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IJERD : Volume 11 - Issue 8
Version - 1 (August 2015)
Shailendra Kumar Yadav, Anand Swaroop Verma, Vikas Gupta
Role of Coating in Improving High Temperature Oxidation of Steel
Oxidation is the major degradation mechanism of failure for various components operating at high temperature. Protective coatings are used to improve the oxidation resistance of such component. In the present investigation, Al2O3 and Ni-20Cr coatings have been deposited on SAE431 boiler steel by Detonation Gun Spraying Method. The oxidation performance of Al2O3 and Ni-20Cr coated as well as uncoated SAE-431 steel has been evaluated in air under cyclic conditions at an elevated temperatures of 8000C. Al2O3 coating on SAE431 boiler steel has shown approximately 26% improvement in the oxidation resistance of SAE431 steel whereas Ni-20Cr coating on SAE431 boiler steel has indicated about 21% improvement in the oxidation resistance as compared to the uncoated SAE431 boiler steel.
high temperature oxidation, boiler steel, detonation gun spray, Al2O3 coating, Ni-20Cr coating
. G.Kaushal, H.Singh,and S.Prakash, 2012, " Journal of thermal spray technology" Vol. 21(5) , pp. 975-986
. H. Singh, D. Puri and S. Prakash , 2007 , "Advance Material Science" ,Vol. 16 , pp. 27-50
. T.S Sidhu,A,Malik,S.Prakash,and R.D.Agarwal " Journal of thermal spray technology" Vol. 16(5-6) , pp. 844-849
. NASA Technical Memorandum 73878, High Temperature Environmental Effects on Metals, by S.J. Grisaffe and others, 22 August 1977.
. Pettit, F.S. and Goward, G.W., "1981‟,"Metallurgical Treatises" Vol. No. 605, pp.13-22
Ar. Soma Anil Mishra, Dr. R.K.Pandit, Dr. G.V. Kulkarni
|Comparative Analysis of Social Sustainability at Four Locations of Indore City by ANOVA Technique|
Sustainable development is the thought process behind well being of humanity. It expects the sustenance of mankind on earth. As per the idea of sustainable development lays stress on encompassing all the three parameters of sustainability, meaning balance between socio-economic activities with environment ultimately, the process should enhance the quality of human life. The development should encourage human bonding in the society and feeling of neighbourhood satisfaction by fulfilling community needs. Finally sustainable development is devolvement which accompanies welfare of the society by including some design elements in the safe built environment. Some alterations in physical environment can bring in the feeling of safety for the society.
Social Sustainability, City, Basic Needs, Policies, Justice, Welfare, Crime, Legislation.
. Armitage, R., & Gamman, L. (2009). Sustainability via Security: A New Look. Built Environment, 35(3) , 297-301.
. Berke, P. R., & Conroy, M. M. (2000). Are we planning for Sustainable Development? An Evaluation of 30 Comprehensive Plans. Journal of the American Planning Association, 66(1) , 21-33.
. Camgni, R. (2002). On the Concept of Territorial Competitiveness: Sound or Misleading? Urban Studies, 39(13) , 2395-2411.
. Campbell, S. (1996). Green Cities, Growing Cities, Just Cities? Urban Planning and the Contradictions of Sustainable Development. Journal of The American Planning Association,62 , 296-312.
. Capello, R., & Nijikamp, P. (2002). In Search of Sustainable Human Settlements: Prefatory remarks, Ecological Economics. Elsevier, 40(2) , 151-144.
|Analysis of Security Algorithms used in E-Commerce and ATM Transactions|
E-commerce is trading ofproducts or services using computer and Internet. It mainly revolves around the Internet for it‟s functioning. Virtual mall, buying selling websites or domains, providing secure business transactions, collection and use of demographic data comes under e- commerce. E-commerce security is an important part for the framework and it is applied to the components that affect the vendor and the end user through their daily payment and interaction with business. Since it involves various transactions, E-commerce offers the banking industry a great opportunity but it also creates various risks and security threats. We can say in the near future people would like to carry their transactions though mobile devices instead of carrying currency in their wallets. Due to this the security of sensitive customer information is necessary. Thereare many security protocols and algorithms used in securing credit card transactions over the Internet and we will discuss and analyze the major ones.
