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IJERD : Volume 9, Issue 11
M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha
|God Has No Lungs?... (A New Theory On Single Chamber Heart Human)|
In this scientific research article it is focused that the word "GOD" has distinguished meaning from the word "HUMAN". God shall mean the "Creator" of human and the living world and universe. Human shall be considered as both created and evolved element. This research focused than the Human on origin, 1st Generation, have only "SINGLE CHAMBER HEART" and have NO LUNGS as the creator have no lungs. During the Space & Time in the expanding universe the single chamber heart of human gradually become "Four chamber heart" which necessitated the need of "LUNGS" in the human system for sustainability at Life "Can human live without lungs!... without breathe!!... Vatican news focus that newly elected POPE FRANCIS have only half lung (single unit) and living healthy life for more than 40 years. It is focused that GOD is more than Pope and could survive without lungs." It is emphasized that the entire universe, matter and life shall be considered as "Created" by GOD through "J-RADIATION" emitted from the "Single chamber Heart" of GOD. The "J-RADIATION" shall also be called as "SPIRIT" in scientific term. Billions of rays emitted from the source of "Spirit" shall be called as "SOULS". In other words it can be stipulated that Billions of SOULS have been considered created from the Spirit of GOD. Human shall be considered as one of the "Souls". It is further focused that each soul shall be considered composed of "Three-in-one" fundamental Neutrino particles "PHOTON", "ELECTION", "PROTON" differentiated by minute mass variation in the "Spectrum of souls" having distinguished Genetic structure and characteristics. The point of origin of each soul shall be considered as having particles of "Zero mass". This research further emphasize that it provides solutions to the many existing misconception in scientific theories such as origin of universe, Human ancestor, and new definition about what "SPIRIT" and "SOUL" really means....
1) Philosophy of word "GOD"
2) Philosophy of word "J-CELL"
3) Philosophy of "Spirit and Soul"
4) Philosophy of "Model Universe"....
. Intensive Internet "e-book" study through, Google search and wikipedia
. M.Arulmani, "3G Akkanna Man", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2011
. M. Arulmani; V.R. Hemalatha, "Tamil the Law of Universe", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2012
. Harold Koontz, Heinz Weihriah, "Essentials of management", Tata McGraw-Hill publications, 2005
. M. Arulmani; V.R. Hemalatha, "First Music and First Music Alphabet", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2012
Samip. P. Trivedi, Sunil. M. Mahajan
|High Pressure Silent Screw Pump With Zero Maintenance|
Some fluid solutions utilized throuout the world have proven to be dificult to move using conventional pump. These type of fluids includes Newtonian & non - Newtonian fluids. So, screw pumps were developed to successfully pump many of this mixtures . Screwpump has on inherent slow pressure build up and low pollution output, but in vacant times newer version have been developed with high performance which can deliver liquids to pressure above 300 bar and flow rate about 750 m3/h with long term reliability excellent efficiency.
Newtonian Fluid , Non – Newtonian Fluid, Inhevent , Vecent Time
. Screw Pump of one, two, and three screw design by Joachim Wegener (Department head of screw pump development) and Walter E. Cozza ( manager project department).
. High performance rotary screw pumps by James R.Brennan, Imo Industries Inc. , Monroe, NC, USA.
. Understanding the unique characteristic and operating principle of one ,two ,and there screw pump by Rob Jordan, Colfax fluid Handling.
. Pumps & Systems, for further information log on to www.pump-zone.com
. Handbook of pump for some content, selection of pump, positive displacement of pump.
V.Venkatesh, Shilpa G N, Nataraja.C
|Study & Development of Short Term Load Forecasting Models Using Stochastic Time Series Analysis|
The present paper involves the study & development of various time series models for Short Term Electrical Load Forecasting Using Time series approach. Given one year load data, first six months data is used for model development and then these models can be tested using next six months data. Different models for Short term load forecasting using time series approach such as Autoregressive (AR) models, Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models and are developed. The methodology involves Initial Model Development Phase, Parameter Tuning Phase and Forecasting Phase.
Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA), Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), model. Autocorrelation function (acf), autocorrelation function (pacf).
. "Load Forecasting Bibliography", Phase I, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol.PAS-99, No.1 January/February 1980.
. "Load Forecasting Bibliography", Phase II, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol.PAS-100, No.7 July 1981.
. "The time series approach to short term load forecasting", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.PWRS-2, No.3 August 1987.
. "Short term load forecasting using time series modeling with peak load estimation capability", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.16, No.3 August 2001.
. "Load forecasting via suboptimal seasonal autoregressive models and iteratively reweighted least squares estimation", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.8, No.1 February 1993.
|Developing the Accessibility Levels of Rural Area|
The Rural public transportation is insufficient, accessibility is very much required in countries like India for the movement of passenger and goods .to nearby towns with in aspects of public participation, for overall development. Rural areas are suffering from transport problems such as inadequate transport facilities in terms of shortage of buses and non-availability of services. Present study focused to increase the public transport accessibility in safe and efficient way and also meeting future demand upto 2018 for study area
Rural regions, Accessibility, Public transport , Surveys, Quality data.
