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IJERD : Volume 6, Issue 12
|Investigation of Air Permeability of Cotton & Modal Knitted Fabrics|
In this study, it was aimed to investigate the porosity / compactness of the knitted structures made from cotton and modal yarns and to evaluate the air permeability property for sportswear. In the experimental section, cotton and modal yarns spun in different counts ( Ne 30, Ne 40 ) with the same twist coefficient of αe = 3.53 and 3.3 respectively were knitted as single jersey fabrics in the same production conditions with four tightness factors and air permeabililty property of fabrics were measured. The result showed that air permeability is a function of the thickness, tightness factor and porosity of the knitted fabrics and modal single jersey fabrics are considered preferred candidates for warmer climate sportswear, due to their higher air permeability.
Knitted fabric, Air permeability, Cotton, Modal, Porosity, Tightness factor.
. Mukherjee S, Punj S.K., Ray S.C, "Dimensional properties of single jersey fabrics-a critical review". Asian Textile Journal, pp.52-58, 2009.
. George Haveneith, et al, "The skin interface- meeting point of physiology and clothing science", Journal of Fibre Bioengineering and Informatics, Volume 1, No. 2, pp. 93-98, 2008.
. Bivainytė. A, D. Mikučionienė, "Investigation on the air and water vapour permeability of double-layered weft knitted fabrics", Fibre & Textiles in Eastern Europe, Vol. 19 No.3, pp.69-73, 2010.
. Ričardas Č & J Abramavičiūtė, "Investigation of the air permeability of socks knitted from yarns with peculiar properties", Fibre & Textiles in Eastern Europe, Vol. 18 No.1, pp.84-88, 2010.
. Das. S., "Comfort characteristics of knitted cotton fabrics", Asian Textile Journal, pp.81-85, 2008......
|On the Einstein-de Haas and Barnett Effects|
The orthogonal relation between the magnetic aspect (spin) of scatterable elementary particles' energy with respect to their direction of motion can be demonstrated at the macroscopic level by mechanical means. It can be proven that force aligning the spins of unpaired electrons in ferromagnetic materials causes the unidirectional carrying energy of the electrons involved to align orthogonally to the macroscopic magnetic field generated, which can cause a motion detectable at the macroscopic level when this motion is not mechanically restrained (The Einstein-de Haas Effect). Alternately, it can also be proven that mechanically forcing unpaired electrons in ferromagnetic materials to move in a common direction forces the spin of their carrying energy to align parallel, causing their combined magnetic field to become detectable at the macroscopic level (the Barnett Effect).
Einstein-de Haas effect, Barnett effect, spin alignment, ferromagnetic material, spin, carrying energy, 3-spaces model.
. C.J. Davisson & J.W. Beams. A New Variation of the Rotation-by-Magnetization Method of Measuring Gyromagnetic Ratios. Rev.Mod.Phys. Vol 25, 246 (1953).
. S.J. Barnett. Gyromagnetic and Electron-Inertia Effects. Rev.Mod.Phys. Vol 7, 129 (1935).
. Robert Resnick & David Halliday. Physics. John Wyley & Sons, New York, 1967.
. L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshitz and L.P. Pitaevskii. Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, 2nd Edition, Buterworth-Heinemann. 2001.
. André Michaud. Expanded Maxwellian Geometry of Space, 4th edition, SRP Books, 2004. (Available in many eBook formats at https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/163704)......
Mounia taleb, Rachid Chaib, Ion Verzea, Irina Cozminca
|Master Maintenance: It Is To Ensure The Availability Of Such Equipment And Its Production|
The effectiveness of the maintenance of the industrial systems is an economically challenge in the current strategic industry of cements for a country like Algeria, where quick and effective decision making is needed. Main difficulties and sources of inefficiency lies in the choice of maintenance actions to take in case of machine malfunction, especially when the machine plays a vital role in the process of production. Some decisions may result in heavy economical consequences. So, to avoid unexpected stops of production and the economic effects resulting therefrom, must continuously monitor the equipment and "stalk" all the warning signs of defects before it's too late. However, as this industry offers machines with complex installations or high security requirements, the reduction of operating costs and control of the availability of these facilities are required, must given to maintenance of the systems a stately role. Thus, and despite the age and complexity of the equipment, maintenance service must provide reliable and easily interpretable diagnosis to intervene only in the presence of defective items and therefore avoid the disassembly and reassembly unnecessary, targeting the faulty element, do the selective maintenance and thus minimize human errors and downtime for the repair, an objective of this work. For this purpose, must continuously adapt to technical, technological and organizational progress. Moreover, the need for cement in industrial environment in Algeria (Habitat and construction, East-West Highway, dams etc) imposes new implications for strategies of companies in this field. Therefore, this work is of major importance to the Algerian industry, especially cement or unexpected failures lead to high repair bills, excluding inflation and delay accumulated in different sectors, in particular the habitat and construction.
cement, failure, diagnosis, repair, maintenance, disassembly.