E-Commerce, Security, SET, Verification, Transactions, Biometric, Key Algorithm, Analog data, Selection, Symbolic data, ATM
. Niranjanamurthy and, Dr. DharmendraChahar," The study of E-Commerce Security Issues and Solutions"International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering Vol. 2, Issue 7, July 2013.
. Hassan M. Elkamchouchi ,Eman F. Abu Elkhair2 and YasmineAbouelseoud " AN IMPROVEMENT TO THE SET PROTOCOL BASED ON SIGNCRYPTION" in International Journal on Cryptography and Information Security (IJCIS), Vol.3, No. 2, June 2013.
. AyuTiwari, SudipSanyal, Ajith Abraham, Svein Johan Knapskog and SugataSanyal "A MULTI- FACTOR SECURITY PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS PAYMENT- SECURE WEB AUTHENTICATION USING MOBILE DEVICES" .
. American National Standards Institute. 1994. Accredited Standards Committee X9 Working Draft: Public Key Cryptography for the Financial Services Industry: Management of Symmetric Algorithm Keys Using Diffie-Hellman. ANSI X9.42-1993
. Zhang Jian, "Analyzes based on the SET agreement electronic commerce safety mechanism", Netinfo Security, 2006(10),pp:9-11.
Chidolue, C. A., Aginam, C. H. and Nwokike Victor
|Expositions on the Variation of Torsional-Distortional Stresses and Deformations in Box Girder Bridges|
In this work a single cell and a double cell mono symmetric box girder study profile with the same cross sectional (enclosed) area and same material thickness were used to obtain the effect of sectorial properties on the distortional bending stresses and deformation of mono-symmetric box girders. The principles of Vlasov's theory of thin walled plates were used to obtain the torsional-distortional equilibrium equation for the analysis of the study profiles. The distortional bending stresses for the profiles were obtained by numerical differentiation of the warping function to obtain the distortion diagrasm which formed the base system for evaluation of the distortional bending moments. By solving the fourth order differential equations for torsional-distortional equilibrium the deformations of the study profiles were obtained. The warping functions, the distortion diagrams, the distortional bending moments and the torsional and distortional deformations of the study profiles were critically examined and conclusions were made.
box girder, torsional-distortional deformations, distortional bending stresses, sectorial quantities, strain modes.,
. Vlasov, V. Z., 1958, Thin-walled space structures. Gosstrojizdat, Mosco,
. Verbanov, C. P., 1958, Theory of elasticity, Technika Press Sofia. 4th edition, pp 254-271.
. Murray, N. W., 1984, Introduction to the theory of thin-walled structures, Oxford engineering science series.
. Osadebe, N.N. and Chidolue, C.A., 2012, Response of double cell mono symmetric box girder structure to torsional-distortional deformations, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, vol. 1, issue 4, pp 285 – 292:
. Chidolue, C. A., 2013, Torsional-distortional analysis of thin-walled box girder bridges using Vlason's theory. Ph. D thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
Tomoki Iwata, Koichi Hrose
|Experimental Study of Material Removal Efficiency in EDM Using Various Types of Dielectric Oil|
The machining process in electrical discharge machining (EDM) consists of a melting process and a removal process. A region of the workpiece surface heated by the discharge plasma is melted and a portion of the melted region is removed from the workpiece body. The rest of the melted region remains on the workpiece surface and re-solidified as a white layer. In previous research, to evaluate the removal ability, a ratio of the removal volume to the melted volume is defined as the material removal efficiency. In this study, the material removal efficiency was investigated to develop an understanding of the machining mechanism in EDM. As a result of experiments, it is found that the material removal efficiencies show almost the same value, whereas the removal volume varies with the type of dielectric oil or the discharge duration. To advance the study about the machining mechanism in EDM, the simulation for the workpiece temperature distribution, considering the effect of the type of dielectric oil or the discharge duration, should be conducted further.
