Volume 7 - Issue 5

IJERD : Volume 7 - Issue 5

Clasadonte Maria Teresa, Matarazzo Agata, Amata Dario

Rough Set Approach Applied To Environmental Labeling In Sicilian Agri-Food Sector
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Actually, in the agri-food sector there has been the springing up of voluntary environmental labelling systems used as instruments for environmental communication and useful to obtain a commercial feed-back of eco-sustainable management. The result is a large variety and it becomes extremely difficult and complex for the operators to choose the most effective label able to explain the values of their environmental involvement and the application of the operating modes of the chosen labelling system. This paper proposes the results of an exploratory survey, carried out through a suitable questionnaire, built up by us, on variables concerning the implementation of environmental labels in small and medium enterprises of agri-food. In order to have a survey as general as possible, this questionnaire has been proposed to some Sicilian companies of various sizes, located in the provinces of Catania and Syracuse. The aim of the analysis is to investigate what are the steps of the production cycle, mandatory and voluntary regulations in the company, type of packaging used, voluntary eco-labelling and certification applied in the considered companies, kind of end-users, category of environmental impacts during different stages of production cycles in the diverse classes of companies interviewed. The answers obtained have been elaborated through the Rough Sets approach, a method of data analysis that allows us, through an easily understandable language, to describe relations in terms of decisional rules (if…, then…), among a series of attributes relating the different managerial and organizational problems and the critical points regarding the subject discussed. Some examples of such rules are shown in this paper as tables in order to point out the most interesting results obtained.
agri-food sector; voluntary environmental labelling; rough sets analysis; questionnaire.
[1]. Barbagallo S., Consoli S., Greco S., Pappalardo N., & Zimbone S.M (2006). Discovering Reservoir Operating Rules by a Rough Set Approach. Water Resources Management, Vol. 20 (1), 19-36.
[2]. Coldiretti (2011) L'agroalimentare verso la certificazione ambientale. http://www.ambiente-territorio.coldiretti.it/tematiche/Certificazionembientale/Pagine/L'agroalimentareversolacertificazioneambientale.aspx. Accessed 10 March 2012.
[3]. Czarnezki JJ (2011) The future of food eco-labelling: Organic, Carbon footprint, and Environmental life-cycle analysis; Vermont law school legal studies research paper series research paper no. 11-01. http://ssrn.com/abstract=1645860. Accessed 21 July 2012
[4]. Greco S., Matarazzo B.,& Slowinski R. (1999). The use of rough sets and fuzzy sets in MCDM. In: Gal T., Stewart T., Hanne T. (Eds.), Advances in Multiple Criteria Decision Making, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Chap. 14, 1-59.
[5]. ISMEA (2004). Indagine sui sistemi di rintracciabilità e di gestione ambientale nell'agroalimentare.....
Clasadonte Maria Teresa, Matarazzo Agata, Amata Dario "Rough Set Approach Applied To Environmental Labeling In Sicilian Agri-Food Sector" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7, Issue 5 (June 2013)
MID 0705.067X.0001.Italy
Page 01-08
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Ravi Mathey, Prof.P.S.Avadhani

An Multi Resolution Using Discrete Wavelet Transforms and Fractals Transforms
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The proposed multi resolution fractals coders are image compression schemes that combine wavelets and fractals transforms. The main idea behind all fractal algorithms is to exploit the similarities present within many natural images: one block image is represented by an affine transform of larger block taken from the image it self .The characteristics property of fractal coders is to exploit similarities between scales. Wavelets transforms perform Multiresolution decompositions of images ,i.e decomposition of the originals images into sub images at different scales. Standard DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform), being non-redundant, is a very powerful tool for many non-stationary Signal Processing applications. It presents a detailed review of Wavelet Transforms (WT) including standard DWT and its extensions. Denoising and Edge detection applications are investigated with DT-DWTs. Promising results are compared with other DWT extensions, and with the classical approaches..Multiresolution fractals coders introduces degrees of freedom on these constraints The
research is includes other extensions of the Multiresolution fractal coders are wavelet transform and fractals are wavelet transform.
Multi resolution, wavelets transforms, fractals transforms.
[1]. F. C. Cesbron and F. J. Malassenet, "Wavelet and fractal transforms for image compression," in
Fractals in Engineering. From Theory to Industrial Applications (J. L. Vehel, E. Lutton, and C. Tricot,
eds.), pp. 329–38, Springer Verlag, 1997.
[2]. E. Yuval Fisher, Fractal Image Compression: Theory and Application. Springer-Verlag, 1994.
[3]. C K Chui, "Wavelets: A Tutorial in Theory and Applications‟, Academic Press, NY, 1992
[4]. C Sidney Burrus, R A Gopinath, and Haitao Guo, "Introduction to Wavelets and Wavelet Transforms:
A Primer‟, Prentice Hall, NJ, 1998
[5]. IEEE92, "Special Issue on Wavelet Transform and Multiresolution Signal Analysis‟, IEEE Trans. Info.
Theory, 38(2, PartII), 529-924, 1992....
Ravi Mathey, Prof.P.S.Avadhani "An Multi Resolution Using Discrete Wavelet Transforms and Fractals Transforms" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7, Issue 5 (June 2013)
MID 0705.067X.0002. India
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B.Raja Sekhar Reddy, G.Ramesh

