvarez-Silva, A. Jaques, F. Hinojosa, J. Yianatos. Batch flotation kinetics: Fractional calculus approach. Minerals Engineering 77 (2015) 167–171
[5]. Zeng Lin, JinRong Wang, Wei Wei. Fractional differential equation models with pulses and criterion for pest management. Applied Mathematics and Computation 257 (2015) 398–408

Citation
M. Rasouli Gandomani "A new approach for solving fractional partial Differential equations via a collocation method based on Muntz- Legendre polynomials" International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 17, Issue 4 (July-August 2021)
MID 1704.067X.0001. Iran
Page 01-15
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Seoyoung Cho, Csaba Tóth

Fatigue resistance of reinforced asphalt concrete for flexible pavement
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Fatigue model of asphalt mixture is a major factor determining the life of pavement in mechanical-empirical pavement design. Tensile strength is a very important factor in this fatigue model. The purpose of this study is to confirm the resistance to fatigue fracture through the tensile strength of various modifiers of asphalt mixture. A total of 15 specimens were prepared and the data of indirect tensile tests of asphalt concrete mixed with rubber and polymer-based modifiers at 10, 20, and 30°C are analyzed and introduced.
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[1]. Y. Huang. 2004. Pavement design and analysis, New York: Prentice Hall.
[2]. A. A. Griffith. 1921. The phenomena of rupture and flow in solids. Philosophical transactions of the royal society of london Series A, containing papers of a mathematical or physical character. 221(582-593). 163–198.
[3]. F. Moavenzadeh. 1967. Asphalt Fracture. Assoc Asphalt Paving Technol Proceedings.
[4]. L. C. Monismith, G. R. Hicks, N. F. Finn, J. Sousa, J. Harvey, S. Weissman, J. Deacon, J. Coplantz, G. Paulsen. 1994. Permanent deformation response of asphalt aggregate mixes. National Research Council, Washington D.C.
[5]. AASHTO. 2008. Mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide, Washington D.C.. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

Citation
Seoyoung Cho, Csaba Tóth "Fatigue resistance of reinforced asphalt concrete for flexible pavement" International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 17, Issue 4 (July-August 2021)
MID 1704.067X.0002.
Page 16-20
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Ashalata Panigrahi

Comparative Analysis of Artificial Immune Recognition System based Classifiers for Intrusion Detection
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Artificial immune recognition systems are inspired by the human immune systems. The human immune systems has the amazing characteristics of reacting against any foreign molecule. Such characteristics are highly desirable for the development of anomaly based network intrusion detection system. In this paper artificial immune recognition system based classifier techniques have been proposed for building a robust and accurate intrusion detection system using three classifiers namely AIRS1, AIRS2, and CLONALG. Further, three statistical based feature selection methods namely, Relief-F, One-R, Chi-Squared Attribute Evaluator and three entropy based methods namely, Symmetrical Uncertainty, Information Gain, and Gain Ratio have been employed for selection of relevant features. The performance of the model has been evaluated using ten metrics including Matthews Correlation Coefficient, Geometric Mean, and Kappa Coefficient.
Artificial immune recognition system, CLONALG, Anomaly detection, Intrusion detection system, Feature selection

[1]. Aslahi-Shahri, B.M., Rahmani, R., Chizari, M., Maralani, A., Eslami, M., Golkar, M.J., and Ebrahimi, A., 2016. A hybrid method consisting of GA and SVM for intrusion detection system. Neural Comput.Appl., 27, 1669-1676 . [2]. Besharati E., Naderan M., Namjoo E., 2019. LR-HIDS: logistic regression host-based intrusion detection system for cloud environments. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, 10,3669-3692.

[3]. Bolón-Canedo, V., Sánchez Maroño, N., Alonso-Betanzos, A., 2016. Feature selection for high dimensional data. Progress in Artificial Intelligence, 5(2), 65-75.
[4]. Breiman, L., Friedman, J.H. , Olshen, R.A. and Stone. C. J., 1984 . Classification and regression trees. Wadsworth and Brooks.

[5]. Buczak, A.l., Guven, E., 2016. A survey of data mining and machine learning methods for cyber security intrusion detection. IEEE Communication Surveys & Tutorials. 18, 1153-1176.