. Pauline RIBOT, Vers l'intégration diagnostic/pronostic pour la maintenance des systèmes complexes,Doctorant de l'université de Toulouse, 2009.
F.Paul Samuel, T.Gunasekar, M.MallikaArjunan
Controllability Resultsfor Damped Second-OrderImpulsive Neutral Functional Integrodifferential SystemwithInfinite Delayin Banach Spacesinfinitedelayinbanachspaces
Inthis paper, thecontrollabilityproblem isdiscussed forthe damped second-order impulsive neutralfunctional integro-differentialsystems with infinite delay inBanach spaces. Sufficientconditions for controllability results are derived by means ofthe Sadovskii's fixedpointtheorem combined with anoncompactcondition onthe cosine familyofoperators.Anexample isprovidedtoillustratethetheory.
Controllability;Dampedsecond-orderdifferentialequations;Impulsive neutralintegrodifferentialequations; Mildsolutions; Infinite delay. 2000 SubjectClassification:34A37,34K30,34K40,47D09.
. Arthi, G., Balachandran,K.: Controllabilityofdamped second-order impulsive neutralfunctional differential systemswith infinite delay. J.OptimTheoryAppl.
. 152,799-813 (2012).
. Balachandran,K.,Anandhi, E.R.: Controllabilityofneutralfunctional integrod- ifferentialinfinite delaysystems inBanach spaces. Taiwan. J.Math. 8,689-702(2004).
. Balachandran,K., Dauer, J.P.: Controllabilityofnonlinear systemsin Banach spaces: asurvey. J.Optim. Theory Appl. 115, 7-28(2002).
. Balachandran,K.,Dauer, J.P., Balasubramaniam,P.: Controllabilityofnonlinear integrodifferentialsystems inBanach space. J.Optim. Theory Appl. 84, 83-91(1995).......
Hemant Gupta, Dr. Setu Chaturvedi
|Video Steganography through LSB Based Hybrid Approach|
In this paper, proposed an advance approach for dynamic data protection using LSB and hybrid approach. Steganography is the art of communicating a message by embedding it into multimedia data. The proposed method for replacing one or two or three LSB of each pixel in video frame and apply Advance encryption standard (AES). It becomes very difficult for intruder to guess that an image is hidden in the video as individual frames are very difficult to analyze in a video. In this observation peak to signal noise ratio (PSNR) is grater for 1 bit LSB substation as compared to 3 bit LSB substation so that when number of LSB substation bit increased then security level is also increased and observation correlation coefficient has the value r=1 if the two image are absolutely identical, r=0 if they are completely uncorrelated and r=-1 if they are completely anti correlated for example if one image is the negative of the other.
AES, LSB, Cryptography.
. A.K. Al Frajat "Hiding data in video file An overview" Journal of applied sciences 10(15):1644-1649, 2010.
|Rupesh Kumar Tiwari|
|Multi Objective Optimization of Drilling Process Variables Using Genetic Algorithm for Precision Drilling Operation|
The aim of this paper is to utilise genetic algorithm approach to investigate the effect of CNC drilling process variables such as spindle speed, drill diameter, material thickness, and feed rate on thrust force and torque generated during the drilling of mild steel plate using H.S.S drill. To find out the relationship between drilling process variable on thrust force and torque generated to the jig and work table, multiple regression model is used. Regression model is generated with the help of SPSS-19. Statistical validity, explanatory power and significance of the regression model is tested at 95% confidence interval. High degree of correlation between drilling parameters and thrust force/torque has been found with almost negligible interaction amongst the drilling process parameter. Regression model is found to be significant and valid. Optimum combination of process variable to explain thrust force and torque generated is found with the help of MATLAB solver using genetic algorithm. Sensitivity analysis investigates the change in the solutions resulting from making changes in parameters of the GA model. In this research, sensitivity analysis shows how sensitive of solutions and decision variables to changes in weights in objective functions. It shows that the solutions of an aggregation method are affected by weight adjustment. Thus, in case of aggregation method, if the weights are not appropriately assigned, the GA may not give out good solutions. On the other hand, for the proposed Pareto method, it is not sensitive to weigh, so incorrect weights do not affect the solution outcome of Pareto based MOGA.
