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IJERD : Volume 7, Issue 3
Anurag Bhatt 1, Dr. Ashutosh Kumar Bhatt
|Image Compression Algorithms under JPEG with Lapped Orthogonal Transform and Discrete Cosine Transformation|
This Paper Focus On Image Compression.It is used specially for the compression of images where tolerable degradation is required. With the wide use of computers and consequently need for large scale storage and transmission of data, efficient ways of storing of data have become necessary. Image compression is minimizing the size in bytes of a graphics file without degrading the quality of the image to an unacceptable level. It also reduces the time required for images to be sent over the Internet or downloaded from Web pages.JPEG and JPEG 2000 are two important techniques used for image compression.JPEG image compression standard use dct (discrete cosine transform). Now here Lapped Orthogonal Transform and Discrete Cosine Transformation are using with JPEG 2000 standard. The discrete cosine transform is a fast transform. It is a widely used and robust method for image compression. It has excellent compaction for highly correlated data.DCT has fixed basis images DCT gives good compromise between information packing ability and computational complexity
. Ahmed, N., Natarajan, T., Rao, K. R., "Discrete Cosine Transform", IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. C-23, Jan. 1974, pp. 90-93.
. Watson, A. B. DCT quantization matrices visually optimized for individual images. Proceedings of the SPIE 1913: 202-216 (Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display IV. Rogowitz ed. SPIE. Bellingham, WA). 1993
. Matthias Kramm, "Compression of Image Clusters using Karhunen Loeve Transformations", TU-M¨unchen, Institute for Computer Science, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85748 Garching, Germany.
. Chengjie Tu, And Trac D. Tran, "Context-Based Entropy Coding of Block Transform" Coefficients for Image Compression, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 11, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2002, PP-1271-1283
. Sugreev Kaur and Rajesh Mehra, "HIGH SPEED AND AREA EFFICIENT 2D DWT PROCESSOR BASED IMAGE COMPRESSION Signal & Image Processing : An International Journal(SIPIJ) Vol.1, No.2, December 2010.
. Zhigang Gao, Yuan F. Zheng, " Quality Constrained Compression Using DWT Based Image Quality Metric", Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering The Ohio State University
. Kamrul Hasan Talukder and Koichi Harada, "Discrete Wavelet Transform for Image Compression and A Model of Parallel Image Compression Scheme for Formal Verification", , Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2007 Vol I WCE 2007, July 2 - 4, 2007, London, U.K.
. Liu Chien-Chih, Hang Hsueh-Ming, "Acceleration and Implementation of JPEG 2000 Encoder on TI DSP platform" Image Processing, 2007. ICIP 2007. IEEE International Conference on, Vo1. 3, pp. III-329-339, 2005
. J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, and D. Towsley, "A stochastic model of TCP Reno congestion avoidance and control," Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, CMPSCI Tech. Rep. 99-02, 1999.Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specification, IEEE Std. 802.11, 1997.
. H. S. Malvar and D. H. Staelin. "The LOT: Transform coding without blocking effects," IEEE Trans. Acoustics, Speech, Signal Processing, vol. 37, April 1989, pp. 553 – 559.
M.JANARTHANAN, M.SENTHIL KUMAR
|Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Phytochemical Studies on Selected Seaweeds Acanthopora Spicifera and Sargassum Wightii|
The sample for the study constitutes acanthopora spicifera from red seaweed and sargassum wightii from brown seaweed. They were freshly obtained from mandapam and elatharavai coast of erwadi and were rinsed in seawater and the packed in aseptic bags and brought to the laboratory for further processing. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical analysis to secondary metabolites both qualitatively and quantitatively p. By preliminary phytochemical screening of eight different chemical compounds (alkaloids Teripioids, steroids, tannin, saponins, flavonoids, Polyphenols, glycosides) were tested in four different extracts. The present investigation revealed that Saponins did not show any positive result for their presence in any of the five extracts tested. Among the five different extracts, petroleum ether and methanol extract showed the presence of maximum number (8) of compounds. Next to that, Acetone extracts showed seven compounds. Water extracts showed five compounds and ethanol extracts showed only two compounds. The quantative phytochemical analysis revealed that the highest total phenol (216.65±17.38) and flavanoid (358.25+18.21) was in the brown seaweeds. wightii. The highest tannin compound was recorded in acanthopora spicifera seaweed. (28.54+ 0.89).
