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IJERD : Volume 6, Issue 8
M J Khalil, Neetu Singh
|Numerical Solution and Sensitivity Analysis of Phenol Biodegradation|
In this study a mathematical model consisting of mass balance equation and accounting for reaction, mass transfer is developed to describe unsteady state phenol degradation in biofilter. For simulation purpose software BIOPHEN was developed in the language ForTran 77 and subsequently solved using Backward Implicit Scheme. The removal efficiency of phenol at inlet concentration is 99.47%. First order reaction kinetics is used .The concentration at different height and different time is obtained,which is not only useful for the design but is also applicable for predicting the concentration at various location and time of the bioreactor.The effect of parameter Specific surface area, biofilm thickness , and porosity on the performance of the biofilter were also investigated.
Biofilter, Modelling, Simulation, Reaction kinetics,Degradation.
. A.Aizpuru, L. Malhautier, J. L. Fanlo, "Quantitative Structure- Activity Relationship Modelling of Biofiltration Removal", J. Environmental Engg., ASCE 128(10) pp. 953-959, 2008
 D.Hodge,J.Devinny "Modelling removal of air contaminants by Biofiltration" J.of Envir.Engg.Vol.1231,pp 21,1995
. G.Spigno,M.Zilli and C.Nicalelle, "Mathematical modelling and simulation of phenol degradation in Biofilter," Biochem.Engg.Jour,Vol 19,pp.267-275,2004.
. J.Michalowioz,W.Duda "Phenol-sources and toxicity" J.of Envir.Stud. Vol.16, pp.347-362,2007.
. L.S.Fan,R.Leyva-Romas,K.D.Wisecarver,B.J.Zehner, "Diffusion of phenol through a biofilm grown on a activated carbon particles in a Draft tube three phase fluidized bed bioreactor",Biotechnol.Bioengg.Vol 35 pp.279-286,1190....
Sreelalitha Kramadhati, K.Thyagarajan
|Optical Properties of Pure and Doped (Kno3 & Mgcl2) Polyvinyl Alcohol Polymer Thin Films|
Polymer thin films find wide range of technological applications such as coatings, adhesives, lithography, sensors and as solid state electrochemical cells they can be directly deposited on to chips in any shape or size. In the present work pure and doped (KNO3 & MgCl2) polyvinyl alcohol thin films were synthesized using solution-casting method. The optical absorption spectra of synthesized thin films were recorded at room temperature over a wavelength range of 200-800 nm using JASCO spectrophotometer Model V-570. From the spectral data the optical constants such as band edge, optical band gap (both direct and indirect) were determined. The variation of optical band gap on doping is explained on the basis of incorporation of charge transfer complexes (CTCs) by the dopants. The absorption studies have led to a variety of interesting thin film optical phenomenon, which have thrown considerable light on the band structure of solids and phonic states.
Polymer thin films (PVA), solution casting method, optical absorption studies, charge transfer complexes(CTCs)
. C.UmaDevi, A.K.Sharma, V.V.R. Narasimha Rao, Mater.Lett. 56(2002)167
|Enhanced Robust Watermarking Algorithm for various Applications|
This paper proposes the data embedding system for binary images including jpg, bmp, tiff, png. Shuffling is applied to the binary images in the first phase of this research work, which means that binary image pixels are convoluted into number of rows and columns. Next phase to shuffled binary images are interchanged and reconstructed in the form of original image. The water marked image was ready to send and receive through internet and mobile communication for various applications like medical, commercial and business applications. Our proposed algorithm maintains the complexity of execution is neutral than other methodology.
Watermarking, Authentication, binary image, Shuffling, Reconstruction.
. P. S. L. M. Barreto, H. Y. Kim and V. Rijmen,"Toward a Secure Public-Key Block wise Fragile Authentication Watermarking," IEE Proc. Vision, Image and Signal Processing, vol. 149, no. 2, pp. 57-62, 2002.
Juraj Miček, Ondrej Karpiš, Peter Ševčík
|Body Area Network: Analysis and Application Areas|
The communication standard 802.15.6 was published at the beginning of the year 2012. This standard is also known under the acronym WBAN by the first letters of the description "Wireless Body Area Network." This paper is devoted to this new communication standard that is primary designed to create applications in the medical field. The paper analyzes assumptions and limitations of this communication standard which have to be met for the medicine applications. It also analyzes restricted frequency band and application possibilities. Finally, the communication system BodyCom is compared with the HBC standard.
BAN, IEEE 802.15.6, application areas, BodyCom, communication channel.
