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IJERD : Volume 10 - Issue 11

Version - 1 (November 2014)


S.P.S.RAMYA, A.M.N.KASHYAP

An Experimental Study on Durability of Concrete Using Fly Ash & GGBS for M30 Grade Concrete
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Concrete when subjected to severe environments its durability can significantly decline due to degradation. Degradation of concrete structures by corrosion is a serious problem and has major economic implications. In this study, an attempt has been made to study the durability of concrete using the mineral admixtures like Fly Ash & Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) for M30 grade concrete.Cube Specimens were casted and are immersed in normal water, sea water, H2SO4 of various concentrations and were tested after 7 days, 28 days & 60 days.
Cube Compressive Strength, Durability, Fly Ash, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
[1]. Alain Biloideau and V.MohanMalhotra "High-Volume Fly ash system: Concrete Solution for ustainable Development" ACI Material Journal, January-February, 2000.
[2]. Kilinkale F.M. "The effect of MgSO4 and HCL solutions on the strength and durability of pozzolan cement mortars".
[3]. chavteer E etal "Properties of cements and concrete containing fly ash" ACI Journal Proceedings Vol. 33, No. 5, May-June 1987, pp 577-612
[4]. Noor-ul-Amen" Mechanical Properties of Concrete Incorporating High Volumes of Fly ash From Sources in the U.S." ACI Materials Journal / November– December, 1993.
[5]. Khadilkar S.A. and V.R.Kulkarni, " Engineered Fly ash Based Blended Cement for Durable Concrete: A Review", The Indian Concrete Journal, April 2003, pp 1009-1021.
Citation
S.P.S.RAMYA, A.M.N.KASHYAP "An Experimental Study on Durability of Concrete Using Fly Ash & GGBS for M30 Grade Concrete" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0001. India
Page 01-05
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Irvin J. Balaguer-Álvarez, Uthane Supatti, Jorge G. Cintrón-Rivera, Fang Z. Peng

Seamless Transitions between Grid-Connected and Stand-Alone Operations of Distributed Generation in Microgrids

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Control of the Distributed Generation (DG) system is important in both grid-connected and standalone modes and the system stability becomes very crucial during the transfer between these two modes. If the system does not have a proper transfer procedure, severe transient voltages or currents will occur, which may damage the entire system. A seamless transfer can ensure smooth operation and quick attainment of steady state. In order to solve these transition problems, this paper presents the development and test of a control strategy for DG capable of working in grid-connected and intentional islanding connection modes with seamless transitions from both operational modes.
Distributed generation, grid-connected operation, stand-alone operation, islanding detection, seamless transitions
[1]. Qingchun Zhang; Callanan, R.; Das, M.K.; Sei-Hyung Ryu; Agarwal, A.K.; Palmour, J.W., "SiC Power Devices for Microgrids," Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.25, no.12, pp.2889,2896, Dec. 2010.
[2]. Y. Bo, et al., "Design and Analysis of a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System," Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 25, pp. 992-1000, 2010.
[3]. I. J. Balaguer, et al., "Control for Grid-Connected and Intentional Islanding Operations of Distributed Power Generation," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 58, pp. 147-157, 2011.
[4]. A. Ajaja, "Reinventing electric distribution," Potentials, IEEE, vol. 29, pp. 29-31, 2010.
[5]. Saber, A.Y.; Venayagamoorthy, G.K., "Plug-in Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources for Cost and Emission Reductions," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol.58, no.4, pp.1229, 1238, April 2011.
Citation
Irvin J. Balaguer-Álvarez, Uthane Supatti, Jorge G. Cintrón-Rivera, Fang Z. Peng "Seamless Transitions between Grid-Connected and Stand-Alone Operations of Distributed Generation in Microgrids" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0002. USA
Page 06-16
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Hua-Zhou Chen, Ling-Hui Li, Ya-Juan Huo, Jiang-Bei Wen, Jie-Chao Chen

Chemometrical Optimization for Fourier Transform Near Infrared Analysis of Sugar Brix in Cane Sugar Intermediate
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Real-time evaluation of sugar quality requires determining the content of sugar brix in the steps of the cane sugar process. Sugar brix is a key indicator for evaluating sugar quality. Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy is a simple, rapid and non-destructive technology on the analysis of material contents. In this study, the chemometric algorithm of parameter-combined tuning of Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoother and Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was utilized for FTNIR analysis of sugar brix content in sugarcane clarified juice, an important intermediate product in cane sugar industry. The algorithms of combined optimization of SG smoother and PLS regression was achieved and the calibration models were established optimized by screening the expanded 540 SG smoothing modes and the 1-30 latent valuables (LV). The optimized models have high predictive accuracy. These results confirm that the combined optimization of SG smoothing modes and PLS LVs is effective in the quantitative determination of sugar brix contents in sugarcane clarified juice, and that the FTNIR spectroscopic technology with its chemometric algorithms have the potential in the analysis of cane sugar intermediates.
Sugarcane clarified juice; Sugar brix; Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy; Partial least squares regression; Savitzky-Golay smoother; Chemometrical optimization
[1]. D.A. Burns, E.W. Ciurczak, Handbook of near-infrared analysis, 3rd ed., Boca Raton: CSC Press LLC, 2006.
[2]. J.G. Wu, Modern Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Applications, Beijing: Science and Technology Literature Press, 1995.
[3]. A. Alishahi, H. Farahmand, N. Prieto, and D. Cozzolino, "Identification of transgenic foods using NIR spectroscopy: a review," Spectrochim Acta A., vol. 75, pp. 1-7, 2010.
[4]. N. Berding, and G.A. Brotherton, "Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy for Analysis of Sugarcane from Clonal Evaluation Trials: II. Expressed Juice," Crop Science, vol. 31, l024-l028, 1991.
[5]. J.H. Meyer, "Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) research in the South African sugar industry," International Sugar Journal (Cane Sugar Ed.), vol. 100, pp. 279-286, 1998.
Citation
Hua-Zhou Chen, Ling-Hui Li, Ya-Juan Huo, Jiang-Bei Wen, Jie-Chao Chen "Chemometrical Optimization for Fourier Transform Near Infrared Analysis of Sugar Brix in Cane Sugar Intermediate" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0003. China
Page 17-22
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M.Richard Ford, A.M.N.Kashyap