Randomized Partially-Minimal Routing Architecture for 3-D Mesh Network on Chips
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Programmable many-core processors are poised to become a major design option for many embedded applications. In the design of power-efficient embedded many-core processors, the architecture of the on-chip network plays a central role. Many designs have relied on 2D mesh architecture as the underlying communication fabric. With the emergence of 3D technology, new on-chip network architectures are possible. The increasing viability of 3-D silicon integration technology has opened new opportunities for chip architecture innovations. One direction is in the extension of 2-D mesh-based tiled chip-multiprocessor architectures into three dimensions. This paper focuses on efficient routing algorithms for such 3-D mesh networks. Existing routing algorithms suffer from either poor worst-case throughput (DOR, ROMM) or poor latency (VAL). Although the minimal routing algorithm O1TURN proposed in already achieves near-optimal worst-case throughput for 2-D mesh networks, the optimality result does not extend to higher dimensions. For 3-D and higher dimensional meshes, the worst-case throughput of O1TURN degrades tremendously. The main contribution of this paper is a new oblivious routing algorithm for 3-D mesh networks called randomized partially-minimal (RPM) routing. RPM provably achieves optimal worst-case throughput for 3-D meshes when the network radix is even and within a factor of optimal worst-case throughput when is odd. Finally, whereas VAL achieves optimal worst-case throughput at a penalty factor of 2 in average latency over DOR, RPM achieves (near) optimal worst-case throughput with a much smaller factor of 1.33. For practical asymmetric 3-D mesh configurations where the number of device layers are fewer than the number of tiles along the edge of a layer, the average latency of RPM reduces to just a factor of 1.11 to 1.19 of DOR. Additionally, a variant of RPM called randomized minimal first (RMF) routing is proposed, which leverages the inherent load-balancing properties of the network traffic to further reduce packet latency without compromising throughput.
3-D ICs, on-chip networks, routing algorithms.
[1] Agarwal, L. Bao, J. Brown, B. Edwards, M. Mattina, C.-C. Miao, C. Ramey, and D.Wentzlaff, ―Tile processor: Embedded multicore for networking and multimedia,‖ presented at the Hot Chips'19, Stanford, CA, 2007.
[2] Black, D. Nelson, C. Webb, and N. Samra, ―3-D processing technology and its impact on IA32 microprocessors,‖ in Proc. Int. Conf. Comput. Des. 2004, pp. 316–318.
[3] W. R. Davis et al., ―Demystifying 3-D ICs: the pros and cons of going vertical,‖ IEEE Des. Test Comput., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 498–510, Nov./ Dec. 2005.
[4] M. Kawano et al., ―A 3-D packaging technology for 4 gbit stacked DRAM with 3 Gbps data transfer,‖ in IEEE Int. Electron Devices Meeting, Dec. 2006, pp. 1–4.
[5] P. Gratz, K. Changkyu, R. McDonald, S. W. Keckler, and D. Burger, ―Implementation and evaluation of on-chip network architectures,‖ presented at the Int. Conf. Comput. Design, San Jose, CA, Oct. 2006.....
B.Raja Sekhar Reddy, G.Ramesh "Randomized Partially-Minimal Routing Architecture for 3-D Mesh Network on Chips" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7, Issue 5 (June 2013)
MID 0705.067X.0003. India
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Lalchhandami, Maninder Pal