. J. G. Ko, Ch. Lu, M. B. Srivastava, J. A. Stankovic: Wireless Sensor Networks for Healthcare, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol 98, No.11, Nov. 2010.
Haimaprada Sahoo, Kumar Biswal
|Patient Monitoring System for Cardiovascular patient with body temperature using Lab VIEW|
A "managed care model" has been realized to permit both a continuous patient check without hospitalization. Here the main focus is on designing hardware and software architecture for people who stay alone at home and suffering from heart diseases and developing a hardware which will sense the heart rate and temperature of the patient. These ECG and temperature has been automatically processed by "LAB VIEW" through a multi parametric approach based on time & frequency domain study. Advanced characteristics have been utilised by this monitoring prototype and different technologies such as data acquisition, elaboration, and online transmission have been integrated knowledge management. In this way it is possible not only data real time visualization and collection but also Continuous patient management useful to improve patient life quality.
ECG, Lab view mail, Patient Monitoring Signal processing, Temperature.
. F Braga, C Forlani, MG Signorini, "A Knowledge Based Home Monitoring System for Management and Rehabilitation of Cardiovascular Patients", Computer in Cardiology, IEEE ; 32:41-44
|The Expanded Maxwellian Space Geometry and the Photon Fundamental LC Equation|
Description of a new space geometry that allows explaining the existence of all stable physically scatterable particles solely from Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. This expanded space geometry leads to an electromagnetic mechanics of particles involving a seamless series of clearly defined interaction sequences providing an uninterrupted path of causality from 1) the unquantized quantities of unidirectional kinetic energy induced in particles by natural acceleration through Coulomb or gravitational interaction, 2) to the quantization in the form of free-moving electromagnetic photons of any quantity of this energy in excess of the quantity allowed by the local stable or metastable electromagnetic equilibrium, 3) to the creation of electron-positron pairs from the destabilization of photons of energy 1.022 MeV or more, 4) to the creation of protons and neutrons from the interaction of electrons and positrons forced into groups of three including both types in sufficiently small volumes of space with insufficient energy to escape mutual capture, 5) to the final shedding in the form of neutrino energy of momentary metastable excess rest mass (different from velocity induced extra momentary relativistic mass) as newly created overexcited massive elementary particles are forced by local electromagnetic equilibrium into lowering their mass to their lower and stable true rest mass.
Maxwell theory, Maxwell equations, electromagnetic theory, scatterable particles, kinetic energy, causality, acceleration, electron-positron pairs, 1.022 MeV, neutrino, photon LC equation, 3-spaces.
. André Michaud. Field Equations for Localized Individual Photons and Relativistic Field Equations for Localized Moving Massive Particles, International IFNA-ANS Journal, No. 2 (28), Vol. 13, 2007, p. 123-140, Kazan State University, Kazan, Russia. (Also available at http://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Essays/View/2257).
|Yadav Raghvendra Satyanarayan, Yadav Satyendra Satyanarayan|
|Data Acquisition System Using Master – Slave Communication through ATmega32A Microcontroller|
This paper presents a data acquisition system using master – slave communication using ATmega32A microcontroller. In this system, we can do the analog to digital conversion using slave microcontrollers. Then by using SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) protocol we can get that slave microcontrollers data to the master microcontroller and save that analog to digital convertor data to the master microcontroller memory. We can use those data for further processing.
ATmega32A microcontroller, Data Acquisition System, Analog to Digital Converter, Master – Slave Communication, SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) Protocol,
. D. Patranabis, Sensors and Transducers, 2nd Edition, Prentice – Hall of India (PHI) Publication, New Delhi, 2007.
|Mohamad Agus Salim|
|The Effect of pH on Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Process of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.) Using Trichoderma harzianum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae|
Research has been done on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.) with different pH to produce bioethanol. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process was the integration between saccharification or hydrolysis of cellulose into sugar and fermentation of sugar into ethanol, with utilized microorganism of Trichoderma harzianum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results indicated that water hyacinth biomass could be used to produce bioethanol through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The highest concentration of bioethanol 47.20 g.L-1 achieved by pH 5.0 treatment.
bioethanol, pH, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.)