Twist drill, High speed steel, Mild steel, CNC, VMC, Multiple regression, R square, Adjusted R square, Multicollinearity, Multiobjective optimization, Genetic algorithm, MOGA, Pareto front, mutation, cross over etc.
. S. A. Jalai and W. J. Kolarik, "Tool life and machinability models for drilling steels", Int. J.Mach.Tool.Manuf.,vol. 31 (3), pp.273 -282, 1991.
. Chen W C, Tsao CC. Cutting performance of different coated twist drills. J Mater Process Technol. (1999) 88 : 203-207
. K. Subramanian and N. H. Cook, "Sensing of drill wear and prediction of tool life", J. Engng Ind. Trans, ASME, vol. 99, pp.295-301, 1977.
. S. A. Jalai and W. J. Kolarik, "Tool life and machinability models for drilling steels", Int. J.Mach.Tool.Manuf.,vol. 31 (3), pp.273 -282, 1991.
. S. C. Lin and C. J. Ting, "Tool wear monitoring using force signals", Journal of wear, ISO, pp.53-60, 1995.
|Punit Dwivedi, S. Christobel Diana|
|Analysis of Automation Studies in the Field of Information Security Management|
Now a days, information security is critical issue, for any organization, to take care of. There are several standardization researches that provide a framework to organization for information security management. ISO 27001 is of the standards, which provides a stable framework for information security management. Information security management, as defined in ISO 27001, deals with establishing, implementing, operating, reviewing, monitoring, maintaining and improving an information security management system. This paper gives an overview about automation possibilities in information security management. The study is focused on the possibility of applying (i) hard- and software systems for automatic operation of certain security controls, and (ii) the Security Control Automation Protocol (SCAP) for automation of compliance and security configuration checking. The results of the study can be a great help for organizations and their information security managers. They can use these results for identifying systems they can use to achieve greater efficiency in information security management process.
Automation, ISO 27001, Security Controls, Information Security Management, Security Content Automation Protocol.
. S. Radack and R. Kuhn, "Managing Security: The Security Content Automation Protocol," IT Professional, 2011, p. 9-11.
. R. Montesino and S. Fenz, "Information security automation: how far can we go?," Sixth International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES), Vienna, Austria: 2011.
|Hussein Shareyat, Nasrin Pirmouradi|
|The Social Responsibility of Organizations And Stable Development|
Huge industrial centers and organizations by their actions in addition to provide services for societies, caused to: water, air, soil pollution; soil destroying, surplus and waste distributions which have threatened human life. The issue of changing unstable development to stable development is changed the subject of social responsibility to a serious one so that social responsibility of companies is defined as commercial cooperation, business for existence, resistance and stability. Sometimes the concept of company social responsibility and stability use with similar interpretation so, it is a conception that companies combine environmental and social issues with commercial operation and communication with their participants. However, the nature of stable development is an expanded issue which cannot be achieved by social responsibility of companies only. For instance, the stable development take action more than voluntary strategies and it includes decision and operation which are supplied by governments and middle parts of governments.
Social responsibility, Stable development, Stability, Environment.
. Barzegar,G.& Gafari,V.(2008). Accounting and reporting about stabling of companies in third millennium, Accounting Jurnal (Hesabdar), No 202. . Bozorgi, F.(2005). "Individual, Organizational and social goals", tadbir publication, 15th year, No 144.
|Dr. Enemuoh F. O., Dr. Onuegbu J. C. and Dr. Anazia E. A.|
|Modal Based Analysis and Evaluation of Voltage Stability of Bulk Power System|
This paper reports on Modal based analysis and its application in the evaluation of voltage stability of bulk power system. This method makes use of the power system Jacobian matrix to determine the eigenvalues necessary for the evaluation of the voltage stability of the power system. It identifies if the eigenvalues are positive or negative which is an indicator of the system stability. For a steady state power system, a positive eigenvalue shows that the system is stable while a negative eigenvalue indicates that the system is instable. The least eigenvalue indicates the proximity of the system to voltage instability. This method was used to determine the components of the system that contribute to instability through the use of the participating factors. The method was implemented on IEEE 14 bus system and it calculated the various eigenvalues with the least value used to calculate the participation factors that indicated the generator, branches and buses that will contribute most to the bulk system voltage instability.