An Auto-Correlation Based Speech Enhancement Algorithm
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Enhancement of speech signals recorded using signal channel devices such as mobile phones is of prime interest. It is because for these devices, it is not possible to record noise signals separately, and the surrounding background noises are picked up by their microphone simultaneously with the speech signal. This may even completely fade-in the speech signal, depending upon the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore to address this problem, number of algorithms and techniques has been developed. However, the existing methods are not able to perform homogenously across all noise types. The auto-correlation function of a noisy speech signal is usually confined to lower time lag and is very small or zero for higher time lag. Therefore, the higher-lag auto-correlation coefficients are relatively robust to additive noise distortion. This paper is focused on enhancing the noisy speech signal from single channel devices by using only the higher-lag auto-correlation coefficients. The efficiency of the algorithm is evaluated in terms of energy, zero crossings and intelligibility of speech signal.
Single channel speech enhancement; speech processing; spectral subtraction auto-correlation and Speech signals SNR.

[1]. Z. Chen, "Simulation of Spectral Subtraction Based Noise Reduction Method," International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 2, No. 8, 2011.

[2]. M. A. Hasan & T. Shimamura, "A Fundamental Frequency Extraction Method Based on Windowless and Normalized Autocorrelation Functions," Proc. 6th WSEAS Int. Conf. Circuits, Systems, Signal and Telecommunications, Cambridge, pp. 305-309, 2012.
[3]. M. Gabrea, "Two Microphones Speech Enhancement Systems based on Instrumental Variable Algorithm for Speaker Identification," Proc. Of the 24th Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, May 2011.
[4]. J. I. Hurtado & D. V. Anderson, "FFT-Based Block Processing in Speech Enhancement: Potential Artifacts and Solutions," IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, Vol. 19, No. 8, November 2011.
[5]. B. J. Shannon, K. K. Paliwal, & C. Nadeu, "Speech enhancement based on spectral estimation from higher-lag autocorrelation", Proc. Interspeech, 2006....

Lalchhandami, Maninder Pal "An Auto-Correlation Based Speech Enhancement Algorithm" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7, Issue 5 (June 2013)
MID 0705.067X.0004. India
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S.B.Chikalthankar, V.M Nandedkar, S.V Borde

Experimental Investigations of EDM Parameters
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Electric Discharge Machining is capable of machining geometrically complex or hard material components, super alloys, ceramics, carbides, heat resistant steels etc. being widely used in die and mold making industries, aerospace, aeronautics and nuclear industries.. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of operating parameters like current, voltage, pulse-on time and pulse-off time for responses such as Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (Ra) on the EDM of WPS DIN 1.2379/AISI D2 tool steel using the copper electrode material. The effectiveness of EDM process with WPS DIN 1.2379/AISI D2 is evaluated in terms of the Material removal rate and Surface roughness produced. Design of experiment is conducted with L9 orthogonal array and Multi- objective optimization is carried out with the help of Response surface methodology to optimize both the responses at the same time and it was found that current is the more influential parameter affecting the material removal rate and surface roughness.
Electrical discharge machining, Material Removal Rate, Surface roughness, Response Surface Methodology, Design of Experiments.

[1]. A Soveja, E, Cicala, "Optimization of TA6V alloy surface laser Texturing using an experimental
design approach," Optics and laser engineering , Vol.46 (9), 2008, pp. 671-678.
[2]. I Puertas, Luis, Analysis of the influence of EDM parameters of surface quality, MRR and EW of WCCO",
Journal of Material processing technology Vol.153-154,2004, pp.1026-1032.
[3]. Sameh S. Habib,"Study of the parameters in EDM through Response surface Methodology approach",
Applied Mathematical Modelling, Vol 33 (12), 2009, pp. 4397-4407.
[4]. K. Palanikumar, "Modelling and analysis of surface roughness in machining glass reinforced plastics
using response surface methodology,"Materials and Design 28 (2007),pp 2611-2618.