An Experimental Investigation on Effect of Elevated Temperatures on M35 grade Concrete
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
In the event of sudden fire break out, the concrete elements such as columns, beams etc. are subjected to extreme temperatures. The assessment of their performance after fire becomes necessary to decide upon its fitness and required repair measures. Hence, it is important to understand the changes in the concrete properties due to its exposure to extreme temperatures. It is important to know the effect of elevated temperature on the properties of concrete. In this project thesis work experimental investigation is carried out to study the effects of elevated temperatures on the compressive strength of normal concrete and on concrete by partial replacement of cement with various percentages of fly ash. In the present study a concrete mix M35 and is taken. In the normal concrete, cement is replaced with (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%) fly ash.The compressive strength of concrete with various percentages of fly ash (0%to 25%) are subjected to temperatures (400 to 6000C), for different time periods (30 and 60min) which were tested for 28 days and 56 days of curing. The samples are cured in water and later exposed to various temperatures with various time periods. After heating the samples in electrical furnace to the desired temperatures .They are allowed to cool to the room temperatures and tested under compression. The average of the readings obtained is recorded and presented in various tables. This study shows that the compressive strength of fly ash (0%to 10%) concrete is more than the normal concrete at room temperatures and elevated temperatures and also compared to compressive strength of fly ash (15%to 25%) concrete.
Cube Compressive Strength, Fly Ash, Elevated temperatures
[1]. H. G. Mundle, ―Variation In Strength Of Concrete Subjected To High Temperature‖, IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Engineering & Technology (IMPACT: IJRET) ISSN(E): 2321- 8843; ISSN(P): 2347-4599 Vol. 2, Issue 2, Feb 2014, 149-154 © Impact Journals .
[2]. Balakrishnaiah.D , Balaji.K.V.G.D , Srinivasa Rao.P ,"Study Of Mechanical Properties Of Concrete At Elevated Temperatures - A Review",IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308 Volume: 02 Issue: 08 | Aug-2013
[3]. M.V. Krishna Rao, M. Shobha And N.R.Dakshina Murthy, ―Effect Of Elevated Temperature On Strength Of Differently Cured Concretes-An Experimental Study‖, Asian Journal Of Civil Engineering (Building And Housing) Vol. 12, No. 1 (2011) Pages 73-85.
[4]. Belkacem Toumi and Musa Resheidat, "Influence of High Temperatures on Surface Cracking of Concrete Studied by Image Scanning Technique",Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 4, No. 2, 2010 - 155.
[5]. M. S. Morsy, S. H. Alsayed and M. Aqel, "Effect of Elevated Temperature on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Silica Flour Concrete", International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering IJCEE-IJENS Vol:10 No:01,2010.
Citation
M.Richard Ford, A.M.N.Kashyap "An Experimental Investigation on Effect of Elevated Temperatures on M35 grade Concrete" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0004. India
Page 23-27
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ANED 06.067X/D10112327 aned
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Anala M, Fathima Jabeen, Vikram Thakur

VHDL Implementation of Scan-to-Scan Discriminator for the Detection of Marine Targets
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
For an operational radar, backscatter of the transmitted signal by the elements of the sea surface often places severe limits on the detect ability of returns from ships, missiles, navigation buoys, and other targets sharing the radar resolution cell with the sea surface. These interfering signals are commonly referred to as sea clutter, or sea echo. Maritime surveillance radar experiences serious limitations imposed on their performance by unwanted sea clutter.
In the marine environment, sea clutter might occur at a random position in one scan but not in the next or subsequent scans. In contrast, targets will appear from scan to scan with essentially the same amplitude. The scan-to-scan discriminator eliminates "spiky" clutter by using one of the 3 approaches. They are:
1. Fixed Threshold.
2. Cell Averaging Constant False Alarm Rate (CA- CFAR).
3. Clutter Map.
The output of the scan-to-scan discriminator is then used to tag the speed of small marine targets and gating approach is used to tag the speed of large marine targets. The simulation waveforms are obtained using ModelSim-Altera10.1d
Radar, scan-to-scan discriminator, sea clutter, fixed threshold, clutter map, CA-CFAR.
[1]. Ward K D, Baker C J, Watts S, "Maritime surveillance radar, Part I: Radar scattering from the ocean surface", IEE Proceedings on Radar and Signal Processing, Volume 137-Issue: 2, April 1990.
[2]. Watts S, Baker C J, Ward K D, "Maritime surveillance radar, Part II: Detection performance prediction in sea clutter", Radar and Signal Processing, IEE Proceedings F, Volume 137 -Issue: 2, April 1990.
[3]. Merrill I. Skolnik, "Introduction to Radar Systems", McGraw-Hill Publications, 3 edition, August 2000.
[4]. Valentina Ravenni, "Performance Evaluations of Frequency Diversity Radar System", 37th European Microwave Conference, October 2007.
[5]. Jens Christian Pedersen, "SCANTER 5000 and 6000 Solid State Radar: Utilisation of the SCANTER 5000 and 6000 series next generation solid state, coherent, frequency diversity and time diversity radar with software defined functionality for security applications", Waterside Security Conference (WSS), 2010.
Citation
Anala M, Fathima Jabeen, Vikram Thakur "VHDL Implementation of Scan-to-Scan Discriminator for the Detection of Marine Targets" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0005. India
Page 28-38
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ANED 06.067X/E10112838 aned
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Anala M, Fathima Jabeen, Vikram Thakur

FPGA Implementation of Scan-to-Scan Discriminator for the Detection of Marine Targets
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
For an operational radar, backscatter of the transmitted signal by the elements of the sea surface often places severe limits on the detect ability of returns from ships, missiles, navigation buoys, and other targets sharing the radar resolution cell with the sea surface. These interfering signals are commonly referred to as sea clutter, or sea echo. Maritime surveillance radar experiences serious limitations imposed on their performance by unwanted sea clutter.
In the marine environment, sea clutter might occur at a random position in one scan but not in the next or subsequent scans. In contrast, targets will appear from scan to scan with essentially the same amplitude. The scan-to-scan discriminator eliminates "spiky" clutter by using one of the 3 approaches. They are:
1. Fixed Threshold.
2. Cell Averaging Constant False Alarm Rate (CA- CFAR).
3. Clutter Map.
The output of the scan-to-scan discriminator is then used to tag the speed of small marine targets and gating approach is used to tag the speed of large marine targets.
A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based hardware architecture for the scan-to-scan discriminator using Fixed Threshold and Clutter Map for radar target detections is developed. Compilation reports and board programming files have been obtained using Quartus II 13.1. Altera-Stratix V FPGA signal processing board has been used as a target device for the implementation purpose.
Radar, scan-to-scan discriminator, sea clutter, fixed threshold, clutter map, CA-CFAR.
[1]. Ward K D, Baker C J, Watts S, "Maritime surveillance radar, Part I: Radar scattering from the ocean surface", IEE Proceedings on Radar and Signal Processing, Volume 137-Issue: 2, April 1990.
[2]. Watts S, Baker C J, Ward K D, "Maritime surveillance radar, Part II: Detection performance prediction in sea clutter", Radar and Signal Processing, IEE Proceedings F, Volume 137 -Issue: 2, April 1990.
[3]. Merrill I. Skolnik, "Introduction to Radar Systems", McGraw-Hill Publications, 3 edition, August 2000.
[4]. Valentina Ravenni, "Performance Evaluations of Frequency Diversity Radar System", 37th European Microwave Conference, October 2007.
[5]. Jens Christian Pedersen, "SCANTER 5000 and 6000 Solid State Radar: Utilisation of the SCANTER 5000 and 6000 series next generation solid state, coherent, frequency diversity and time diversity radar with software defined functionality for security applications", Waterside Security Conference (WSS), 2010.
Citation
Anala M, Fathima Jabeen, Vikram Thakur "FPGA Implementation of Scan-to-Scan Discriminator for the Detection of Marine Targets" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0006. India
Page 39-50
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ANED 06.067X/F10113950 aned
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Anala M, Fathima Jabeen, Vikram Thakur