EDM, Dielectric oil, Material removal rate, White layer, Material removal efficiency
. A. Kojima, W. Natsu, M. Kunieda, "Spectroscopic measurement of arc plasma diameter in EDM," CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, vol.57, pp.203-207, 2008
. A. Singh, and A. Ghosh, "A thermo-electric model of material removal during electric discharge machining," International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, vol.39, pp.669-682, 1999
. T. O. Hockenberry, "Dynamic evolution of events accompanying the low-voltage discharge employed in EDM," IEEE. Trans. On Industry and General Applications, IGA-3, Issue 4, pp.302-309
. B. N. Zolotykh, "The mechanism of electrical erosion of metals in liquid dielectric media," Soviet Physics-Technical Physics, 4, 12, pp.1370-1373, 1959
. P. T. Eubank, M. R. Patel, M. A. Barrufet, and B. Bozkurt, "Theoretical models of the electrical discharge machining process. III. The variable mass, cylindrical plasma model," Journal of Applied Physics, vol.73, pp.7900-7909, 1993
S. Damodharao, T.S.L.V. Ayyarao
|Joint State and Parameter Estimation by Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) technique|
In order to increase power system stability and reliability during and after disturbances, power grid global and local controllers must be developed. SCADA system provides steady and low sampling density. To remove these limitation PMUs are being rapidly adopted worldwide. Dynamic states of power system can be estimated using EKF. This requires field excitation as input which may not available. As a result, the EKF with unknown inputs proposed for identifying and estimating the states and the unknown inputs of the synchronous machine.
Dynamic state estimation, extended kalman filter, state estimation, synchronous generator.
. Esmaeil Ghahremani and Innocent Kamwa "Dynamic State Estimation in Power System by Applying the Extended Kalman Filter With Unknown Inputs to Phasor Measurements", IEEE Transaction on PS, VOL.26,Feb 2011.
. P. Kundur "Power System Stability and Control",
. Xiaohui Qin, Baiqing Li and Nan Liu Power System Department, China Electric Power Research Institute, "Dynamic State Estimator Based on Wide Area Measurement System During Power System Electromechanical Transient Process," IEEE Neural Network Conf. (IJCNN) 2004.
. Jaime De La Ree, Virgilio Centeno, James S. Thorp, and A. G. Phadke, "Synchronized Phasor Measurement Applications in Power Systems," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol.24, pp. 1670–1678, 2010.
. PengYang,ZhaoTan, IEEE, Ami Wiesel, Member, "Power System State Estimation Using PMUs With Imperfect Synchronization," 2010
Adebayo a. O., Oyewale, a. E.
|Intelligent learning management system starters|
learning management system (lms) is increasingly gaining popularity in the academic community as a means of delivering e-learning contents. Simply placing lecture notes and videos among other contents on lmss do not particularly train the best. This situation could be improved with intelligent tutoring systems (itss) integration into preferred lms to make it more adaptive and effective, through enhanced student participation and learning. This work aims, therefore, to create a starter model and a model java its integrated preferred lms. The its integrated lms starter model was proposed through augmentation and a fluid iterative cycle of awareness, suggestion, development, evaluation and conclusion. Known open/inexpensive, tried and tested popular lmss were evaluated at cms matrix site, and complemented. Java its integrated moodle (preferred), employing certain architectural framework of its integrated lms, was created following the spiral model of software development.
integration model, intelligent tutoring, pedagogy, learning management, starters
. Beatty, b., & ulasewicz, c. (2006). Faculty perspectives on moving from blackboard to the moodle learning management system. Techtrends: linking research & practice to improve learning , 50 (4), pp36-45.
. Sabbir-ahmed, k. (2004). A conceptual framework for web-based intelligent learning environments using scorm-2004. Ieee icalt 2004, pp. 12-15.
. Brusilovsky, p., wade, v., & conlan, o. (2007). From learning objects to adaptive content services for e- learning. Usa: igi global: architecture solutions for e-learning systems.
. Durlach, p., j, ray, & m., j. (2011). Designing adaptive instructional environments. Va: arlington.
. Vanlehn, k., graesser, a. C., jackson, g. T., jordan, p., olney, a., & rose, c. P. (2007). When are tutorial dialogues more effective than reading. Cognitive science, 31(1), pp 3-62.
Munzaleen Rashid, A. Kumar and Amardeep Singh Virk
|Planar Internal Antenna Design for Cellular Applications & SAR Analysis|
This paper presents a new design of direct-fed Multi band printed Planar Internal Antenna (PIA), for cellular applications. The PIA antenna is composed of ground plane, meander radiating strip and two other parasitic strips are printed on a common substrate. The designed antenna has been simulated in CST environment. The simulated results for the resonant frequency, return loss, radiation pattern and gain are presented and discussed. The bandwidths for three resonance achieved on the basis of -6 dB return loss.These Bandwidths can be utilized for GSM 900, GSM 1800, GSM 1900, LTE 2300 and Bluetooth/WLAN as an acceptable reference in mobile phones applications. Further the antenna was placed in proximity to the SAR head on CST environment. The simulated results of SAR analysis are presented in this paper with acceptable range.