Seaweed, Phytochemicals, Phenol, Extraction, Pigmentation.
. Abbott, I. A. (editor) (1992). Taxonomy of economic seaweeds, with reference to some Pacific and western Atlantic species: vol. III. California Sea Grant Program, La Jolla. 241 p
. Chapman, V. J. (1971). The marine algae of Fiji. Rev. Algol. N.S. 10:164-171.
. Dhargalkar VK, Neelam P. Seaweed: Promising plant of the millennium. Sci Cul 2005;
. Keyrouz R, Abasq ML, Bourvellec CL, Blanc N, Audibert L, Argall E, et al. Food Chem. (2011); 126:831.
. Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MTD, Mazur M, Telser J. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology (2007); 39:44
. Ohigashi H, Sakai Y, Yamaguchi K, Umezaki I, Koshimizu K. Biosci. Biotechnology. Biochemical (1992); 56:994.
. Ben Rebah F, Smaoui S, Frikha F, Gargouri Y, Miled N. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnology. (2008); 151:71.
. Aneiros A, Garateix A. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences (2004); 803:41.
. Chakraborty C, Hsu C-, Wen Z-, Lin C-. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry (2009); 9:1536.
. Arokiyaraj k, Perinbam P, Agastian R, Mohan K. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Vitex agnus-castus. International Journal of Green Pharmacy 2009:34:162-164.
|Design and Implementation of a Zigbee-Based Theft Monitoring System|
ZigBee is a new global standard for wireless communications with the characteristics of low-cost, low power consumption, and low data rate. The design and implementation of a ZigBee-based wireless theft monitoring are proposed in this paper. The experimental results show that the design can meet the basic needs of automatic theft monitoring and expansibility. It can act as a platform of wireless monitor system and supplies a new hardware design approach for wireless ZigBee networks. In here the theft can be identified and also send message though GSM and capture the camera at the same time of theft deduction.
ZigBee , GSM, Video Camera, Pic Microcontroller
. Safaric S., Malaric K., ZigBee Wireless Standard, Proc. of the 48th International Symposium
ELMAR-2006, Zadar Croatia, 1 (2006), 259-262
. Primicanta, A.H., Nayan, M.Y., Awan, M., ZigBee-GSM based Automatic Meter Reading system,
2010 International Conference on Intelligent and Advanced Systems (ICIAS), Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia, 1 (2010), 1-5
. Tatsiopoulos, C., Ktena, A., A Smart ZIGBEE Based Wireless Sensor Meter System, 16th International
Conference on Systems, Signals and Image Processing (IWSSIP), Chalkida, Greece, 1 (2009), 1-4
. Lee J.D., Nam K.Y., Jeong S.H., Choi S.B., Ryoo H.S., Kim D.K., Development of ZigBee Based
Street Light Control System, Proc. of the Power System Conference and Exposition, Atlanta GA, 3
. IEEE 802.15 WPAN Task Group 1 (TG1), http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG1.html
. IEEE 802.15 WPAN Task Group 2 (TG2),http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG2.html
. IEEE 802.15 WPAN Task Group 3 (TG3),http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG3.html
. IEEE 802.15 WPAN Task Group 4 (TG4), http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG4.html
. Chen Z., Lin C., Wen H., Yin H., An Analytical Model for Evaluating IEEE 802.15.4 CSMA/CA
Protocol in Low-Rate Wireless Application, Proc. of the 21st International Conference on Advanced
Information Networking and Applications Workshops, 2 (2007), 899-904
|On The Electron Magnetic Moment Anomaly|
It can be shown that the difference between the experimental value of the electron magnetic
moment and that of the Bohr magneton is due to the magnetic drift of the electron's carrying energy
induced at the hydrogen ground state gyroradius, corresponding to the electron being forced to move
on a closed orbit about the nucleus in an isolated hydrogen atom.
Energy density, gyroradius, Bohr magneton, magnetic moment anomaly, circular motion,
straight line motion, electron g factor, magnetic drift, first principles, atomic hydrogen atom.