. Ar Anuj Jaiswal, Ashutosh Sharma, Jigyasa Bisaria, ( October 2012),"Estimation of Public Transport Demand in Million Plus Indian Cities based on Travel Behavior". ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume-2, Issue-1 , PP :249 - 259.
. Amiruddin Ismail, Mohammad Ganji, Mohammad Hesam Hafezi, Foad Shokri and Riza Atiq (2012) "An Analysis of Travel Time in Multimodal Public Transport" , Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, ISSN 1991-8178 , pp: 165-172,.
. C. V. Phani Kumar, Debasis Basu, and Bhargab Maitra . "Modeling Generalized Cost of Travel for Rural Bus Users: A Case Study" Journal of Public Transportation, 2004 , Vol. 7, No. 2 , PP : 59 – 72 .
. Danang parikesit and La Ode Muhammad magribi . (2005) . "Development of a dynamic model for investigating the Interaction between rural transport and development" , Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies. Vol. 6, PP: 2747 – 2761.
. Grace Corpuz , (2006) "Public Transport or Private Vehicle: Factors That Impact on Mode Choice". 30th Australasian Transport Research Forum, PP : 1 - 11.
Anniamma Chacko, Nikhil Roy, Mercy Joseph Poweth
|Effect of Rice Husk on Soil Properties|
Rice Husk is a waste material produced in rice industry. For every 1000 Kg of paddy milled, about 220Kg of husk is produced. Rice Husk can be used in various geotechnical constructions like embankments, soil stabilization, and sub grades etc.
Rice husk, optimum moisture content, shear strength, cohesion, angle of internal friction
. Al-Khalaf M.N.,Yousif H.A. , Use of Rice Husk Ash in concrete, The international journal of cement composites and light weight concrete, 6(4), p-241-248 ,1984
. Koerner, R.M , Construction and Geo technical methods in foundation Engineering, Mc_Graw Hill Book Company Newyork,1985
. Mitchell J.K. , Fundamentals of soil Behaviour. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,New York,1976
. Basha E.A., R. Hashim, H.B. Mahmud, A.S. Muntohar, Stabilization of residual soil with rice husk ash and cement.,Construction and Building Materials,2005
. Fidelis O. OKAFOR and Ugochukwu. N. OKONKWO, Effects of rice husk ash on some geotechnical properties of lateritic soil..Leonardo Electronic Journal of practices and technologies, p.67-74,2009
Amrita Mariam Varghese, Eldhose K.A., Ninu Joy
|Single Phase Multilevel Inverter for AC Motor|
As the demand for electrical energy is increasing, renewable energy sources has come into popularity especially photovoltaic systems (PV). PV can act as a voltage source which is feeding a power circuit. This study proposes a single phase multilevel inverter topology fed from a PV panel with a multicarrier phase disposition sinusoidal pulse width modulation scheme (PWM) for the generation of gate signals for power switches. Desired number of output levels: 3, 5, 7 and 9 is obtained by controlling modulation index. The proposed inverter configuration was subjected to an R-L load. An LC filter is modelled to obtain pure sine wave output and it‟s given to the load. %THD value for output current and voltage of the proposed configuration is determined. Simulation has been carried out to study the performance of the proposed topology in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Simulation results analysed and results presented for circuit.
Photovoltaic (PV), multilevel inverter, PWM, THD
. Meynard, T.A., Foch, H.:"Multi-level conversion: high-voltage chopper and voltage-source inverters‟. Conf. Rec. 1992 IEEE PESC,1992, pp. 397–403
. T. Esram and P. L. Chapman, "Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques", IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 439-449, June 2007.
. D. Sera, R. Teodorescu, J. Hantschel and M. Knoll, "Optimized Maximum Power Point Tracker for Fast-Changing Environmental Conditions", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 55, No. 7, pp. 2629-2631, July 2008.
. H. Bodur and A. FarukBakan, "A new ZCT-ZVT-PWM DC–DC converter," IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,Vol. 19,No. 3,pp. 676–684,May 2004
. P. K. Hinga, T. Ohnishi, and T. Suzuki, "A new PWM inverter for photovoltaic power generation system," in Conf. Rec. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf., 1994, pp. 391–395.
Vaseem Faizal, Emmanuel Babu, Elizabeth Paul
|Photovoltaic Multi-String Boosted Converter for Grid Applications|
As the demand for electrical energy is increasing, renewable energy sources has come into popularity especially photovoltaic systems (PV).This paper presents an overview of the power converters that are adopted in Photovoltaic generation systems. This paper deeply analyses both converter configurations also taking into consideration the control aspects connected to the grid of such systems.In the proposed model photovoltaic cells are connected in a multi-string manner, then it is boosted up and connected to common dc bus, in the next stage boosted dc voltage is converted to ac by inverter. Nowadays micro-controllers are used to control how many PV cells are to be operated, according to the conditions. Soft switching methods are adopted in order to shape the rising and falling edges of switches switch current and voltage. String conversion configuration based on several DC/DC converters connected to high voltage DC bus and linked to a single DC/AC converter appear as more complex solution but offer higher efficiency. MATLAB software is used to simulate the model. Almost completely, the requisites that make effective any reduction of energy consumption is based on power electronics.