S.B.Chikalthankar, V.M Nandedkar, S.V Borde "Experimental Investigations of EDM Parameters" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7, Issue 5 (June 2013)
MID 0705.067X.0005. India
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Sajjan Kumar Lal, Dr. Hari Vasudevan

Optimization of Injection Moulding Process Parameters in the Moulding of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
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Injection moulding is one of the most popular polymer processing methods due to its high production rate as well as its ability to produce very intricate geometries at very cheaper cost and within few seconds. There are several flaws which occur while producing plastic parts by Injection moulding, like warpage, shrinkage, flash, sink marks etc. Shrinkage is one of the most critical problems which causes dimensional changes in the parts during the moulding process. Shrinkage can be minimized by setting optimal process parameters on injection moulding machine. In this study, optimal injection moulding conditions for minimum shrinkage during moulding are found by DOE technique (Taguchi method). Different observations were taken for a material namely Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE). Taguchi method is used to investigate the effects of melting temperature, injection pressure, refilling pressure and cooling time on the shrinkage of LDPE. Taguchi method has two main instruments, which are signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and orthogonal arrays. S/N ratios were used for determining the optimum combinations of the process conditions for shrinkage. The S/N ratio takes both the average and the variability of the quality characteristics into consideration. The results showed that the cooling time was the most effective factor for LDPE followed by refilling pressure and injection pressure was found to be the least effective factor.
Injection pressure, melting temperature, refilling pressure, cooling time, shrinkage, S/N ratio, Taguchi method.
[1]. G. Pötsch and W. Michaeli, "Injection moulding: An introduction", Munich: Hanser Publishers, 1995.
[2]. J.A. Brydson, "Plastic materials", Butterworth-Heinmann: Oxford,1995.
[3]. D.V. Rosato, M.G. Rosato, "Injection moulding handbook" Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.
[4]. M.C. Huang and C.C. Tai , "The effective factors in the warpage problem of an injection-moulded part with a thin shell feature", J. Mat. Proc. Tech., vol. 110, 2001, pp. 1–9.
[5]. M. Altan, "Reducing Shrinkage in Injection Mouldings via the Taguchi,ANOVA and Neural Network Methods", j. Mat. & Design, vol. 31,2010, pp. 599–604....
Sajjan Kumar Lal, Dr. Hari Vasudevan "Optimization of Injection Moulding Process Parameters in the Moulding of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7, Issue 5 (June 2013)
MID 0705.067X.0006.India
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Ankit Srivastava, Dr. N. Revathi Venkataraman

AES-128 Performance in Tinyos with CBC Algorithm (WSN)
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The wireless sensor network (WSN) is a combination of sensing, computation, and communication into a single tiny device known as Sensor nodes. Sensor data is shared between these sensor nodes and used as input to a distributed estimation system. The wireless network environment that consists of the many devices, called the sensor node, which have miniature computing device, small memory space and very limited battery power. Therefore, Symmetric key encryption algorithm with low-Energy consumption is required to the applicable sensor networks. In this paper, we proposed the solution of reliable sensor networks to analyze the communication efficiency through measuring performance of AES-128 CBC algorithm which is selected by default in sensor networks by plaintext size and cost of operation per hop according to the network scale. In this work, both encryption and decryption will be carried out with the key length of 128 bits, that is, both AES encrypter and the AES decrypter were integrated. Hence the input block and secret key will be provided for encryption and the cipher block and same secret key will be provided to the decryption to get the proper block as output.
Wireless sensor network(WSN), AES(Advance Encryption Standards),Motes.
[1]. csrc.nist.gov/groups/ST/toolkit/documents/kms/key-wrap.pdf, AES key wrap specification 16 November 2001
[2]. Yee Wei Law, Jeroen Doumen, Pieter Hartel, Survey and benchmark of block ciphers for wireless sensor networks, ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (2006) 65–93.
[3]. Devesh Jinwala, Dhiren Patel, Kankar Dasgupta, Optimizing the block cipher and modes of operations overhead at the link layer security framework in the wireless sensor networks, in: ICISS 2008, pp. 258–272.
[4]. Chih-Chun Chang, Sead Muftic, David J. Nagel, Measurement of energy costs of security in wireless sensor nodes, in: ICCCN 2007, pp. 95–102.
[5]. Chih-Chun Chang, David J. Nagel, Sead Muftic, Balancing security and energy consumption in wireless sensor networks, Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Networks (2007) 469–480.....
Ankit Srivastava, Dr. N. Revathi Venkataraman "AES-128 Performance in Tinyos with CBC Algorithm (WSN)" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7, Issue 5 (June 2013)
MID 0705.067X.0007. India
Page 40-49
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André Michaud