PIA, GSM, LTE, Bluetooth/WLAN, SAR.
. D. G. Choi, C. S. Shin, N. Kim1, and H. S. Shin, " Design and SAR Analysis of Broadband PIFA with Triple Band ", Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2005, Hangzhou, China, August 22-26.
. A. M. OWAG, "Multiband Antenna for GSM and 3G Mobile System ", MSc. thesis, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, 2006.
. N. A. Saidatul, A. A. H. Azremi, R. B. Ahmad, P. J. Soh, and F. Malek, "Multiband Fractal Planar Inverted F Antenna (F-Pifa) For Mobile Phone Application", Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 14, 127148, 2009.
. Kin-Lu Wong and Wei-Yu Chen, "Small-size printed loop -type antenna integrated with two stacked coupled -fed shorted strip monopoles for eight-band LTE/GSM/UMTS operation in the mobile phone", Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett.,vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1471-1476, July 2010.
. Ting-Wei Kang and Kin-Lu Wong, "Chip-inductor-embedded small-size printed strip monopole for WWAN operation in the mobile phone", Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett.,vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 966-971, April 2009.
Mr. Pradeep Chivadshetti, Mr. Kishor Sadafale, Mrs. Kalpana Thakare
|Content Based Video Retrieval Using Integrated Feature Extraction and Personalization of Results|
Traditional video retrieval methods fail to meet technical challenges due to large and rapid growth of multimedia data, demanding effective retrieval systems. In the last decade Content Based Video Retrieval (CBVR) has become more and more popular. The amount of lecture video data on the Worldwide Web (WWW) is growing rapidly. Therefore, a more efficient method for video retrieval in WWW or within large lecture video archives is urgently needed. This paper presents an implementation of automated video indexing and video search in large videodatabase. First of all, we apply automatic video segmentation and key-frame detection to extract the frames from video. At next, we extract textual keywords by applying on video i.e. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology on key-frames and Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) on audio tracks of that video. At next, we also extractingcolour, texture and edge detector features from different method. At last, we integrate all the keywords and features which has extracted from above techniques for searching purpose.Finallysearch similarity measure is applied to retrieve the best matchingcorresponding videos are presented as output from database. Additionally we are providing Re-ranking of results as per users interest in original result.
CBVR, Feature Extraction, Video Retrieval, Video Segmentation, OCR, ASR tool, Re-ranking
. Pradeep C., Kishor Sadafale, Kalpana Thakare. "A Survey on Content Based Video Retrieval Using Different Feature Extraction" in National Conference on Technical Revolution (NCTR-2015), Page No.127, On 9th-10th Jan 2015.
. Chivadshetti Pradeep, Mr Kishor Sadafale, and Mrs Kalpana Thakare.. "Content Based Video Retrieval Using Integrated Feature Extraction" in IPGCON 2015 at AVCOE, Sangmner on March 2015.
. Haojin Yang and Christoph Meinel, "Content Based Lecture Video Retrieval Using Speech and Video Text Information", in proc. IEEE transactions On Learning Technologies, Vol. 7, No. 2, April-June 2014.
. Arpit Jain‡, Xujun Peng, Xiaodan Zhuang, Pradeep Natarajan, and Huaigu Cao, "Text Detection and Recognition in Natural Scenes and Consumer Videos", in proc. IEEE International Conference on Acoustic, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) INSPEC Accession Number: 14448982, 4-9 May 2014.
. Hadi Yarmohammadi and Mohammad Rahmati, "Content Based Video Retrieval using Information Theory", in proc. IEEE Iran Conf. ,Machine vision and Image Processing, pp. 214-218, 2013.