Modal, voltage stability, eigenvalue, participation factors.
. S. Johnsson, and F. Sjogreen, "Voltage Collapse in Power Systems; The influence of generator current limiters, on-load tap changers and dynamics," Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Gotenbery, Sweden, 1995, ISBN:91-7197-119-K.
|Ibrahim, D., Bankole, O. C., Ma'aji, S. A., Ohize, E. J., Abdul B. K|
|Assessment Of The Strength Properties Of Polystyrene Material Used In Building Construction In Mbora District Of Abuja,Nigeria|
This study was designed to assess the strength potentials of polystyrene material used in building construction in Mbora district, Abuja. Two research questions were formulated to guide the study. An experimental research design was employed for the study. The study was carried out in the building technology laboratory, Federal University of Technology, Minna Niger state and the construction site of Citec International estates Mbora District, Abuja. The findings of the study revealed among others that polystyrene material has good strength potentials in building construction. Based on the findings, it was also recommended that there should be a proper orientation on the use of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) material for building construction since it posses the required quality for building material, the government and the people of Nigeria should make use of EPS material in the construction of houses since it is a strong and safe building material.
Assessment Of The Strength Properties Of Polystyrene Material Used In Building Construction In Mbora District Of Abuja,Nigeria.
. K. Goodier, "Making and Using an Expanded Plastic''2009. New Scientist 240: 706. Available: http://books.google.com/ accessed on 25th January, 2012.
|Aezeden Mohamed, Brian Stimpson|
|Teaching Technology and Society to Engineering Students|
The teaching of technology and society to undergraduate engineering students is open to a variety of approaches. This research note describes the objectives and structure of an interactive, team-work learning course at the University of Manitoba's Faculty of Engineering. To gather student responses to the course and information useful for improving the course, questionnaires were distributed to 80 students and the feedback evaluated. Students reported positively on the variety of learning environments used in the course and the knowledge acquired to broaden their understanding of technology as a shaper of society. They found group discussions valuable in exposing them to different perspectives. Most students also showed a positive response to the group projects as well as to short three-page essays in which they had to "take sides" on an issue. Having to make their own cases motivated them to read more critically and carefully.
Ethic; technology; engineering students; society; in-class group discussion; learn based project.
. R. Perrucci and J. E. Gerstl, Profession without Community. Engineers in American Society. New York, Random House, 1989.
. T. T. Layton, The Revolt of the Engineers. Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.
. C. G. Guenther, "Teaching social responsibility." IEEE Technology & Society Magazine: pp. 15-21, 1997.
. K., M. Hallinan, Daniels, "Balancing technical and social issues." IEEE Technology & Society Magazine, pp. 5-14, 2001.
. J. Byrd and J. Hudgins, "Teaming in the design laboratory." ASEE Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 84, pp. 225-341, 1995.....
|T.N. Guma, P.B. Madakson, D.S.Yawas, S.Y. Aku|
|Characterization of Working Thicknesses of Some Bath-Dip-Produced Corrosion–Protective Bitumen Coatings on Polish-Prepared Low Carbon Steel Specimens|
The coating thickness is an important variable that plays a role in product quality, process control and cost. Determination of the required working thicknesses for different service requirements is however a complicated task in the product finishing field. A previous study has shown that Nigeria is blessed with abundant bitumen resources for sustained exploitation as common, economical and effective coat-inhibitors of steelwork corrosion in her economy. This paper presents a test-determination of the expected range of working thicknesses of coatings with proper bitumens from the resources. Bitumen samples were harvested at three different critical bitumen resource sites in the country for the tests. 30 specimens of the steel were properly prepared. Coatings of different thicknesses were produced on the specimens by dipping a different pair of them in each bitumen sample heated to each of five different temperatures in the range of 170 – 230OC and removing and cooling them to 38OC-room-temperature. The thickness of each produced coating was properly determined with a micrometer through dimensional change before and after coating. Analysis of the overall obtained data shows that the average working thicknesses of coatings with any bitumens of comparable quality to the as-harvested from the resources using temperatures in the range will decrease with increase in temperature from about 1.46 to 0.81mm respectively, and thicknesses of coatings with the separate bitumens using the same bath temperature will have minimal variations.
Structural steelworks, mechanical properties, corrosion protection, bitumen coatings, bath-dipping process, working thicknesses.