On The Magnetostatic Inverse Cube Law and Magnetic Monopoles
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It can be demonstrated experimentally that interaction between magnetostatic fields for which both poles geometrically coincide obeys the inverse cube law of attraction and repulsion with distance (far fields interaction law) which proves by similarity that localized (in the sense of behaving as if they were point-like) electromagnetic elementary particles must obey the same interaction law since both of their own magnetic poles have to coincide with each other by structure, given their point-like behaviour. 2) As a corollary, and contrary to electric dipoles whose two aspects (opposite sign charges) can be separated in space and observed separately, it can also be demonstrated that both aspects of magnetic dipoles whose poles coincide can be separated only in time, which characteristic highlights the fact that point-like behaving scatterable elementary electromagnetic particles can magnetically interact only as if they were physical magnetic monopoles at any given moment. 3) The related cyclic polarity reversal of the magnetic aspect of elementary electromagnetic particles such as electrons, quarks up and quarks down and of their carrying energy brings a new and very interesting explanation to the reason why electrons cannot crash on their own onto nuclei despite electrostatic attraction by demonstrating that magnetic interaction between nuclei and electronic escort can only be repulsive.
Magnetic monopoles, magnetic interaction, Bohr atom, isolated hydrogen atom, circular magnets, 3-spaces model.
[1]. I.Estermann, O.C. Simpson and O. Stern. The Magnetic Moment of the Proton. Phys. Rev. 52, 535-545 (1937).
[2]. André Michaud. The Expanded Maxwellian Space Geometry and the Photon Fundamental LC Equation. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development e-ISSN: 2278-067X, p-ISSN: 2278-800X, www.ijerd.com Volume 6, Issue 8 (April 2013), PP. 31-45. (http://ijerd.com/paper/vol6-issue8/G06083145.pdf).
[3]. Peter W. Atkins & R.S. Friedman. Molecular Quantum Mechanics, Third Edition, Oxford University Press, 1997.
[4]. David R. Lide, Editor-in-chief. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 84th Edition 2003-2004, CRC Press, New York. 2003.
[5]. Louis de Broglie. La physique nouvelle et les quanta, Flammarion, France 1937, Second Edition 1993, with new 1973 preface by L. de Broglie.....
André Michaud "On The Magnetostatic Inverse Cube Law and Magnetic Monopoles" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7, Issue 5 (June 2013)
MID 0705.067X.0008.Canada
Page 50-66
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Harpreet singh, Sukhpal singh chatha, Hazoor Singh

Role of Dielectric and Tool Material on EDM Performance: A REVIEW
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Electric discharge machining is non conventional machining process used for machining of hard materials which cannot machined by conventional machining process. Electric discharge machining is an electro sparking method of metal working involving an electric erosion effect. A pulse discharge occurs in a small gap between the work piece and the electrode and removes the unwanted material from the parent metal through melting and vaporizing.
Cryogenic, EDM, surface finish, Wear.

[1] K.H. Ho, S.T. Newman, State of the art electrical discharge machining (EDM), International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 1287–1300.

[2] C.J. Luis, I. Puertas, G. Villa, Material removal rate and electrode wear study on the EDM of silicon carbide, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 164–165 (2005) 889–896.

[3] B. Bojorquez, R.T. Marloth, O.S. Es-Said, Formation of a crater in the work piece on an electrical discharge machine, Engineering Failure Analysis 9 (2002) 93–97.

[4] J. Marafona, J.A.G. Chousal, A finite element model of EDM based on the Joule effect, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2005) 1–8.

[5] H. Ramasawmy, L. Blunt, Effect of EDM process parameters on 3D surface topography, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 148 (2004) 155–164.....

Harpreet singh, Sukhpal singh chatha, Hazoor Singh "Role of Dielectric and Tool Material on EDM Performance: A REVIEW" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7, Issue 5 (June 2013)
MID 0705.067X.0009.  India
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Anwar Habib, Adel S. Bahakeem