Version - 2 (August 2015)
Eko Naryono, Atikah, Arief Rachmansyah, Soemarno
|Treatment of Waste Water from Organic Fraction Incineration of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) By Evaporation-Absorption Process|
Evaporation is one of treatment alternatives of waste water from condensation of vapour in flue gas or from flue gas scrubber system of an incinerator. The waste water contains tar and heavy metals which are toxic and must be separated, before discharged to environment or recycled. Due to the relatively low efficiency of the evaporation process, a combination of the evaporation-absorption process is developed to increase the efficiency. The aim of this research is to study the separation efficiency of tar from the tar-water mixture from organic fraction incineration of garbage by evaporation-absorption process, and compared it with the evaporation process. The evaporation process was performed by evaporating the waste water directly, while the evaporation-absorption process was carried out by evaporating the waste water before it had been mixed with palm oil as an absorbent. The results showed that the efficiency to separate the heavy tar of the evaporation process was 73.27% compared to the combination of evaporation-absorption that was 98.82%. Meanwhile, for the separation of the light tar, the efficiencies of both process types were almost the same. This system can be integrated with the incinerator for the treatment of flue gases and waste water generated from the burning of organic fraction of MSW.
Combination, Evaporation, Incinerator, Tar, Waste Water
. I.K. Julianus, J. Hermana, ‖Optimalisasi pengelolaan TPA Alak dalam mengatasi permasalahan persampahan di kota Kupang‖ in Seminar nasional aplikasi teknologi prasarana wilayah, 2009.
. Municipal solid waste incineration, World Bank, Tech. Guid. Rep, 1999.
. M. Becidan, ―Experimental studies on municipal solid waste and biomass pyrolysis,‖ experimental Studies on Municipal,‖ Thesis for the degree of doctor philosophiae, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norwegia, May 2007.
. C.A. Patrick, Bragman, V.B. Sander, van Paasen, H. Boerrigter, 2002. ―The novel OLGA technology for complete tar removal from biomass producer gas,‖ Paper presented at Pyrolysis and Gasification of Biomass and waste, expert Meeting, 30 September – 1 October 2002, Starsbourg, France.
. H. Cheng, Y. Hu, ―Municipal solid waste (MSW) as renewable source of energy current and future practices in China,‖ Bioresource Technology 101 , pp. 3816- 3824, Jan. 2010.
|Post processing of SLM Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in accordance with AMS 4928 standards|
This Research work was done to find out the impact of AMS 4928 standard heat treatment on Selective Laser Melted (SLM) Ti-6Al-4V Grade 23 alloy. Ti-6Al-4V Grade 23 is an Extra Low Interstitial version of Ti alloy with lower impurities and is α+β type alloy at room temperature. SLM is one type of method in Additive Manufacturing based on Powder bed system. Each powder layer of few microns is coated and a laser beam is scanned to melt the metal powder according to the specification of the part and subsequently moved downwards layer by layer. The test coupons were first heat treated according to the above mentioned standard. The tensile testing and the microstructural analysis were done to compare the results with that of mentioned in the AMS 4928.The yield stress andPercentage elongation in the test coupons achieved are better than the minimum requirement by AMS 4928 standard. Coarse lamellar grain structures were obtained with no continuous network of alpha at prior beta grain boundaries.
α+β Ti alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, ELI, Beta Transus temperature, microstructures.
. Dipankar B; Perspectives on Titanium Science and Technology; Acta Materialia; Vol 61 (2013); pages 844–879
. Wiley J & Sons 2004; Handbook of Advanced Materials; (Print ISBN:9780471454755 - Online ISBN: 9780471465188) Chapter 8
. B. Kasemo; Biocompatibility of titanium implants; JPD, Vol 49; 1983; Pages 832–837
. Rodney R B 1989; American Society for Metal Handbook; Vol 9; page 458
. Robert P; microstructure and phase transformation of Ti-6Al-4V; 2002:30; ISSN: 1402-1757
M.P. MISHRA, DR.S.K.DUBEY
|Seismic Drift Consideration in soft storied RCC buildings: A Critical Review|
Reinforced concrete frame buildings are becoming increasingly common in urban India. Many such buildings constructed in recent times have a special feature – the ground storey is left open for the purpose of parking, i.e., columns in the ground floor do not have any partition walls (of either masonry or Reinforced concrete) between them. Such buildings are often called open ground storey buildings. The relative horizontal displacement in the ground storey is much larger than storeys above it. The total horizontal earthquake force it can carry in the ground storey is significantly smaller than storeys above it. The soft or weak storey may exist at any storey level other than ground storey level. The presence of walls in upper storeys makes them much stiffer than the open ground storey. Still Multi storey reinforced concrete buildings are continuing to be built in India which has open ground storeys. It is imperative to know the behavior of soft storey building to the seismic load for designing various retrofit strategies. Hence it is important to study and understand the response of such buildings and make such buildings earthquake resistant based on the study to prevent their collapse and to save the loss of life and property.