MATLAB Implementation of Scan-to-Scan Discriminator for the Detection of Marine Targets
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
For an operational radar, backscatter of the transmitted signal by the elements of the sea surface often places severe limits on the detect ability of returns from ships, missiles, navigation buoys, and other targets sharing the radar resolution cell with the sea surface. These interfering signals are commonly referred to as sea clutter, or sea echo. Maritime surveillance radar experiences serious limitations imposed on their performance by unwanted sea clutter.
In the marine environment, sea clutter might occur at a random position in one scan but not in the next or subsequent scans. In contrast, targets will appear from scan to scan with essentially the same amplitude. The scan-to-scan discriminator eliminates "spiky" clutter by using one of the 3 approaches. They are:
1. Fixed Threshold.
2. Cell Averaging Constant False Alarm Rate (CA- CFAR).
3. Clutter Map.
The output of the scan-to-scan discriminator is then used to tag the speed of small marine targets and gating approach is used to tag the speed of large marine targets.
The proposed architectures have been designed using MATLAB R2007b.
Radar, scan-to-scan discriminator, sea clutter, fixed threshold, clutter map, CA-CFAR.
[1]. Ward K D, Baker C J, Watts S, "Maritime surveillance radar, Part I: Radar scattering from the ocean surface", IEE Proceedings on Radar and Signal Processing, Volume 137-Issue: 2, April 1990.
[2]. Watts S, Baker C J, Ward K D, "Maritime surveillance radar, Part II: Detection performance prediction in sea clutter", Radar and Signal Processing, IEE Proceedings F, Volume 137 -Issue: 2, April 1990.
[3]. Merrill I. Skolnik, "Introduction to Radar Systems", McGraw-Hill Publications, 3 edition, August 2000.
[4]. Valentina Ravenni, "Performance Evaluations of Frequency Diversity Radar System", 37th European Microwave Conference, October 2007.
[5]. Jens Christian Pedersen, "SCANTER 5000 and 6000 Solid State Radar: Utilisation of the SCANTER 5000 and 6000 series next generation solid state, coherent, frequency diversity and time diversity radar with software defined functionality for security applications", Waterside Security Conference (WSS), 2010.
Citation
Anala M, Fathima Jabeen, Vikram Thakur "MATLAB Implementation of Scan-to-Scan Discriminator for the Detection of Marine Targets" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0007. India
Page 51-63
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ANED 06.067X/G10115163 aned
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Yasir Mustafa Wais, Ardm Hasseb Mohammed Ali

A New hybrid method in watermarking using DCT and AES
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
In this paper I'm trying to make a combination between the encryption by using one of the most powerful algorithm called Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) to encrypt a secret message another word logo and then embed it in the digital image in frequency domain by using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) in low frequency to increase the robustness and then applying some attacks to check it.
Advanced Encryption Standard, Discrete Cosine Transform.
[1]. A Digital Image Watermarking Method in the Discrete Cosine Transformation Domain, Mohammad Reza Khammar, Yunusa Ali Saied, M. H Marhaban .
[2]. A Digital Image Watermarking Method in the Discrete Cosine Transformation Domain, Mohammad Reza Khammar, Yunusa Ali Saied, M. H Marhaban.
[3]. Intelligent Multimedia Analysis for Security Applications edited by Husrev T. Sencar, Sergio Velastin, Nikolaos Nikolaidis, Shiguo Lian.
[4]. Digital Watermarking Using DCT Transformation, Wen Yuan Chen and Shih Yuan Huang.
[5]. A DCT-domain system for robust image watermarking Mauro Barni, Franco Bartolini, Vito Cappellini, Alessandro Piva.
Citation
Yasir Mustafa Wais, Ardm Hasseb Mohammed Ali "A New hybrid method in watermarking using DCT and AES" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0008. Turkey
Page 64-69
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ANED 06.067X/H10116469 aned
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A.SATISH, A.M.N.KASHYAP

Replacement of Fine Aggregate with Local available Soil

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Cement, sand and aggregate are basic needs for any construction industry. Sand is a prime material used for preparation of mortar and concrete and which plays a major role in mix design. Now a day's erosion of rivers and considering environmental issues, there is a scarcity of river sand. The non-availability or shortage of river sand will affect the construction industry; hence there is a need to find the new alternative material to replace the river sand, such that excess river erosion and harm to environment is prevented. Many researchers are finding different materials to replace sand and one of the major materials is local available soil. Using different proportion of this available soil along with sand the required concrete mix can be obtained. This paper presents a review on the study of replacement of fine aggregate with local available soil with different percentages (10%,20%,30%,40%,50% & 60%). Of all the trail mixes, the optimum replacement of soil with sand was found to be 30%.
Sand, local available soil, alternative material
[1]. Dr.T.S.Thandavamoorthy, "Feasibility of Making Concrete From Soil instead of River Sand", ICI Journal, April-Jume 2014.
[2]. Nagabhushana K. and Sharada Bai H., (2011), Use of Crushed Rock Powder as Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Mortar & Concrete, USS Academy of Technical Education, Bangalore, India.
[3]. Aggarwal.P., Aggarwal Y., Gupta S.M (2007), Effect of bottom ash as replacement of fine aggregates in concrete, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India.
[4]. Siddique.R., (2002) Effect of fine aggregate replacement with Class-F fly ash on the mechanical properties of concrete, Institute of Engineering and Technology, Deemed University, Patiala, India.
[5]. Kondraivendhan B., Sairam V., Nandagopal.K., (2011), Influence of pond ash as fine aggregate on strength and durability of concrete, The Indian Concrete Journal, 85(10), pp27-36.
Citation
A.SATISH, A.M.N.KASHYAP "Replacement of Fine Aggregate with Local available Soil" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0009. India
Page 70-72
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Drushti Desai, Hardik Upadhyay