. Johnson, K. (2001). Corrosion Resistance In: Owen, G.W. and Knowles, P.R. (Ed), Steel Designers' Manual, 5th Edition. Blackwell Science Limited Oxford, England, Pp. 998 – 1025.
|Bhavinee U. Parihar, Prof. Y. A. Nafde|
|Improved Decoding Algorithms Useful In Modified Low Density Parity Check Code for Optical Fibre Communication|
ThiLow-density parity-check (LDPC) codes were first introduced by Gallager. These are linear block codes. Their parity-check matrix contains only a few 1‟s in comparison to the amount of 0‟s so these codes are called as low density parity check codes. It is a very powerful code for forward error correction system. The LDPC code can be modified and with which the quality factor can be improved because the presently used LDPC code in optical fibre communication systems is not meeting the requirements of the high speed fibre optics communication systems. This modification is beneficial for the high speed fibre optic communication systems. We explain here a sum product decoding algorithm and modified sum product decoding algorithm of low density parity check code useful in Optical fibre communication. BP and MS modified decoding algorithm also use for a better performance in high speed fibre optic communication.
Low density parity check codes (LDPC), Sum-Product (SP), Belief propagation (BP), Min-sum decoding (MS), Bit error rate (BER), additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN).
. R. G. Gallager, "Low density parity check codes," IRE Transactions on Information Theory, IT-8, pp. 21-28, January 1962.
|B.Kaleeswaran, Kowtham Kumar.K, S.Ranjith Kumar|
|Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Notched Canard Arrangement in Cruise Missiles at Supersonic Flows|
This paper tells about the CFD analysis of 2D Canard arrangement in supersonic cruise missiles. High heat dissipation rate causes the Canards to reduce its primary work of providing rotational stability to missile. This paper discusses about the criteria of choosing notched canard model against the present model. The models were designed in GAMBIT and analysed using FLUENT. Various pressure, temperature, velocity vector and XY plots were taken and studied as results. From the results it was clear that the new notched canard arrangement shows less heat dissipation rate against the existing models. This study would be helpful in designing new canard models for missiles esp. for Supersonic cases.
NotchedCanard, CFD, Supersonic, FLUENT.
. Mustafa Cavcar, AnadoluUniversity, Turkey. (2009). the International Standard Atmosphere. Pages 12.
|Satar Habib Mnaathr, Ahmed Dheyaa Basha, Ahmaid R.Mohain, Rozinah Jamaludin|
|Investigating and Finding the Attitudes and Self Efficiency of Learners in Iraqi Higher Education by Using Portable Devices|
Prior studies have referred that computers and the Internet play a very significant role in the acceptance of students and the using of new information technology. In recent years, with the fast development of mobile technology, mobile learning (m-learning) has become a popular subject. However, little is known about students' attitudes and self-efficiency with the use of a mobile device in learning. The aim of this study is to investigate the attitudes and self-efficiency of the use of mobile devices and learning for college students in English language class by hiring task-based instruction. The sample group consists of 60 students study in the first year at University of Baghdad- center of English language in Iraq. Who used mobile devices for m-learning in English language activities, to complete assigned tasks under the guidance of the instructor. Results showed that the most students are that motivation for English language activities via mobile was strengthened and mostly positive attitudes towards m-learning Also effects for future research and training of m-learning are discussed.
Attitude, self-efficiency, m-learning, English language, learning, task-based approach.
. Attewell, J. (2005). Mobile technologies and learning. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency, 2, 4.
. Compeau, D.R. & Higgins, C.A. (1995). Computer self-efficacy: Development of a measure and initial test. MIS Quarterly, 19 (2), 189-211.
|Keshav V. Nemade, Vipin K. Tripathi|
|A Mathematical Model to Calculate Contact Stresses In Artificial Human Hip Joint|
In this paper a mathematical model of the hip joint is developed to calculate the contact stresses in artificial hip joint. The stresses in any joint play important role in the restoration of the joint after surgery. Mathematical modelling is a non invasive method of determining stresses in the hip joint. The contact stresses in the artificial hip joint are predicted using Hertz contact stress theory. The high value of contact stresses in UHMWPE cup increases the wear. It was found that the radius of femoral head has significant influence on the peak contact stresses in the acetabular cavity. In addition to femur head dimensions, polymeric cup thickness and clearance are the important factors that affect the contact stresses in human hip joint.
UHMWPE, Hip joint, Contact stresses, Femur Head, Mathematical model.
. D.L. Bartel, D.T. Davy, T.M. Keaveny, Orthopaedic Biomechanics, 1st ed., Pearson Education, 2009.