. André Michaud. Field Equations for Localized Individual Photons and Relativistic Field
Kamil M. Yousif , JundiKh. Yousif, Manaf A. Mahammed
|Potential of Using Window Films to Support Protection of the Environmentin Kurdistan of Iraq|
Glazed buildings directly exposed to the sun become unbearably hot during summer and cold during winter. Huge amounts of energy are required to keep them comfortable. Application of thermal insulation such as Window films significantly reduces energy required for heating and cooling. A Window film can block a significant amount of the sun's heat, reducing the load on air conditioner for the buildings. In this study, a test wooden cabinet was built as a building simulation. The results of an experimental investigation aimed at assessing the performance of thin films windows in a wooden cabinet are presented. The research is performed under real weather conditions. Experimental tests are carried out as a function of time, and weather conditions. The data are integrated with spectro-photometric measurements. Concerning the environmental issues, the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) due to save in electrical energy by window film was calculated.
Control of solar heat gain; reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2); Solar Control Window Films; greenhouse gases
. King, Doug , New Skills for Low Energy Architecture, World Renewable Energy Congress XI 25-30 September 2010, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Page 429- 434.
. Saman ,Wasim , Towards zero energy homes down under , World Renewable Energy Congress XI, 25-30 September 2010, Abu Dhabi, UAE . Page 410-415.
. Al-SallalKhaled A, Laila Al-Rais and MaithaBnDalmouk, Designing a Sustainable House in the Desert of Abu Dhabi, World Renewable Energy Congress XI 25-30 September 2010, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Page 404-409.
. Bahaj, A. , James , Patrick A.B., and Jentsch, Mark F. , Potential of emerging glazing technologies for highly glazed buildings in hot arid climates. Energy and Buildings 40, (2008) 720–731.
. Lampert, C., Heat mirror coatings for energy conserving windows, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 6 (1981) 1–41.
. Asdrubali1, Francesco, Baldinelli , Giorgio, and Schiavoni, Samuele. Experimental And Ray Tracing Evaluation Of The Transmittance Of Glazing Systems With Selective Coatings, At Various Angles Of Incidence. Proceedings of Building Simulation 2011:12th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Sydney, 14-16 November..Page 1878-1883.
. Baldinelli , Giorgio ., Theoretical modeling and experimental evaluation of the optical properties of glazing systems with selective films, BUILD SIMUL (2009) 2: 75–84,DOI 10.1007/S12273-009-9112-5.
. Roos, A., Polato, P., van Nijnatten PA, Hutchins MG, Olive F, Anderson , C. Angular dependent optical properties of low-E and solar control windows—Simulation versus measurements. Solar Energy, 69(suppl. 6): (2000) 5−26.
. Nostell, P. Preparation and optical characterisation of antireflection coatings and reflector materials for solar energy systems. Dissertation for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy, ActaUniversitatisUpsaliensis, Uppsala, Sweden. (2000)
I.O Oluwaleye, M.B. Adeyemi, S.B. Adeyemo
|Numerical Simulation of a Batch Fluidized Bed Dryer|
The numerical simulation of drying cassava particulates in a batched fluidized bed dryer was undertaken. The dryer consists of a vertical column 400mm diameter with a physical height of 2960mm. A regulated centrifugal blower that generated air flow at three different flow rates (.043 kg/s, 0.05 kg/s and 0.056 kg/s) to fluidize a bed of cassava particulates in turn was powered by a 1.5 Hp electric motor. The air flow was heated by a regulated electric heater to predetermined drying temperature of 120oC. The mass of cassava particulate fed into the dryer per batch is 1.555kg. One dimensional mathematical model based on the two-phase model of Kunni and Levenspiel was used to model the drying process. The data generated were analysed and compared with fluidized and oven drying methods. The result compares well within the limit of the assumptions made for the numerical simulation.