Security and Privacy Consideration for Internet of Things in Smart Home Environments

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Internet Of Things(IOT) has emerged as a trustworthy technology to improve the quality of life in smart homes through offering various automated, interactive and comfortable services. Sensors integrated at different places in homes, offices, and even in clothes, equipment, and utilities are used to sense and monitor owners' positions, movements, required signs, valuable usage, temperature and humidity levels of rooms, etc. Along with sensing and monitoring capabilities, sensors cooperate and communicate with themselves to deliver; share and process sensed information and help real-time decision making procedures through activate suitable alerts and actions. However, ensuring privacy and providing enough security in these required services provided by IOTs is a major issue in smart home environments. In this paper, we examine the privacy and security challenges of IOTs and survey its possibilities for smart home environments. We discuss the unique characteristics that differentiate a smart environment from the rest, elaborate on security and privacy issues and their respective solution measures. A number of challenges and interesting research issues appearing from this study have been reported for further analysis.
Internet of Things, smart home, privacy, security, cryptography, Public Key Infrastructure
[1]. J. S. Kumar, "A Survey on Internet of Things: Security and Privacy Issues," International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 90, pp. 1-7, 2014.
[2]. A. J. M., "Privacy in the context of Smart Home Environments," 2014.
[3]. R. Gellman, "Does privacy law work? In Agre and Rotenberg," pp. Chapter-7 pp.193-218.
[4]. S. W. a. L. Brandeis, "The right to privacy, Harvard Law," pp. vol. 4, pp. 193-220.
[5]. A. F. Westin, "Privacy and Freedom, Atheneum".
Citation
Drushti Desai, Hardik Upadhyay "Security and Privacy Consideration for Internet of Things in Smart Home Environments" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0010. India
Page 73-83
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Version - 2 (November 2014)

 

Onunkwo A A., Nwagbara J.O. And Ahiarakwem .C.A

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Nnewi under Ground Water

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The Assessment of heavy metals distribution and their likely adverse effects in underground resources of Nnewi town of Anambra State within the sedimentary basin of south eastern Nigeria due to industries has been studied. The instrument used for data collection includes topographic map, geologic map aerial photograph, satellite image and fracture maps of Anambra drainage Basin. Ten (10) under ground water samples from borehole, springs and hand dug wells were collected, this was followed by laboratory studies of the water samples for the identification of heavy metals present. The result of the analysis of ten(10) water samples shows that chromium, copper, cadmium and zinc were observed to be high while orgon, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, lead, zirconium were not detected. The findings also show that cadmium (cd) was not in some places such as Nnewichi, Otollo and Umudim. Villages in Nnewi town shows an abnormal distribution of high chromium (cr) copper (cu) and zinc (zn). Above permissible limit, Cadmium causes cancer of the lungs, and high blood pressure, while chromium causes kidney damage, liver damage, circulatory and nerve tissue damage. Copper causes anemia, intestinal irritation, while zinc causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility and diarrhea. It was suggested that chemical analysis of water should be carried out periodically in the area since groundwater is subject to seasonal changes.
Anambra Basin, Heavy Metals, Industries, Diseases, Nnewi.
[1]. Adeyemi et al (2007. Physico chemical and microbial characteristics of leachate contaminated ground water pp 34-40
[2]. Buynevich, I.V etal (2007). Litho logical anomalies in a relic coastal dune: pale environmental markers pp 235=240
[3]. Down P.C and stock R.N (19770. Environmental impact of mining. Applies science publishers, pp 120- 135
[4]. Igbozulike, M.U, (1975). Vegetation types in Oformate, GEK Edition. Nigeria in maps Eastern State , Ethiopia publishing house Benin pp 27-28.
[5]. Iloije N.P (1981). A new geography of Nigeria.
Citation
Onunkwo A A., Nwagbara J.O. And Ahiarakwem .C.A "Assessment of Heavy Metals in Nnewi under Ground Water" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0001. Nigeria
Page 01-05
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M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

DEAD PARENTS ARE LIVING ANGELS?... (A New theory on "RESURRECTION")

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The "SOULS" of our dead parents, ancestors are still Alive?... could they see us every day?... yes… yes… yes…
This scientific research article focus that Every human considered as having inbuilt with "SOUL" when born on within Mother‟s womb. The SOUL of every human shall be considered like "SIM CARD" of mobile phone having their own individual identity among billions of customers connected to "MASTER SWITCHING CENRE" (MSC). Alternatively the soul of human shall be considered like a "SEED" planted on the "EARTH PLANET"...
a) Philosophy of "Soul Accretion"?...
b) Philosophy of "Soul Transformation"?...
c) Philosophy of "Space ship"?...
d) Philosophy of "Angel Flight"?...
e) Philosophy of "Final Judgment"?...
a) Intensive Internet "e-book" study through, Google search and wikipedia
b) M.Arulmani, "3G Akkanna Man", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2011
c) M. Arulmani; V.R. Hemalatha, "Tamil the Law of Universe", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2012
d) Harold Koontz, Heinz Weihriah, "Essentials of management", Tata McGraw-Hill publications, 2005
e) M. Arulmani; V.R. Hemalatha, "First Music and First Music Alphabet", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2012
Citation
M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha "DEAD PARENTS ARE LIVING ANGELS?... (A New theory on "RESURRECTION")" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0002. India
Page 06-15
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Dr. Mani Sarma Vittapu, Atoyoseph Abate and Dr.Venkateswarlu.Sunkari

A Proposed Solution to Secure MCC Uprising Issue and Challenges in the Domain of Cyber Security