Bare frame, framed structure, Seismic analysis, Dynamic analysis, seismic response,drift demand, drift consideration, Soft storey.
. Wada Akira (2004),"Damage Control Structures for Strong Earthquake" Structural Engineering Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503, Japan.
. 2Ramanujan Jayasree et al.(2014)"Effect of shear wall location in buildings subjected to seismic loads" ISOI Journal of Engineering and Computer science Vol.1, issue.1; page No. 07-17(Dec 2014).
. J. Prakashvel et al.(2012) " Earthquake Response of Reinforced Concrete Frame with Open Ground Storey "Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science, Vol. 2, No. 4, December 2012.
. Chandurkar P. P.,Pajgade P. S. (2013), "Seismic Analysis of RCC Building with and Without Shear Wall " International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Vol. 3, Issue. 3, May - June 2013 pp-1805-1810.
. 5 Arum Chinwuba, Akinkunmi Akinloye (2011), " Comparison of Wind-Induced Displacement
P.Raghava, V.Giridhar Kumar, Dr.T.Chandrasekhar Reddy
|Study of Macro level Properties of SCC using GGBS and Lime stone powder|
One of the major environmental concerns is the disposal of the waste materials and utilization of industrial by products. Lime stone quarries will produce millions of tons waste dust powder every year. Having considerable high degree of fineness in comparision to cement this material may be utilized as a partial replacement to cement. For this purpose an experiment is conducted to investigate the possibility of using lime stone powder in the production of SCC with combined use GGBS and how it affects the fresh and mechanical properties of SCC. First SCC is made by replacing cement with GGBS in percentages like 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and by taking the optimum mix with GGBS lime stone powder is blended to mix in percentages like 5, 10, 15, 20 as a partial replacement to cement. Test results shows that the SCC mix with combination of 30% GGBS and 15% limestone powder gives maximum compressive strength and fresh properties are also in the limits prescribed by the EFNARC.
Self compacting concrete, GGBS, Lime stone powder.
. HalitYazıcı " The effect of silica fume and high-volume Class C fly ash on mechanical properties,
chloride penetration and freeze–thaw resistance of self- compacting concrete", Construction and
Building Materials 22 (2008) 456–462, Elsevier
. A.A.MAGSOUDHI.et.al "The comparision of properties of self compacting using micro silica and
. Ali Nazari , ShadiRiahi"The role of SiO2 nanoparticles and ground granulated blast furnace slag
admixtures on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of self compacting concrete", Materials
Science and Engineering A 528 (2011) 2149–2157,Elsevier
. Ali Nazari, ShadiRiahi "TiO2nano particles effects on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of
self compacting concrete with ground granulated blast furnace slag as binder", Energy and Buildings
43 (2011) 995–1002, Elsevier
. J.GuruJawahar,et.al." Effect of Coarse aggregate blending on short term properties of SCC"
|Importance of Measurements in Smart Grid|
The need to get reliable supply, independence from fossil fuels, and capability to provide clean energy at a fixed and lower cost, the existing power grid structure is transforming into Smart Grid. The development of a smart energy distribution grid is a current goal of many nations. A Smart Grid should have new capabilities such as self-healing, high reliability, energy management, and real-time pricing. This new era of smart future grid will lead to major changes in existing technologies at generation, transmission and distribution levels. The incorporation of renewable energy resources and distribution generators in the existing grid will increase the complexity, optimization problems and instability of the system. This will lead to a paradigm shift in the instrumentation and control requirements for Smart Grids for high quality, stable and reliable electricity supply of power. The monitoring of the grid system state and stability relies on the availability of reliable measurement of data. In this paper the measurement areas that highlight new measurement challenges, development of the Smart Meters and the critical parameters of electric energy to be monitored for improving the reliability of power systems has been discussed.
Smart Grid, Measurements, Smart Metering, Advanced Metering Infrastructure(AMI),
. National Institute of Standards and Technology. NIST framework and roadmap for Smart Grid interoperability standards, release 1.0, http://www.nist.gov/public affairs/releases/upload/smartgrid interoperability final.pdf. January 2010.