Numerical, Simulation, Drying, Fluidized, Cassava, Particulates
. Daizo Kunii and Octave Levenspiel (1991), Fluidization Engineering, Butterworth-Heinemann, USA, pp 1-13, 15-58
. Reay, D. (1986), Fluid Bed Drying, In Gas Fluidization Technology, Ed. By D.Geldart, John Wiley and Sons, pp. 259-284,
. Romankov, P.G.(1971), Drying, In Fluidization , Ed. By Davidson J. F. and Harrison D., Academic Press, London
. Hoebink, J.H.B.J and Rietema, K. (1980), Drying Granular Solids in Fluidized Bed I and II, Chemical Engineering Science,
Vol 35, pp 2135-2140 and pp 2257-2265
. Alergregtse Johan B (1986), Fludized Bed Drying: A Mathematical Model for Hydrodynamics and Mass Transfer, In Heat and Mass Transfer in Fixed And Fluidized Beds by W.P.M Van Swaaij and N.H/ Afgan, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, PP 511-521
. Verkooijen A.H.M,(1986), Fluidized Bed Drying of Fine Particles with Internal Diffusion Limitation, In Fluidization V: Proceedings of the fifth Engineering Foundation Conference on Fluidization, May 18-23, Elsinore Denmark, Ed. By stergaard, K and Srensen, A. Engineering Foundation, New York pp. 643-649
. Franca, A. S.; Passos; M. L., (1997),Finite element analysis of gas flow in spouted be dryers, Proceedings of the ASAE Annual International Meeting. Part 1 oF (3), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Braz, Minneapolis, MN, USA, Conference.
Karishmatyagi,Viet Dadri , Gauravsachan ,Viet Dadri
|A Comparison of Sofm With K-Mean Clustering And Ann Pattern Reorganization:A Review|
This paper mainly focus on how the input vectors organize themselves into different patterns, that is, self-organizing maps, based on various algorithms like incremental batch algorithm, k-mean clustering methods and linear vector quantization when applied in SOFM algorithm itself. It also throws light on how SOFM algorithm works and defines various topologies. In this paper we have tried to show how the map looks like after the number of iterations. Moreover we have compared the three known strategies of self-organizing feature map and discussed the advantage of one technique over other.
feature maps, linear vector quantization, neural network, clusters, classification, neurons, competitive layer, neuron-neighbours, network design
. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT) ISSN: 2249 –8958, Volume-1.
. Ieee transactions on neural networks, vol. 11, no. 3, may 2000
. <html><meta http-equiv="content- type"
. <CITE>genome.tugraz.at/MedicalI nformatics2/<B>SOM</B>.pdf</CI TE>
. Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 35-48 (2002)
. [Char92] Charalambous, C.,"Conjugate gradient algorithm forefficienttraining of artificial neural networks," IEEE Proceedings, Vol. 139, No. 3,1992, pp. 301–310.
. [Koho97] Kohonen, T., Self- Organizing Maps, Second Edition, Berlin:Springer- Verlag, 1997.
. [Lipp87] Lippman, R.P., "An Introduction to computing with
Akram Inanlo Khajlo
|Problems in Teaching and Learning English for Students|
Learning Englishas a second language haslong beenof interest forteachersandeducators. Everyone has tried to reduce the obstacles anddifficultiesinlearning English. But unfortunately, few peopleareableto reducetheseproblems. Manystudentsandteachers ofEnglish Language havealways encountered with problems that did not made the full learning of this language. As thefacts andevidence show,our studentshave difficulty in learning Englishatdifferent levels ofeducationandalwayscomplain about its unclearness.Basicallythe problemoccurs when we do not learn the basicprinciples of something. This issue may happen in everything and when we refer to its origin we see that all the problems can be resolved. By looking at the education system in Iran we can see that this system hasnumerous andfundamentalproblems and unfortunately,the officials and authorities have not found a solution yet.
learning, Educational literatures, English teaching, frequentpractice.
. Chan, Alice. Y. (2004). Syntactic transfer; Evidence from the inter languageof Hong Kong Chinese ESL learners. The modern language Journal. 88,56-74.
Ms.Kirandeep Kaur, Mr.Vinay Chopra
|Test Case Prioritization Using Genetic Algorithm|
Test case prioritization is one of the techniques used to reduce the rate of fault detection. Test case prioritization techniques help engineers execute regression tests in an order that achieves testing objectives earlier in the testing process. Test case prioritization techniques schedule test cases for execution in an order that attempts to increase their effectiveness at meeting some performance goal. Various goals are possible; one involves rate of fault detection. Rate of fault detection measure of how quickly faults are detected within the testing process.
Testing, Regression Testing, Test case prioritization, Genetic Algorithm.