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
The development of cloud computing and mobility,mobile cloud computing has emerged and become a focus of research. By the means of on-demand self-service and extendibility, it can offer the infrastructure, platform, and software services in a cloud to mobile users through the mobile network. Security and privacy are the key issues for mobile cloud computing applications, and still face some enormous challenges. In order to facilitate this emerging domain, we firstly in brief review the advantages and system model of mobile cloud computing, and then pay attention to the security and privacy in the mobile cloud computing. MCC provides a platform where mobile users make use of cloud services on mobile devices. The use of MCC minimizes the performance, compatibility, and lack of resources issues in mobile computing environment. By deeply analyzing the security and privacy issues from three aspects: mobile terminal, mobile network and cloud, we give the current security and privacy approaches. The users of MCC are still below expectations because of the associated risks in terms of security and privacy. These risks are playing important role by preventing the organizations to adopt MCC environment. Significant amount of research is in progress in order to reduce the security concerns but still a lot work has to be done to produce a security prone MCC environment. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of MCC and its security issues,challenges and possible solutions for the security issues.
Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC), Security, privacy,
[1]. MohsinNazir ,MirzaShuja Rashid , "Security Threats with Associated Mitigation Techniques in Cloud Computing", International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS) – ISSN : 2249-0868, Volume 5– No.7,May 2013.
[2]. Soeung-Kon, J. -H. Lee and S. W. Kim, "Mobile Cloud Computing Security Considerations", Journal of Security Engineering, no. 9, (2012) April.
[3]. A. N. Khana, M. L. M. Kiaha, S. U. Khanb and S. A. Madanic, "Towards secure mobile cloud computing: A survey", Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 29, Issue 5, (2013) July.
[4]. M. R. Prasad, J. Gyani and P. R. K. Murti, "Mobile Cloud Computing: Implications and Challenges", Journal of Information Engineering and Applications, vol. 2, no. 7, (2012).
[5]. W. Jia, H. Zhu, Z. Cao, L. Wei and X. Lin, "SDSM: A secure data service mechanism in mobile cloud computing", IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), (2011) April 10-15.
Citation
Dr. Mani Sarma Vittapu, Atoyoseph Abate and Dr.Venkateswarlu.Sunkari "A Proposed Solution to Secure MCC Uprising Issue and Challenges in the Domain of Cyber Security" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0003. Ethiopia
Page 16-27
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N. GHORBEL, S-A. ADDOUCHE, A. EL MHAMEDI, Y. BOUJELBENE

Bayesian approach for spare parts replenishment policies under uncertainties

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The legislative constraints, the need to optimize the dismantling process, the introduction of recycled parts on the spare parts market are reinforced since the systems in end-of-life phase have become increasingly profitable. There are few works that treat recycled spare parts integration problem in economic models of inventory control. These works do not consider uncertainty. In order to manage more realistically the inventory control of spare parts, we propose a probabilistic model formalized by a Bayesian network. The model is used to identify the best purchase policy. More precisely, it allows choosing the best proportions between new spare parts (NSP) and recycled spare parts (RSP) by taking into account the traditional criteria of inventory control and the availability of the spare parts on the market. The proposed method provides a decision-making tool for manufacturers who are interested both in reducing the costs of stocks and guaranteeing a minimal availability in an uncertain environment.
Inventory control, Bayesian networks, Decision-aided tool, Modeling, Recycling, Sustainability
[1]. Sakara D., Modelling and schedulling of remanufacturing systems. s.l: Ph.D. dissertation Ecole polytechnique de Lausanne, 2005.
[2]. Bijl J., Mordret H., Multrier B, Nieuwhuys S., Pitot N., The Evolution of the European Automative Spare Parts Distribution market : Supply Chain Forum, Information. s.l. : MicronAir Market Research, 2000.
[3]. Ghorbel N., Duta L., Addouche S.A., El Mhamedi A., L‟intégration de l‟incertitude dans gestion de stock de pièces de rechange., Canada, 2011, CIGI 2011.
[4]. Ghorbel N., Duta L., Addouche S.A., El Mhamedi A., Decision-Aided tool for sustainable inventory control, Stuttgart : s.n., 2011, ICPR.
[5]. Tiwari, Niraj, A Petri Net Based approach to determine the disassembly strategy of a product. s.l. : IJPR, 2002, Vol. 40, pp. 1113-1129.
Citation
N. GHORBEL, S-A. ADDOUCHE, A. EL MHAMEDI, Y. BOUJELBENE "Bayesian approach for spare parts replenishment policies under uncertainties" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0004. France
Page 28-45
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M. Arsath rahuman, S.Suresh kumar, R.Prithivirajan, S.GowriShankar

Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Glass and Jute Fiber Hybrid Reinforced Epoxy Composites

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Glass Fiber reinforced composites are emerging as a potential material for a wide variety of industrial applications owing to their good combination of physical and mechanical properties. In recent decades, glass fiber composites parts are widely used as sliding components in different engineering applications. Due to the legitimate theoretical and practical importance, the study of tribological performance of these emerging materials becomes highly decisive. In the present research initiative, two type of reinforcements are selected there are Glass and jute fibers with matrix of epoxy 551 was used for composite specimen preparation. The frictional and wear characteristics of the developed composites have been studied under different sliding conditions. From the results it is conclude that jute is more efficient in improving the tribological Performance of glass-epoxy composites than the raw glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites.
Glass fiber, Jute fiber, Epoxy, Sliding Wear

[1]. G Hinrichsen, M.A Khan, A.K.Mohant, "Composites: Part A", Elsevier Science Ltd, 31,143–150, 2000.
[2]. P.VJoseph, J. Kuruvilla, S.Thomas, "Composites Science and Technology", 59(11), 1625-1640, 1999.
[3]. P.S Mukherjee, K.G.Satyanarayana, "Structure and properties of some vegetable fibers II. Pineapple leaf fiber," Journal of Material Science, Vol 2, 51–56, 1986.
[4]. S.Jain, R.Kumar, U.C.Jindal, "Mechanical Behavior of Bamboo and Bamboo Composites,"J. Mater. Sci., Vol 27, 4598-4604, 1992.

[5]. K.Hirao, H.Inagaki, K.Nakamae, M.Kotera, T.K.Nishino, "Kenaf Reinforced Biodegradable Composite," Composites Science and Technology", Vol 63, 1281-1286, 2003.