Citation
Ashalata Panigrahi "Comparative Analysis of Artificial Immune Recognition System based Classifiers for Intrusion Detection" International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 17, Issue 4 (July-August 2021)
MID 1704.067X.0003. India
Page 21-27
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John Okwe ALAEZI, Ezekiel Agah RUGU, JohnsonJosiah MARUT, Dr. Igwe, Christopher Obeka

The Effects of Abandonement of Projects in Plateau State Nigeria
  • Abstract
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Public Project particularly infrastructural projects are intended to provide new products and services to the community and at the same time promote the beauty of the environment however, their abandonment has led to so many negative effects. The study has determined the effects of abandonment of projects in plateau state, Nigeria. Quantitative method of data collection was employed in the study using close ended questionnaire. The data analysis tool that was employed for this study is the relative importance index (R.I.I). The RII was used to analyzed data obtained for the effects of abandonment of projects; the highest value of RII was ranked 1 and so on. Also descriptive statistics was employed to analyze the background of the respondents. It has been discovered from the research that, project abandonment.....
Effects, Abandonment, Projects, Plateau State, Nigeria

[1]. Abdul-Rahman, I. T., Wang, C. and Ariffin H. N. 2013. Identification of Risks Pertaining to Abandoned Housing Projects in Nigeria: Journal of Construction Engineering. Hindawi Publishing Corporation.
[2]. Ade-ojo, O. and Babalola, A. A. 2013. Cost and Time Performance of Construction Projects under the Due Process Reform in Nigeria.International Journal of Engineering and Science, 3 (6)01-06. Retrieved from www.researchinventy.com
[3]. Aibinu, A. &Jagboro, G. 2002. The Effects of Construction Delays on Project Delivery in Nigerian Construction Industry.International Journal of Project Management, 20, 593-599.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(02)00028-5
[4]. Akindele, O. A. 2013. Environmental Effects of abandoned properties in ogbomoso and Osogbo Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 6(2), 707-716. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v6i6.1S.
[5]. Akindele, O.A. 2013. Environmental Effects of Abandoned Properties in Ogbomoso and Osogbo. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 6. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v6i6.

Citation
John Okwe ALAEZI, Ezekiel Agah RUGU, JohnsonJosiah MARUT, Dr. Igwe, Christopher Obeka "The Effects of Abandonement of Projects in Plateau State Nigeria" International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 17, Issue 4 (July-August 2021)
MID 1704.067X.0004. Nigeria
Page 28-33
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Vidisha, Rajesh Dhankar, Manoranjan Hota

An Analytical Study on Municipal Solid Waste Management in India –Special Reference to Rohtak City
  • Abstract
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Waste Management is one of the most pressing environmental issues the world is facing today. India is second largest populated country in the world. Urbanization & industrialization leading to migration of people which leads to expansion of cities. Pressure on basic services and infrastructure is increasing which causes serious problem of solid waste management across many Indian cities. Unmanaged MSW disposal at landfills or dumpsites, annual GHG emission from MSW causing environmental, social and economic problems. This is due to the absence of waste segregation-at-source, deficient management capacities, a lack of data regarding waste stream composition and insufficient financing and enforcement of existing regulation and policies...........
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[1]. MSW- Generation & Composition CPCB 2018
[2]. S.R. Shukla, A.B. Akolkar, A.D. Bhide, A.K. Dhussa, A.K. Varshney, D.B. Acharya, M.M. Datta, M. Dutta, N.B. Mazumdar, P.U. Asnani, R. Ramanathan, V.B. Ramaprasad, S.B.B. Uppal, M. Dhinadhayalan Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management 663, The Ministry of Urban Development, The Government of India (2000)
[3]. A review of waste management practices and their impact on human health Waste Management (2009), pp. 2227-2239 Giusti, 2009
[4]. Kumar. Akhilesh., Agrawal Avlokita. Recent trends in solid waste management status, challenges, and potential for the future Indian cities – A review 2020
[5]. L. Giust Slagstad and Bratteb, 2013H. Slagstad, H. Bratteb Influence of assumptions about household waste composition in waste management LCAs Waste Manag., 33 (1) (2013), pp. 212-219

Citation
Vidisha, Rajesh Dhankar, Manoranjan Hota "An Analytical Study on Municipal Solid Waste Management in India –Special Reference to Rohtak City" International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 17, Issue 4 (July-August 2021)
MID 1704.067X.0005. India
Page 34-39
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