. G. Rothermel, R.H. Untch, C. Chu, & M. J Harrold, "Test Case Prioritization: An Empirical Study", Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Maintenance, Oxford, UK, IEEE, Vol. 20, Issue no. 6, pp: 1-10, 1999.
. Praveen Ranjan Srivastava, "Test Case Prioritization", Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, pp: 178-181, 2008.
. P. Ammann, P. E. Black, and W. Ding, "Model Checkers in Software Testing Technical report", National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2002.
Test Case Prioritization Using Genetic Algorithm
. Sebastian Elbaum,¤ Gregg Rothermel,y Satya Kanduri,z Alexey G. Malishevsky, "Selecting a Cost-Effective Test Case Prioritization Technique", pp: 1-26, 2004.
. Sujata, Mohit Kumar, Dr. Varun Kumar, "Requirements based Test Case Prioritization using Genetic Algorithm", IJCST Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp: 189-191, 2010.
. Ruchika Malhotra, Arvinder Kaur and Yogesh Singh, "A Regression Test Selection and Prioritization Technique," Journal of Information Processing Systems, Vol.6, No.2, pp.235- 252, Jun 2010.
. Peter M. Kruse1 and Kiran Lakhotia2, "Multi Objective Algorithms for Automated Generation of Combinatorial Test Cases with the Classification Tree Method", pp: 1-6, 2011.
. Chhabi Rani,Rajibb mall, "Test Case Prioritization of object-oriented programs", Setlabs briefings, Vol.9, No.4, pp. 31-40, 2011.
. S. Raju, G. V. Uma, "Factors Oriented Test Case Prioritization Technique in Regression Testing using Genetic Algorithm", European Journal of Scientific Research, ISSN 1450-216X, Vol.74, No.3, pp. 389-402, 2012.
. Miso Yoon, Eunyoung Lee, Mikyoung Song, Byoungju Choi, "A Test Case Prioritization through Correlation of Requirement and Risk", Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, Vol. 5, 823-835, 2012.
Ahmed Hussien Radie Alkhayyat
|Improving Connectivity Using Smart Antennas in Ad Hoc Networks|
In this paper we study the connectivity for ad hoc networks by modeling geometric random graph using Honey gird model. We shall study the connectivity with random shadowing effect that is connection may be occur at out of range and no connection inside the range as well as effect of interference that is reduce desired power between parties consequently prevent the connection and reduces number of the nodes inside the coverage area. We shall model Connectivity with smart antennas; consequently exploit advantage of it to reduce the interference, increase the gain and power transmission to improve the connectivity.
. Tomas Johansso et al. "‟ reducing the interference in MANET‟‟ Copyright 2005 ACM, cologne, Germany.
. Olivier Dousse et al. "‟ Impact of interference on Connectivity in ad hoc networks‟‟ IEEE INFOCOM 2003, from page No.3.
. T.S. Rappaport "‟ wireless communication: principle and practice‟‟, © 2002 by Prentice-Hall.
. R. Hakmet et al. "‟ connectivity in wireless ad hoc networks with log normal radio model‟‟ ©2006 springer science + business media.
. R. Hakmet et al.‟‟ Interference in wireless ad hoc network and it effect on the capacity‟‟ wireless network journal.vol10,pp,389-399, july 2004.
. R. Hekmat "‟ Ad networks: fundamentals properties and networks topology‟‟ ©2006 by springer. From chapter 9.
. www.iec.org, the international engineering consortium‟ ‟introduction to smart antennas "‟.
. Subir Kumar et al. "‟ ad hoc mobile wireless networks: principle, protocols, application‟‟ © 2006 by Taylor and Francies group. Chapter 2, from pages No. 37-40.
. IEEE 802.11 WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS - The Working Group for WLAN Standards, "ANSI/IEEE Std 802.11, part 11: Wireless LAN medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications," tech. rep., IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee,
|Static and Modal Analysis of Leaf Spring with Eyes Using FEA Packages|
The objective of this present work is to estimate the deflection, stress and mode frequency
induced in the leaf spring of an army jeep. The emphasis in this project is on the application of
computer aided analysis using finite element concept.