Photovoltaic (PV), Pulse Width Modulation(PWM), Total Harmonic Distortion(THD)
. VV. AA., "Energy Efficiency – the Role of PowerElectronics", ECPE and EPE European Workshop,Brussels, 7 February, 2007.
. S. Kjaer, J. Pedersen, F. Blaabjerg, " A Review ofsingle-Phase Grid Connected Inverters for PhotoVoltaicModules", IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol.41,no.5, Oct. 2005, pp.1292-1306.
. J.M Zhang; X.G Xie; X.K Wu; Zhaoming Qian;"Comparison study of phase-shifted full bridge ZVSconverters" IEEE 35th Power Electronics SpecialistsConference, 2004,PESC 04,. 20-25 June 2004, pp. 533 –539.
. M. Cacciato, A. Consoli, N. Aiello, R. Attanasio, F.Gennaro, G. Macina, "A digitally controlled doublestage soft-switching converter for grid-connectedphotovoltaic applications" IEEE 23rd Annual AppliedPower Electronics Conference and Exposition, APEC2008, 24-28 Feb. 2008, pp. 141 – 147.
. F. Blaabjerg, R. Teodorescu, M. Liserre, and A. V.Timbus, "Overview of control and grid synchronizationfor distributed power generation systems," IEEETransaction on Industrial Electronics, vol. 53, no.5, pp.1398–1409, Oct. 2006.
Neethu Salim, Smitha Paulose, Neetha John
A Novel Bidirectional DC-DC Converter with high Step-up and Step-down Voltage Gains
A bidirectional dc-dc converter with high step-up and step-down voltage gain is handling in this paper. High voltage gains are obtained by employing a coupled inductor with same primary and secondary winding turns in the converter. Beside from high voltage gain, its average value of switch current and voltage stress on switches are lower compared to conventional dc-dc converter. The steady state analysis and operating principles in continuous conduction mode are discussed. Pulse width modulation (PWM) is used to control the switches. To study the performance of the proposed converter, simulations has been carried out in MATLAB2010 environment. Feedback is also given to the circuit using a pi controller and relational operator to get a constant output voltage for such applications.
Bidirectional dc-dc converter, coupled inductor, PWM.
. Lung-Sheng Yang and Tsorng-Juu Liang, ―Analysis and Implementation of a Novel Bidirectional DC-DC Converter,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 422-434, Jan. 2012.
. M. B. Camara, H. Gualous, F. Gustin, A. Berthon, and B. Dakyo, ―DC/DC converter design for supercapacitor and battery power management in hybrid vehicle applications—Polynomial control strategy,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 587–597, Feb. 2010.
. T. Bhattacharya, V. S. Giri, K. Mathew, and L. Umanand, ―Multiphase bidirectional flyback converter topology for hybrid electric vehicles,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 78–84, Jan. 2009.
. Z. Amjadi and S. S. Williamson, ―A novel control technique for a switched-capacitor-converter-based hybrid electric vehicle energy stor- age system,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 926–934, Mar. 2010.
. F. Z. Peng, F. Zhang, and Z. Qian, ―A magnetic-less dc–dc converter for dual-voltage automotive systems,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 511–518, Mar./Apr. 2003.
Lalita Khatri, Prof. S.G.Mahakalkar
Optimization And Simulation Of Creasing Machine An Approach
Today's fast moving rapid world needed a higher production rate of any machine. The requirements are day b y day increasing and available resources are limited. Hence we need to use the existing systems and have to plan the production sequence to optimize the output. The present study focuses on the creasing behavior of corrugated sheets. To fold a board in a proper way, crease lines are applied to define the folding line and to reduce the necessary moment for folding. The purpose of this study is to understand and predict failure of corrugated sheet during the creasing process and increases the output. The present paper focuses on the setup time required for changing and set upping the creaser depending on the width of corrugated sheets. The major aim is to increase the productivity of the plant either by changing the creaser attachment or by some other related failure diagnosis and correction. The model of existing machine is prepared by using PROE and the analysis being carried out using FEM, ANSYS for checking chances of improvement.
Creasing machine, CAD, FEM, Creasers etc
. L.A.A. Beex, R.H.J. Peerlings, An experimental and computational study of laminated paperboard creasing and folding
. Nyman, U. and Gustafsson, P.J., Material and Structural Failure Criterion of Corrugate Board Facings, Composite Structures, Accepted for publication
. Nyman, U. and Gustafsson, P.J., (1999), Local Buckling of Corrugated Board Facings. Proceedings of the European Conference on Computational Mechanics, Munich, Germany
. Nordstrand, T.M., (1995), Parametric study of the post-buckling strength of structural core sandwich panels, Composite Structures, 30, pp 441-451.
. A. Giampieri, U. Perego, R. Borsari, A constitutive model for the mechanical response of the folding of creased paperboard