. B. Jignesh, S. Vipul et. al. "An instrumentation engineer's review on Smart Grid : Critical applications and parameters" Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 1 Reviews 40 (2014), 1217–1239
. F. Xi, Mishra S. et.al. "Smart Grid – The New and Improved Power Grid: A Survey" Ieee Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Vol. 14, No. 4, Fourth Quarter 2012
. R. Gert, "Traceability and Global Recognition of Measurement Values and its Impact and Economic Importance in the Era of Smart Grid", 1-6
. P. Lorenzo "The role of measurements in the Smart Grid Era" IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, June 2010 , 22-25
Ch. Uma Maheswari, Prof. G.V. Padma Raju
|"MS-Extractor: An Innovative Approach to Extract Microsatellites on "Y‟ Chromosome"|
Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR), also known as Microsatellites, have been extensively used as molecular markers due to their abundance and high degree of polymorphism. The nucleotide sequences of polymorphic forms of the same gene should be 99.9% identical. So, Microsatellites extraction from the Gene is crucial. However, Microsatellites repeat count is compared, if they differ largely, he has some disorder. The Y chromosome likely contains 50 to 60 genes that provide instructions for making proteins. Because only males have the Y chromosome, the genes on this chromosome tend to be involved in male sex determination and development. Several Microsatellite Extractors exist and they fail to extract microsatellites on large data sets of giga bytes and tera bytes in size. The proposed tool "MS-Extractor: An Innovative Approach to extract Microsatellites on "Y‟ Chromosome" can extract both Perfect as well as Imperfect Microsatellites from large data sets of human genome "Y‟. The proposed system uses string matching with sliding window approach to locate Microsatellites and extracts them.
. Anwar,T. and Khan,A.U., (2006). SSRscanner: a program for reporting distribution and exact location of simple sequence repeats. Bio information,1, 89–91.
. Beckmann J.S. &Weber J.L., (1992). Survey of human and rat microsatellites. Genomics, 12, 627–631.
. Benson,G., (1999). Tandem repeats finder: a program to analyze DNA sequences. Nucleic Acids Res., 27, 573–580.
. Chen, C.X., Zhou, P., Choi, Y.A., Huang, S., Gmitter, F.G., 2006. Mining and characterizing microsatellites from citrus ESTs. Theor. Appl. Genet. 112, 1248-1257.
. Kantety, R.V., Rota, M. L., Matthews, D.E., Sorrells, M.E., 2002. Data mining for simple sequence repeats in expressed sequence tags from barley, maize, rice, sorghum and wheat. Plant Mol. Biol. 48, 501-510.
Dr. J. G Pandya, Prof. R. J. Adiecha, Dr. M. J. Pandya, P. C. Valera
|Moon-bounce: A Boon for VHF Dxing|
Amateurs Radio operator, also known as HAM communicates with other HAMs through Radio waves. Wireless communication in which Moon is used as natural satellite is called Moon-bounce or EME (Earth -Moon-Earth) technique. Long distance communication (DXing) using Very High Frequency (VHF) operated amateur HAM radio was difficult. Even with the modest setup having good transceiver, power amplifier and high gain antenna with high directivity, VHF DXing is possible. Generally 2X11 YAGI antenna along with rotor to set horizontal and vertical angle is used. Moon tracking software gives exact location, visibility of Moon at both the stations and other vital data to acquire real time position of moon.
Amateur Radio, HAM, Moon-bounce, Earth-Moon-Earth, EME, Yagi Antenna
. Pandey Dhirendra, Narayan Priya et. al., Radio Technology for Moonbounce, Volume 4, Issue 3, March 2014, ISSN: 2277 128X,International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering (IJARCSSE)
. (2014) Earth-Moon-Earth Communications website. [Online]. Available: http://www.moonbouncers.org/
. (2013) Amateur Radio Astronomy website. [Online]. Available: http://www.radio-astronomy.org/
. (2014) Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope website. [Online]. Available: http://gmrt.ncra.tifr.res.in/
. Henry C. King, The History of Telescope, Charles Griffin and Company Ltd., 2003, ISBN 0-486-43265-3.