Citation
M. Arsath rahuman, S.Suresh kumar, R.Prithivirajan, S.GowriShankar "Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Glass and Jute Fiber Hybrid Reinforced Epoxy Composites" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0005. India
Page 46-50
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Narendra M.Hatwar, Prof .V. K. Gajghate

Impact of New Public Transportation System in Nagpur City

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Transport in Nagpur is important due to Nagpur's strategic location in a central India. It is a fast growing metrocity and is the third most populous city in Maharashtra after Pune and Mumbai. also one of the country's most industrialized cities.
Due to increase in population as well as transportation Nagpur mahanager palica NMPL company formed which gives contract to Vansh Nimay Infraprojects (VNIL) to run city buses but due to increase in transportation and increase in population in Nagpur city it found that there is a numerous problem face by city buses to gave safe and efficient facility to public due to these public in Nagpur city were diverting towards the private transportation. So there is immediately need to improve public transportation which can improve by Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system which is new transport system provide safety and mobility to road users.
In these projects we show the Impact of public transportation system such as Conjunction, Delay, Incident, Increase traffic condition. For this various data of the existing public transportation (star bus ) is collected such as accident data, Problem face by people, traffic data collection for how star bus face the problem and extra time taken to reach destiny
Public transport network, Bus Rapid Transit system, safety, star bus, Conjunction. Public transportation network, Intelligent Transportation system the timed management, schedule of city bus with withdrawal to taken, discrete waiting and travelling times of city.
[1]. Johan Holmgren., "Study in Local Public Transportation Demand", Linkoping Studies in Art and Science, 2008.
[2]. Margareta Fireman., "Customer Satisfaction in Public Bus Transportation- A study of travel' perception in Indonesia", Karlstad University Spring, 2009.
[3]. Jenny Carlson., "Passengers' Valuation of Quality in Public Transportation with Focus on Comfort", Chalmers University of Technology, 2012.
[4]. Gee tam Tiara. "Sustainable Transportation Systems Linkage between Environmental Issues, Public Transportation, Non -Motorized Transportation and Safety", Economic and Political Weekly, 1999.
[5]. Vatic, V, Urban transits: planning, operation and economics, Wisely, I Madcap, G. Badami., "An analysis of public bus transits performance in Indian city", Transportation, 2007.
Citation
Narendra M.Hatwar, Prof .V. K. Gajghate "Impact of New Public Transportation System in Nagpur City" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0006. India
Page 51-59
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Kunal Garde, Pranav Shinde, Rushikesh Jirage

Spatial and temporal distribution of Nitrate (NO3 -) In groundwater of Rohtak municipality area.

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The contamination of ground water has increased with rapid urbanization, agricultural inputs and industrialization. In the last few decades the nitrate (NO3 -) pollution is on the increase in the urban areas.
Contamination of ground water with nitrate is mainly by the process of leaching due to high mobility of nitrate ions through soil. By mapping water quality using the decision support system like geographical information system (GIS), the data can be represented graphically in map and is useful for taking quick decision. The objective of present study was to monitor the spatial and temporal nitrate ion concentration in ground water of Rohtak city in pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon season of private ground water drinking sources, and graphical representation of data using GIS. The samples from the various colonies of Rohtak city showed nitrate range from 1.8 mg/l to 45mg/l. Most areas showed a ground water nitrate level within permissible limits of 45 mg/L (CPCB) how ever Village Samargopalpur had the highest nitrate concentration (79mg/L). Higher nitrate concentration was observed in area having history of agriculture use and open sewage, septic tanks, municipal solid waste and dairy waste dumps. In all the sampling sites the nitrate concentration was highest during the pre monsoon season.
Nitrate toxicity; methaemoglobinaemia; ground water; ERDAS,GIS
[1]. Addiscott TM, Whitmore AP and Powlson DS. 1991. Farming, fertilizers and the nitrate problem. CAB International, U.K.
[2]. Stauffer J. 1998. The water crisis, constructing solutions to fresh water pollution. Earthscane Publications, Ltd, London.
[3]. Ahn Hong-IL and Chon Hyo-Taek. 1999. Assessment of groundwater contamination using geographical information systems. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 21:273-289.
[4]. Burrough PA. 1986. Principles of Geographical Information System for land Resources Assessment. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
[5]. Dezuane SK. 1997. Handbook of Drinking Water Quality. John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Canada. 2:592.
Citation
Kunal Garde, Pranav Shinde, Rushikesh Jirage "Spatial and temporal distribution of Nitrate (NO3 -) In groundwater of Rohtak municipality area." published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0007. India
Page 60-66
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Bhausaheb D Bhosle

Science of Time and the Theory of Everything

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Science Of Time And The Theory Of Everything" by author Bhausaheb Bhosle includes final constants (solution).
Theory Of Everything, heart beats, collapsed stars, developmental fetus, space time energy mass scale, azimuthals, 8th non-agisimal point etc.
[1]. Ancient book Surya-Siddhanta, Rig Veda.
Citation
Bhausaheb D Bhosle "Science of Time and the Theory of Everything" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0008. India
Page 67-68
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BJ Sushma, DSV Prasad, M AnjanKumar, GVR Prasada Raju

A Study on Strength of Reinforced Flyash with Randomly Distributed Fibers

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Flyash is a waste produced from thermal power stations, which contributes to environmental pollution. It is a waste material that can be utilized in construction of roads and embankments. Randomly distributed fiber reinforced soils have recently attracted increasing attention in geotechnical engineering. One of the most promising approaches in this area is use of flyash as a replacement to the conventional weak earth material and fiber/coir as reinforcement will solve two problems with one effort i.e. elimination of solid waste problem on one hand and provision of a needed construction material on other. Disposal of a variety of wastes in an eco friendly way is the thrust area of today's research. This paper investigates to determine the optimum percentage of waste plastics/coconut coir with flyash material by conducting direct shear and CBR tests. It was observed that from the laboratory test results, the optimum percentage of waste plastics and coconut coir with flyash material are 0.3% and 0.2% respectively and also flyash with waste plastics shows better performance as compared to flyash with coconut coir.
Flyash, Waste Plastics, Coconut Coir, and Shear and CBR Tests
[1]. Singh, D.V .and Murthy, A.V.S.R (1998),"Flyash in Indian-Problems and Possibilities", Proceedings of Experience Sharing Meet on Use of Flyash in Road and Embankments, CRRI-New Delhi, 1-9.
[2]. Suryanarayana, p. (2000),"Action Plan for Utilization of Flyash as an Alternative Construction Material", New Building Materials and Construction World, Volume 5, Issue-8, Pp.50-58.
[3]. Veerendra Singh, Narendra Kumar , Devendra Mohan (1996), "Use of Flyash in Soil Stabilization for Roads", proceedings of IGC – 96, Madras, pp. 411 – 414.
[4]. Boominathan, A. , Ratna Kumar, J. (1996),"Lime Treated Flyash as embankment material", proc. of Indian Geotechnical Conference, IGC – 96, Madras, pp. 523 – 526.
[5]. Murthy, A.V.S.R., (1998), "Utilization of Flyash for Embankment Construction." Proceedings of Experience Sharing Meet on Use of Flyash in Roads and Embankments, CRRI- New Delhi, pp. 15 – 20.
Citation
BJ Sushma, DSV Prasad, M AnjanKumar, GVR Prasada Raju "A Study on Strength of Reinforced Flyash with Randomly Distributed Fibers" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0009. India
Page 69-76
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L. G. Das, P. K. Sen