The component chosen for analysis is a leaf spring which is an automotive component used to absorb
vibrations induced during the motion of vehicle. It also acts as a structure to support vertical loading
due to the weight of the vehicle and payload. Under operating conditions, the behaviour of the leaf
spring complicated due to its clamping effects and interleaf contact, hence its analysis is essential to
predict the displacement, mode frequency and stresses.
The leaf spring, which we are analysing, is a custom designed leaf spring with different eyes like viz.,
Berlin and upturned eyes with different materials at different sections. This spring is intended to bear
heavy jerks and vibrations reduced during real operating conditions in military operations.
In analysis part the finite element of leaf spring is modelled using solid tetrahedron10-NODE-187
elements. Appropriate boundary conditions, material properties and loads are applied selected as per
intended performance. The resultant deformation, mode frequencies and stresses obtained are analyzed.
. Rajendran, I., Vijayarangan, S. "Optimal Design of a Composite Leaf Spring using Genetic Algorithms" Int. Jr. of Computer and Structures 79 2001: pp. 1121 – 1129.
. Rajendran, I., Vijayarangan, S. "Design and Analysis of a Composite Leaf Spring" Journal of Institute of Engineers India 82 2002: pp. 180 – 187.
. Daugherty, R. L. "Composite Leaf Springs in Heavy Truck Applications". K. Kawata, T.Akasaka (Eds). Composite Materials Proceedings of Japan-US Conference Tokyo,1981: pp. 529 – 538.
. Dharam, C. K. "Composite Materials Design and Processes for Automotive
. Applications". The ASME Winter Annual Meeting, San Francisco, December 10-15, 1978: pp. 19 – 30.
. Vijayarangan, S., Ganesan, N. "Static Stress Analysis of a Composite Bevel Gear
. using a Three-dimensional Finite Element Method" Computer Structures 51 (6) 1994: pp. 771 – 783.
. Tanabe, K., Seino, T., Kajio, Y. "Characteristics of Carbon/Glass Fiber Reinforced
Plastic Leaf Spring", SAE 820403 1982: pp. 1628 – 1634.
Sasi Kumar A.V, M.S.Balamurugan
|Super Active Visual Segmentation|
Attention is an integral part of the human visual system and has been widely studied in the visual attention literature. The human eyes fixate at important locations in the scene, and every fixation point lies inside a particular region of arbitrary shape and size, which can either be an entire object or a part of it. Using that fixation point as an identification marker on the object, we propose a method to segment the object of interest by finding the "optimal" closed contour around the fixation point in the polar space, avoiding the perennial problem of scale in the Cartesian space. The proposed segmentation process is carried out in two separate steps: First, all visual cues are combined to generate the probabilistic boundary edge map of the scene; second, in this edge map, the "optimal" closed contour around a given fixation point is found. Having two separate steps also makes it possible to establish a simple feedback between the mid-level cue (regions) and the low-level visual cues (edges). In fact, we propose a segmentation refinement process based on such a feedback process. Finally, our experiments show the promise of the proposed method as an automatic segmentation framework for a general purpose visual system.
Fixation-based segmentation, polar space, cue integration, visual attention. Region based segmentation.
. R. Achanta, S. Hemami, F. Estrada, and S. Susstrunk, "Frequency Tuned Salient Region Detection," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2009.
. S. Alpert, M. Galun, R. Basri, and A. Brandt, "Image Segmentation by Probabilistic Bottom-Up Aggregation and Cue Integration," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, June 2007.
. P. Arbelaez and L. Cohen, "Constrained Image Segmentation from Hierarchical Boundaries," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 454-467, 2008.
. S. Bagon, O. Boiman, and M. Irani, "What Is a Good Image Segment?A Unified Approach to Segment Extraction," Proc. 10th European Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 30-44, 2008.
. A. Blake, C. Rother, M. Brown, P. Perez, and P. Torr, "Interactive Image Segmentation Using an Adaptive GMMRF Model," Proc. European Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 428-441, 2004.
. Y.Y. Boykov and M.P. Jolly, "Interactive Graph Cuts for Optimal Boundary and Region Segmentation of Objects in n-d Images," Proc. Eighth IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 105-112, 2001.
. Y.Y. Boykov and V. Kolmogorov, "An Experimental Comparison of Min-Cut/Max-Flow Algorithms for Energy Minimization in Vision," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1124-1137, Sept. 2004.