Aakar Mehul Sheth, Prof. Hiren Patel, Prof. Ruchit Soni
|Simulated Analysis of Resonant Frequency Converter Using Different Tank Circuits.|
LLC resonant frequency converter is basically a combo of series as well as parallel resonant ckt. For LCC resonant converter it is associated with a disadvantage that, though it has two resonant frequencies, the lower resonant frequency is in ZCS region . For this application, we are not able to design the converter working at this resonant frequency. LLC resonant converter existed for a very long time but because of unknown characteristic of this converter it was used as a series resonant converter with basically a passive (resistive) load. . Here, it was designed to operate in switching frequency higher than resonant frequency of the series resonant tank of Lr and Cr converter acts very similar to Series Resonant Converter. The benefit of LLC resonant converter is narrow switching frequency range with light load . Basically, the control ckt plays a very imp. role and hence 555 Timer used here provides a perfect square wave as the control ckt provides no slew rate which makes the square wave really strong and impenetrable. The dead band circuit provides the exclusive dead band in micro seconds so as to avoid the simultaneous firing of two pairs of IGBT's where one pair switches off and the other on for a slightest period of time. Hence, the isolator ckt here is associated with each and every ckt used because it acts as a driver and an isolation to each of the IGBT is provided with one exclusive transformer supply. The IGBT's are fired using the appropriate signal using the previous boards and hence at last a high frequency rectifier ckt with a filtering capacitor is used to get an exact dc waveform .The basic goal of this particular analysis is to observe the wave forms and characteristics of converters with differently positioned passive elements in the form of tank circuits. The supported simulation is done through PSIM 6.0 software tool.
LLC(Inductor Inductor Capacitor), ZCS(Zero Current Switching), Resonance, variable frequency converter, Control Circuit, Supply Circuit, Dead band Circuit, Driver Circuit, IGBT circuit board, High frequency rectifier and filter, IR1(Load Current), VR1(Load Voltage).
. Infineon Notes Of LLC Resonant Converter Topologies.
. Resonant Mode Converter Topologies. (TEXAS INSTRUMENTS)
. I.C.A By Gaekwad
. Resonant Frequency Converters Vol. 1,2,3
. Fundamental Electronics by P.S Bhimbra
Aakar Mehul Sheth Prof. Hiren Patel Prof. Ruchit Soni
|Hardware Analysis of Resonant Frequency Converter Using Isolated Circuits And HF Transformer.|
LLC resonant frequency converter is basically a combo of series as well as parallel resonant ckt. For LCC resonant converter it is associated with a disadvantage that, though it has two resonant frequencies, the lower resonant frequency is in ZCS region. For this application, we are not able to design the converter working at this resonant frequency. LLC resonant converter existed for a very long time but because of unknown characteristic of this converter it was used as a series resonant converter with basically a passive (resistive) load. . Here, it was designed to operate in switching frequency higher than resonant frequency of the series resonant tank of Lr and Cr converter acts very similar to Series Resonant Converter. The benefit of LLC resonant converter is narrow switching frequency range with light load . Basically, the control ckt plays a very imp. role and hence 555 Timer used here provides a perfect square wave as the control ckt provides no slew rate which makes the square wave really strong and impenetrable. The dead band circuit provides the exclusive dead band in micro seconds so as to avoid the simultaneous firing of two pairs of IGBT's where one pair switches off and the other on for a slightest period of time. Hence, the isolator ckt here is associated with each and every ckt used because it acts as a driver and an isolation to each of the IGBT is provided with one exclusive transformer supply. The IGBT's are fired using the appropriate signal using the previous boards and hence at last a high frequency rectifier ckt with a filtering capacitor is used to get an exact dc waveform .The basic goal of this particular analysis is to observe the wave forms and characteristics of converters with differently positioned passive elements in the form of tank circuits.
LLC(Inductor Inductor Capacitor), ZCS(Zero Current Switching), Resonance, variable frequency converter, Control Circuit, Supply Circuit, Dead band Circuit, Driver Circuit, IGBT circuit board, High frequency rectifier and filter, IR1(Load Current), VR1(Load Voltage).
. Infineon Notes Of LLC Resonant Converter Topologies..
. Resonant Mode Converter Topologies.
. TEXAS INSTRUMENTS)
.  I.C.A By Gaekwad
. Resonant Frequency Converters Vol. 1,2,3