On The Degree of Approximation of Functions by the Generalized Polynomials
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Popoviciu( 1935) proved his result for Bernstein Polynomials. We have tested the degree of approximation of function by a newly defined Generalized Polynomials, and so the corresponding results of Popoviciuhave been extended for Lebesgue integrable function in 𝐿1-norm by our newly defined Generalized Polynomials.
Bernstein Polynomials, Degree of Approximation, GeneralizedPolynomial,𝐿1-norm,LebesgueIntegrable function.
[1]. Anwar Habib (1981)."On the degree of approximation of functions by certain new Bernstein typePolynomials". Indian J. pure Math.,12(7):882-888.
[2]. Anwar Habib & Saleh Al Shehri(2012) "On Generalized Polynomials I " International Journal of Engineering Research and Development e-ISSN:2278-067X, 2278-800X, Volume 5, Issue4 ,December 2012 , pp.18-26
[3]. Cheney, E.W. , and Sharma, A.(1964)."On a generalization of Bernstein polynomials".Rev. Mat. Univ. Parma(2),5,77-84.
[4]. Jensen, J. L. W. A. (1902). "Sur uneidentité Abel et surd‟autressformulesamalogues".Acta Math. , 26, 307-18
[5]. Kantorovitch, L.V.(1930)." Sur certainsdéveloppmentssuivantléspôlynômesdé la formeS.Bernstein I,II." C.R. Acad. Sci. URSS,20,563-68,595-600....
Anwar Habib, Adel S. Bahakeem "On The Degree of Approximation of Functions by the Generalized Polynomials" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7, Issue 5 (June 2013)
MID 0705.067X.0010. K.S.A
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Naveenraj.M, Aishwarya.E.J

Efficient Decoding Using Majority Gate
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Normally decoding is done to correct errors present in the codeword by calculating syndrome. syndrome calculation for large size codeword makes decoding more complex. This paper presents an error detection and correction schemes using Majority Logic Decoding(MLD) which provides simple decoding process to detect and correct errors, the existing MLD requires number of clock cycles equal to size of codeword to detect error but the proposed decoding significantly reduces the iterations by detecting error within three clock cycles for any size of codeword using control logic .Also the proposed scheme uses detection logic to detect the uncorrectable codeword if error occured is more than actual capacity of system. Hence this makes error detection and correction schemes more efficient.
Block codes, Error correction codes(ECCs),LowDensity Parity Check(LDPC) ,Majority logic Memory.
[1]. C. W. Slayman, ―Cache and memory error detection, correction, and reduction techniques for terrestrial servers and workstations,‖ IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliabil., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 397–404, Sep. 2005.
[2]. R. C. Baumann, ―Radiation-induced soft errors in advanced semiconductor technologies,‖ IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliabil., vol. 5, no.3, pp. 301–316, Sep. 2005.
[3]. J. von Neumann, ―Probabilistic logics and synthesis of reliable organisms from unreliable components,‖ Automata Studies, pp. 43–98, 1956.
[4]. M. A. Bajura et al., ―Models and algorithmic limits for an ECC-based approach to hardening sub-100-nm SRAMs,‖ IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.,vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 935–945, Aug. 2007.
[5]. R. Naseer and J. Draper, ―DEC ECC design to improve memory reliability in sub-100 nm technologies,‖ in Proc. IEEE ICECS, 2008, pp.586–589.....
Naveenraj.M, Aishwarya.E.J "Efficient Decoding Using Majority Gate" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7, Issue 5 (June 2013)
MID 0705.067X.0011.India
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Suresh Gulivindala, Ch.Srinivasa Rao

Tampering Detection Algorithms: A Comparative Study
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The reprehensible use of technology such as powerful editing software and sophisticated digital cameras leads to image tampering or manipulation. The tampered data is being illegally used and distributed through high-speed digital networks. Hence techniques to solve the problem of unauthorized copying, tampering, and multimedia data delivery through the internet are very much in demand. Information hiding, is the key issue, consists mainly of steganography and digital watermarking. Development of image tampering detection algorithms in active and passive methods became a significant research work. In this paper, comparative analysis on the performance of two algorithms such as 3LSB and DWT was reported. These two algorithms are designed in active method i.e. it uses digital watermarking in the background. Any tampering/modification on the watermarked image results in the change in the intensity levels, so in turn the coefficient values. The extraction procedure results in the watermark whose bit value reflects the respective changes. The 3LSB method proves to be superior to DWT method in terms of detection and localization.
Image Tampering, 3LSB method, DWT, Authentication, Image Forgery.
[1]. Hany farid, "Image Forgery Detection A Survey" IEEE Signal processing Magazine, March 2009, pp.16-25.
[2]. D.Cozzolino, G.poggi, C.Sansone and Luisa Verdoliva, "A Comparative Analysis of Forgery Detection Algorithms" SSPR & SPR 2012, LNCS 7626, pp.693-700 2012.
[3]. P.Deshpande, P.Kanikar, "Pixel Based Image Forgery Detection Techniques" International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, VOl.2, Issue 3, May-June 2012, pp.539-543.
[4]. R. Dugad, K. Ratakonda and N. Ahuja, A new wavelet-based scheme for watermarking images, Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. on Image Processing, CIP'98,Chicago, IL, USA, Oct. 1998, 419-423.
[5]. M.E.Hajji, H.ouaha, K.Afdel, H.Douzi, "Multiple Watermark Authentication and Tamper Detection using Mixed Scales DWT", International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol.28, No.6, August-2011.....
Suresh Gulivindala, Ch.Srinivasa Rao "Tampering Detection Algorithms: A Comparative StudyT" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7, Issue 5 (June 2013)
MID 0705.067X.0012.India
Page 82-86
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D.V.N.Siva Kumar, Sabyasachi Patra