An Investigation on the Performance Characteristics of a Centrifugal Compressor

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The design and off-design performance characteristics of single stage centrifugal compressor consisting of 12 vanes impeller interfacing with 11 vanes diffuser have been studied experimentally and numerically. The impeller has been designed and developed with radial exit, 30o inlet blade angle (with tangent), 77 mm diameter and the discharge volute considering constant mean flow velocity. The performance of the compressor at varying capacity (60 to 120 % of design) by controlling the discharge valve and with the variation of rotating speed (15000 to 35000 rpm) by regulating speed of the coupled gas turbine has been conducted at the recently developed test rig. The numerical simulation has been done by adopting viscous Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with and without Coriolis Force & Centrifugal Force in rotating reference frame (impeller) and stationary reference frame (casing) respectively utilizing CFD software Fluent 14. The flow around a single vane of impeller interfacing with single vane of diffuser, the rotational periodicity and sliding mesh at the interfacing zone between rotating impeller and stationery diffuser are considered. Non dimensional performance curves derived from experimental and numerical results are presented and compared. The numerical results are found to match very closely with the experimented data near the design point and deviation is observed at the both side of the designed operating point. Non-uniform pressure profiles towards the impeller exit and strong cross flow from blade to blade are detected at low flow operating conditions. Total pressure, static pressure and velocity distributions at design and off design operation obtained from the CFD results are analysed and presented here.
Impeller, Diffuser, Volute, CFD, Flow
[1]. R. Numakura, Design of a Two-stage Centrifugal Compressor for Small-size Turbomachinery , The 11 th Asian International Conference on Fluid Machinery and 3 rd Fluid Power Technology Exhibition, IIT Madras, Chennai, India, 2011
[2]. Y. Wang and Z. Luo, Simulation and Performance Analysis on Centrifugal Compressors of Different Dimensions and Variable Operation Speed, http://www.ieee.org, 2011
[3]. V.C. Arunachalam, Q.H. Nagpurwala M.D. Deshpande and S.R. Shankapal, Numerical Studies on the Effect of Impeller Blade Skew on Centrifugal Compressor Performance SASTech - Technical Journal , 2008
[4]. S.Ramamurthy, R.Rajendran and R. S. Dileep Kumar, Theoretical Evaluation of Flow Through Centrifugal Compressor Stage, Proceedings of the International Conference on Aerospace Science and Technology, Bangalore, India, 2008
[5]. GAMBIT User´s Manual
[6]. Fluent 14 and Fluent User's Guide, Fluent Inc
Citation
L. G. Das, P. K. Sen "An Investigation on the Performance Characteristics of a Centrifugal Compressor" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0010. India
Page 77-83
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Version - 3 (November 2014)

  

V.SWAMI SRINATH

The Effect of Structure -Soil Interaction on Eccentrically Loaded Frame

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The interaction among structures, their foundations and the soil medium below the foundations alter the actual behaviour of the structure considerably than what is obtained from the consideration of the structure alone. Thus, a reasonably accurate model for the soil–foundation–structure interaction system with computational validity, efficiency and accuracy is needed in improved design of important structures. The framed structures are normally analyzed with their bases considered to be either completely rigid or hinged. However, the foundation resting on deformable soils also undergoes deformation depending on the relative rigidities of the foundation, superstructure and soil. Interactive analysis is, therefore, necessary for the accurate assessment of the response of the superstructure.
In this thesis ABAQUS 6.8, a FEA (Finite Element Analysis) package is used for the analysis of a building frame founded on piles of 2 x 2 groups for a particular spacing of piles and for a particular L/d ratio of the pile. Type of foundation adopted is a free standing pile group. Soil condition is considered as infill dry sand in its loosest state. It is modeled as Winkler's foundation. The analysis is carried out to study the behaviour of the frame. A load transfer approach using linear springs (Lateral, Axial and Tip) is used for the analysis. Displacements, Rotations, Shear force and Bending moments are obtained by applying an eccentric load at 0.2(L/2) and 0.4(L/2) distance from the centre of the beam in the model frame. Applicability of ABAQUS6.8 a FEA package is verified by taking a worked out problem from J.Won et al (2006).
Piles of 2 x 2 groups,ABAQUS6.8,Displacements, Rotations, Shear force, Bendingmoments, axial forces.
[1]. Jinoh Won, Sang-Yong Ahn, SangseomJeong.Nonlinear three-dimensional analysis of pile group supported columns considering pile cap flexibility. J computers and geotechnicsEng, ELSVIER 2006; 33; 355–370.
[2]. Sekhar Chandra Dutta and Rana Roy.A critical review on idealization and modeling for interaction among soil–foundation–structure system. J computers and geotechnicsEng, ELSVIER 2002; 80;1579–1594.
[3]. Y. K. Chow. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Pile Groups. J geotechnicsEng, ASCE 1987; 113 (6).
[4]. Dan A. Brown. Lateral load behaviour of pile group in sand. . J geotechnicsEng, ASCE 1987; vol (114).
[5]. S.S.Chandrasekaran and A. Boominadhan. Group interaction effects on laterally loaded piles in clay. J Geotechnical and GeoenvironmentalEng, ASCE 2010; vol (136); 4.
Citation
V.SWAMI SRINATH "The Effect of Structure -Soil Interaction on Eccentrically Loaded Frame" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0001. India
Page 01-08
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Hussain M, Peethambaran K M, Ushakumari E R

Performance Optimization of Diesel Engine with Chicken Waste Bio-diesel Blend Using Grey Rrelational Aanalysis