. N. Pereira, A. P. G. Maria, L. M. Couto, Biomass of Lignocellulosic Composition for Fuel Ethanol Production within The Context of Biorefinery 1st. (2008), Edition Rio de Janeiro.
|T. Ratna Reddy, M.V.S. Murali Krishna, Ch. Kesava Reddy, P.V.K.Murthy|
|Performance, Exhaust Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Mohr Oil in Crude Form and Biodiesel Form in A Medium Grade Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine|
Investigations were carried out to evaluate the performance of mohr oil in crude form and biodiesel form at different operating conditions [normal temperature and pre-heated temperature] in a medium grade low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine with air gap insulated piston with superni (an alloy of nickel) crown and air gap insulated liner with superni insert with varied injection pressure and injection timing. Study Design: Performance parameters and exhaust emissions of smoke and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were determined at different values of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Combustion characteristics were recorded at peak load operation of the engine. Combustion parameters were measured with TDC (top dead centre) encoder, pressure transducer, console and special pressure-crank angle software package. Conventional engine (CE) showed compatible performance with biodiesel operation, while LHR engine showed improved performance at recommended injection timing of 27obTDC (before top dead centre) and recommended injection pressure of 190 bar. The performance of both version of the engine improved with advanced injection timing and at higher injection pressure with crude vegetable oil and biodiesel when compared with CE with pure diesel operation. The optimum injection timing was 31obTDC for CE while it was 30obTDC with LHR engine with biodiesel operation. Peak brake thermal efficiency increased by 12.5%, smoke levels decreased by 38% and NOx levels increased by 35% with biodiesel operation on LHR engine at its optimum injection timing, when compared with pure diesel operation on CE at 27obTDC.
Crude Mohr oil, Esterification, LHR engine, Performance, Emissions, Combustion characteristics.
. Cummins, C. Lyle, Jr. Diesel's Engine, Volume 1: From Conception To 1918. Wilsonville, OR, USA:
|Performance Evaluation of a Queueing Model with Two Component Mixture of Doubly Truncated Exponential Service Times|
In this paper, we introduce and analyze a new queueing model with the assumption that the service time of the customer follows a two component mixture of doubly truncated exponential distribution. The doubly truncated two component mixture distribution is capable of characterizing the heterogeneous and finite range nature of the service time. This service time distributions also includes two component mixture of exponential service time, doubly truncated exponential time and exponential service time queuing models as limiting/particularcases. Assuming the arrival process follows a Poison process and using the embedded markov chain technique the system behaviour is analyzed. Explicit expressions for the system performance like average number of customers in the system and in the queue, average waiting time of a customer in the queue, the throughput of the service station, the probability of the idleness of the service etc,. are derived. Through numerical illustration, the sensitivity of the model performance measures with respect to the changes in the model parameter is also studied.
Queueing,Truncated,Exponential Service times,Poisson Model.
 Gross, D.And Harris, C. M. (1974) "Fundamentals of Queuing Theory." John Wiley, New York.
 Boxma,O.J., And J.W. Cohen (1998) "The M/G/1 queue with heavy-tailed service time distribution‟, IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun. 16, 749–763.
|Gangavarapu. Chinna Gangarao, Tippa Bhimasankara Rao|
|Study of Cutting Forces & Surface Finish in End Milling|
Faced with intense global competition and to enhance customer expectation in terms of accuracy and precision, various manufacturing firms are considering the adoption of automated systems in order to achieve manufacturing excellence. Automated systems are highly useful to maximize production and to achieve better safety and health requirements of the present day industry. Hence computer aided monitoring of various operations are essential which may be fed to a computer interfaced machine for getting the best results. The effect of various process parameters like speed, feed and depth of cut on the cutting forces and surface finish of Aluminum and Brass in End milling process on a Universal Milling Machine was investigated by using Factorial Technique. The coefficients were calculated by using regression analysis and the model is constructed. The model is tested for its adequacy by using Fisher‟s test at 95 % confidence level. By using the mathematical model the main and interaction effect of various process parameters on milling cutting forces and surface finish was studied.
End Milling, Surface Finish, Factorial Technique.
. PATEL K.P, "Experimental analysis on surface roughness of CNC end milling process using taguchi design method", International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST), Vol. 4 No.02 February 2012.
|Yamal Patel, Ms. S.Christobel Diana|
|Fingerprint Authentication Technique to Prevent Phishing using Pattern Matrix|
Phishing is an automated form of identity theft, targeted primarily at the casual e-mail user. It is defined as a technique to take the user to fake website via fake link in order to make him enter its credentials and to use that information illegally for own benefit. To stop phishing many detection and prevention techniques has been applied with their own advantages and disadvantages respectively, but phishing has not been prevented completely yet. So if a website has been authenticated with user before user enters its credentials then phishing attack can be prevented. I am proposing anti-phishing technique which will authenticate website with user using fingerprint.
Fingerprint Authentication Technique to Prevent Phishing using Pattern Matrix
. Hicham Tout, William Hafner "Phishpin: An identity-based anti-phishing approach" in proceedings of international conference on computational science and engineering, Vancouver, BC, pages 347-352, 2009 .