A Generic Approach for Web Page Classification Using URL's Features Along With the Textual Content
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Classification of web pages greatly helps in making the search engines more efficient by providing the relevant results to the user's queries. In most of the prevailing algorithms available in literature, the classification/ categorization solely depends on the features extracted from the text content of the web pages. The classification accuracy in turn depends on the amount of features extracted. But as the most of the web pages nowadays are predominately filled with images and contain less text information which may even be false and erroneous, classifying those web pages with the information present alone in those web pages often leads to mis-classification. To solve this problem, in this paper an algorithm has been proposed for automatically categorizing the web pages with the less text content based on the features extracted from both the URLs present in web page along with its own web page text content. Experiments on the bench marking data set "WebKB" using K-NN, SVM and Naive Bayes machine learning algorithms shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm by achieving higher accuracy in predicting the category of the testing sample web pages. Our proposed algorithm achieves higher accuracy 90% when K-NN is employed on the given data set. There is also considerable improvement in accuracy using other two algorithms when employed for classifying the web pages based on our proposed approach.
Vector Space, Textual Content, URL Features, Cosine Similarity, Machine Learning.

[1]. John.M.Pierre, "Practical Issues for Automatic Categorization of Web sites" , September 2000.
[2]. Yahoo, http://www.yahoo.com/
[3]. Looksmart, http://www.looksmart.com/
[4]. Open Directory Project, http://www.dmoz.org/

[5]. Xiaoguang Qi and Brian D. Davison "Web Page Classification: Features and Algorithms," ACM Computing Surveys, vol.41, no.2, article 12, Feb 2009....

D.V.N.Siva Kumar, Sabyasachi Patra "A Generic Approach for Web Page Classification Using URL's Features Along With the Textual Content" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7, Issue 5 (June 2013)
MID 0705.067X.0013.India
Page 87-94
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J. Tagoor babu, J. Doondi Kumar, O. Ranga rao, D.N Bhushan Babu, S.Sasidhar

Enchancing And Directing Radiation With Planar And Ebg Reflectors
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In this paper, we present the idea of using reflectors to direct the radiation pattern of antenna into the required areas the paper illustrates the idea of radiation steerability. We use the EBG at one side of the antenna to reflect the radiation or to enhance the radiation into the opposite direction of the antenna. Generally these EBG structures are used to mitigate surfacewaves. For analysis we take monopole antenna as example to explain the concept. We place EBG at one side and planar reflecting surfaces at other to sides and the results are analysed in the remaining side. The radiation pattern curves will explain the idea of this paper.
EBG, Surface waves, steering radiation, Reflecting waves, Enhanced radiation.
[2]. C. Balanis, Antenna theory, Analysis, and Design 2nd ed., John Wiley and sons, New York (1997).
[3]. J. Doondi kumar , "Analysis of Monopole Antenna by Placing High Impedance Absorber Surface at one Side" /Volume-2Number-1PP- 317 321.pdf
[4]. J. Doondi kumar , "Design and Analysis of C0-axial Feed Rectangular Patch Antenna on High Impedance Surface" /Volume-2Number-1PP-405-410.pdf.
[5]. Yang, F. and Y. Rahmat-Samii, \Microstrip antennas integrated with electromagnetic band-gap (EBG) structures: A low mutual coupling design for array applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 51, No. 10, 2936{2946, Oct. 2003.....
J. Tagoor babu, J. Doondi Kumar, O. Ranga rao, D.N Bhushan Babu, S.Sasidhar " Enchancing And Directing Radiation With Planar And Ebg Reflectors" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7, Issue 5 (June 2013)
MID 0705.067X.0014.India
Page 95-98
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Laila Moussaid, Mostafa Hanoune