. T. Brox, A. Bruhn, N. Papenberg, and J. Weickert, High Accuracy Optical Flow Estimation Based on a Theory for Warping, pp. 25-36. Springer, 2004.
Daw Abdulsalam Ali Daw, Kamaruzzaman Bin Seman, Madihah Binti Mohd Saudi
|Traffic Evaluation in Mobile Wimax|
The basics for constant growth of broadband wireless remain sound. As said by the Ericsson's official forecasts, the worldwide wireless internet broadband connectivity reaches to 420 million users by the end of 2012. The chance for WiMAX to provide those who want to change to broadband service is vast in several parts of the globe where wire line technologies may not be feasible. This paper (Evaluation of traffic load for Multi traffic Users in Mobile WiMAX) is organized to read in detail the service provision capabilities of Mobile WiMAX innovative technology in deep details. A detailed extract of the technical topics of IEEE-802.16e-2005 standard is gathered to provide the reader with a practical concept of Mobile WiMAX technology and intended to gather the required knowledge for WiMAX planning problem. A modern technique to calculate the system's actual throughput and a traffic model for varied application users are projected with a step by step description to obtain an algorithm to find out the maximum number of subscribers that all specific Mobile WiMAX sector may possibly support and tries to implement the entire algorithm for different system parameter and traffic cases to make it easy for Mobile WiMAX planning problem. Also we have introduced the regularly used propagation models that outfit the WiMAX applications.
This method would facilitate those operators that have planned to execute a wide coverage network in a city. Using this method, service providers would be able to approximate the number of base stations and for reason of profitability and the network investment
 Fundamentals of WiMAX : understanding broadband wireless networking Jeffrey G. Andrews, Arunabha Ghosh, Rias Muhamed./Pearson Education, Inc.-2007  WiMAX Handbook : Building 802.16 Wireless Networks / Frank Ohrtman McGraw-Hill Publishers  Mobile WiMAX – Part I: A Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation Copyright2006WiMAXForum
http://www.wimaxforum.org/news/downloads/Mobile_WiMAX_Part1_Overview_and_Performance.pdf  Fundamentals of WiMAX : understanding broadband wireless networking Jeffrey G. Andrews, Arunabha Ghosh, Rias Muhamed./Pearson Education, Inc.-2007  IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks Part16: Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems  WiMAX Capacity White Paper – SR Telecom Canada http://www.srtelecom.com/en/products/whitepapers/WiMAX-Capacity.pdf  QoS Policy for RRM / Jeroen Wigard Presentation – Nokia Siemens Networks  802.16e Radio Planning with ICS Telecom / Emmanuel Grenier ATDI White Paper- March 2006 http://www.atdi.com/docs/WP_WiMAXplanning_ICStelecom_nG_quickguide.pdf  WiMAX Network Quality of Service / Daniel Lois – Thierry Scelles ATDI White Paper- June 2005 http://www.atdi.com/docs/WP_WiMAX-traffic-analysis_eng.pdf  Over Subscription Ratio as a Planning Criterion – White Paper July 2008 http://www.atdi.com/docs/over%20subscription%20ratio.pdf
DaMing Yuan, Hao Fu, JianJie Yu
|An Infinity Differentiable Weight Function for Smoothed Article Hydrodynamics Approaches|
In this paper, we make a brief review of smoothed particle hydrodynamic method and develop a new infinity differentiable weight function in the three-dimensional space. The function satisfies the demanded properties. Furthermore, we investigate the consistency and analyze the estimation errors of the SPH interpolation with the weight function
weight function, smoothed particle hydrodynamic, meshless Method
. G. R. Liu, Mesh Free Methods: Moving beyond the finite element methods, 64-142. CRC Press LLC , London (2003)
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. L. B. Lucy, A numerical approach to the testing of the fission hypothesis,Astron. J., 82, 1013-1024 (1977)
. R. A. Gingold, J. J. Monaghan, Kernel estimates as a basis for general particle methods in hydrodynamics, J. Comput. Phys., 46, 429-453 (1982)
. S. F. Li, W. K. Liu, Meshfree and particle methods and their applications,Appl. Mech. Rev., 55 (1), 1-34 (2002)
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