Solution A La Gestion Des Objets Java Pour Des Systèmes Embarqués
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Le langage Java offre un avantage considérable en terme de facilité de l'utilisation et la portabilité , ainsi la gestion transparente de la mémoire dans Java se fait de plusieurs façon mais on observe que deux grandes familles peuvent être présentées : la première famille est basé sur les analyses statiques et la gestion de mémoire en régions et la deuxième consiste en l'implantation d'un mécanisme de gestion de la mémoire basé sur l'utilisation des Ramasse Miettes. Notre Travail se focalise sur la deuxième famille .en effet, les algorithmes du RM sont nombreux mais deux algorithmes qui sont implantés dans plusieurs machines virtuelles java dans le système embarqué ou une combinaison basé sur ces deux algorithmes : RM par comptage de références et RM marquage-balayage. Cependant, ces deux mécanismes du RM ne sont pas efficaces sur certains types de programmes, pour lesquels elles engendrent des fuites de mémoire pouvant conduire à la saturation de l'espace mémoire et ne traitent pas le problème des structures cycliques. Après une étude des techniques de gestion de la mémoire dynamique dans les systèmes embarqués et un ensemble d'études de cas, nous présentons notre solution à ce problème, en utilisant notamment un nouveau algorithme du ramasse-miettes.
système embarqué, ramasse-miettes, gestion de la mémoire, J2ME, KVM.
[1]. J2ME Building Blocks for Mobile Devices. Sun Microsystems, 2000.
[2]. Java Card Virtual Machine Speci_cation. 2003.
[3]. Richard E. Jones. Garbage Collection: Algorithms for Automatic Dynamic Memory Management. Wiley, 1996. [p. 35, 39, 40, 48]
[4]. Paul R. Wilson. Uniprocessor garbage collection techniques. In Proceedings of the 1992 International Workshop on Memory Management (IWMM'92), pages 1–42. Springer, 1992. [p. 39, 42]
[5]. John McCarthy. Recursive functions of symbolic expressions and their computation by machine. Communications of the ACM, 3(4):184–195, 1960. [p. 39]......
Laila Moussaid, Mostafa Hanoune "Solution A La Gestion Des Objets Java Pour Des Systèmes Embarqués" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7, Issue 5 (June 2013)
MID 0705.067X.0015. Casablanca
Page 99-103
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Pravin M. Pithiya, H.L.Desai

DWT Based Digital Image Watermarking, De- Watermarking & Authentication
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This paper introduces an algorithm of digital image watermarking based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). In this technique the embedding and extraction of the watermark is simple than other transform. In this algorithm watermarking, de watermarking of the image is done and it also checks the authentication of the watermarked image and de watermarked image. This paper also successfully explains digital image watermarking based on discrete Wavelet transform by analysing various performance parameters like PSNR,MSE,SNR and NC.
Authentication, Digital watermarking, De- watermarking, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Discrete Cosines Transform (DCT,) human visual system (HVS), MSE(Mean Squared Error), NC(Normalised co relation factor), PSNR(Peak Signal to Noise Ratio), SNR(Signal to Noise Ratio).
[1]. Manpreet Kaur, Sonika Jindal & Sunny Behal " A Study of Digital Image Watermarking" Volume 2, Issue 2( ISSN: 2249-3905) ,February 2012.
[2]. Dr. Vipula Singh "Digital Watermarking: A Tutorial", (JSAT), January Edition, 2011
[3]. Darshana Mistry "Comparison of Digital Water Marking methods" (IJCSE)Vol. 02, No. 09, 2010.
[4]. Saraju P. Mohanty "Digital Watermarking : A Tutorial Review" ,1999
[5]. Prachi Khanzode, Siddharth Ladhake and Shreya Tank "Digital Watermarking for Protection of Intellectual Property" IJCEM, Vol. 12, April 2011.....
Pravin M. Pithiya, H.L.Desai "DWT Based Digital Image Watermarking, De- Watermarking & Authentication" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 7, Issue 5 (June 2013)
MID 0705.067X.0016. India
Page 104-109
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