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This paper presents an experimental study that include an application of the grey relational analysis to determine the optimum factor level to obtain optimum multiple-performance characteristics of a diesel engine run with different low-percentage chicken waste biodiesel-diesel blends. Grey relational analysis is used for data analysis and four factors, namely, low-percentage chicken waste biodiesel-diesel blend, compression ratio, injection timing and injection pressure were each considered at four levels. An L16 orthogonal array was used to collect data for various engine performance related responses under constant engine loads. Results of confirmation tests showed good agreement with predicted quantities. The results of the study revealed that the combination of a blend consisting of 10% chicken waste biodiesel (B10), a compression ratio of 18, an injection pressure of 220 bar and an injection timing of 19° bTDC produces maximum multiple performance of the diesel engine.
Compression ratio, Injection pressure, Injection timing, Chicken waste bio-diesel, Grey relational analysis.
[1]. K. Sivaramakrishnan, P. Ravikumar, ―Performance Optimization Karanja Biodiesel Engine Using Taguchi Approach and Multiple Regressions‖, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 1819-6608, 2012.
[2]. Karthikeyan R, Dr..Nallusamy N, Dr. Alagumoorthi N, Dr. Ilangovan V. ―Optimization of engine operating parameters for turpentine mixed diesel fuelled DI diesel engine Using Taguchi Method‖. IJEST, 5295-5305, 2010.
[3]. Tamilvendhan D, Ilangovan V., Karthikeyan R., ―Optimization of Engine Operating Parameters For Eucalyptus Oil Mixed Diesel Fueled DI Diesel Engine Using Taguchi Method‖, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol.6, 2011.
[4]. Karthikeyan R., Nallusamy N., Alagumoorthi N., ―Optimization of Engine Operating Parameters for Turpentine Mixed Diesel Fueled Di Diesel Engine Using Taguchi Method‖, Modern Applied Science, Vol. 4, 2010.
[5]. M. Venkatraman, G. Devaradjane, ―Computer Modeling of a CI Engine for Optimization of Operating Parameters Such as Compression Ratio, Injection Timing and Injection Pressure for Better Performance and Emission Using Diesel -Diesel Biodiesel Blends‖, American Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 8, 897-902, 2011.
Citation
Hussain M, Peethambaran K M, Ushakumari E R "Performance Optimization of Diesel Engine with Chicken Waste Bio-diesel Blend Using Grey Rrelational Aanalysis" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0002. India
Page 09-15
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R.N.Das, G.Pradhan, Swagatika Das

Some mixed quadrature rules for approximate evaluation of real cauchy principal value integrals

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In this paper some mixed quadrature rules have been constructed for numerical integration of real Cauchy principal value integrals and their asymptotic error estimates have been derived. The numerical verification of the rules has been done by considering some standard Cauchy principal value integrals.
CPV integral; basic rules; mixed quadrature rule; asymptotic error estimate, numerical integration. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification Number: 65D30, 65D32.
[1] Abramowitz, M., Stegur, I. A. Handbook of mathematical functions, Dover publication, 1965.
[2] Acharya, B. P., Das, R. N. Numerical determination of Cauchy principal value integrals, Computing, 27,373-378, 1981.
[3] Atkinson, Kendall, E. An introduction to numerical analysis, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons,1978.
[4] ] Chawla, M. M. Jayarajan, N. Quadrature formulas for Cauchy principal value integrals, computing, No.15, 347-355, 1975.
[5] Das, R. N., Hota, M. K. A derivative free quadrature rule for numerical approximations of complex cauchy principal value integrals, Applied mathematical sciences, 6, No-111, 5533-5540, 2012.
Citation
R.N.Das, G.Pradhan, Swagatika Das "Some mixed quadrature rules for approximate evaluation of real cauchy principal value integrals" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0003. India
Page 16-19
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Divyajyothi Kethavarapu, Arjuna Rao A

Power Quality Enhancement through Dynamic Voltage Restorer using SRF Theory for Balanced and Unbalanced Loads

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Power quality is certainly a major concern in the present era, it becomes especially important with the introduction of sophisticated devices, whose performance is very sensitive to the quality of power supply. Voltage sag is one of the severe power quality problems. This report addresses all the different aspects related to voltage sag problem, such as its types, consequences and mitigation.
At present, a wide range of very flexible controllers, which capitalize on newly available power electronics components, are emerging for custom power applications. Among these, the distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) and the dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) are most effective devices, both of them based on the VSC principle.
A simple generalized algorithm based on basic synchronous reference-frame theory has been developed for the generation of instantaneous reference compensating voltages for controlling a DVR. This algorithm makes use of the fundamental positive sequence phase voltages extracted by sensing only two unbalanced and/or distorted line voltages. The algorithm is general enough to handle linear as well as nonlinear loads. The compensating voltages when injected in series with a distribution feeder by three single-phase Hbridge voltage-source converters with a constant switching frequency hysteresis band voltage controller tightly regulate the voltage at the load terminals against any power quality problems on the source side. A capacitorsupported DVR does not need any active power during steady-state operation because the injected voltage is in quadrature with the feeder current.
MATLAB SIMULINK has been used in this project to perform the modeling and analysis of such controllers Comprehensive results is presented to assess the performance of each device as a potential custom power solution.
Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), Hysteresis Band Controller, Nonlinear load, Voltage-Source Converter (VSC).
[1]. "Dynamic Voltage Restorer the Customer's Perspective" IEEE Colloquium Glasgow 11 feb I998 Roy Mc Hattie Caledonian Paper.
[2]. "Design of Shunt-Connected Dynamic Voltage Restorers" 0.Viktorin, J. Ghijselen, Senior Member, IEEE, J. Dnesen, Member, IEEE, R. Behnans, Senior Member, IEEE.
[3]. "A Novel Series Dynamic Voltage Restorers" Ming Fang, Mister I. Gardiner, Andrew MacDougall, Grant A. Mathieson Industrial Research Limited Chris tchurch New Zealand.
[4]. "Power Supply Quality improvement a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR)" Alexander Kara and David Amhof AB6 High Voltages Technologies Ltd, Switzerland.
[5]. "Fundamental Frequency Model of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer" Rengan Krishna Iyer, Agileswari K.Ramasamy, Dr.VignaK. Ramachandaramuthy, Power Quality Research Group Department of Electrical Engineering University TenagaNasionalKajang, Malaysia
Citation
Divyajyothi Kethavarapu, Arjuna Rao A "Power Quality Enhancement through Dynamic Voltage Restorer using SRF Theory for Balanced and Unbalanced Loads" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0004. India
Page 20-29
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Virginia P. Sisiopiku, Md Mozahidul Islam, Andrew Sullivan

Traffic Safety Risks from Digital Advertising Billboards in Alabama

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Increase in the number and sophistication of digital advertising billboard signs raises safety concerns over potential contribution of such signs to traffic crashes. This paper describes a study that analysed 5 years of historical crash records from Alabama to examine potential correlations between crash locations and their proximity to digital advertising billboards. First, the research team identified locations of digital advertising billboards along major limited-access facilities in Alabama and selected eight suitable sites for analysis. Eight sites immediately downstream of the digital billboard locations were also considered as control sites. Then, historical crash data were retrieved for all study sites and crash rates were calculated for digital advertising billboards influence zones and adjacent control sites. Statistical analysis was employed to determine if correlations can be established between crash occurrence and digital advertising billboard presence. The crash data analyses revealed that the presence of digital billboards increased the overall crash rates at digital advertising billboard influence zones by 29% compared to the study control sites. Moreover, sideswipe and rear-end crashes were found to be overrepresented at digital advertising billboard influence zones compared to control sites.
Digital advertising billboards, traffic safety, driver distraction, crash rates, crash analysis.

[1]. Outdoor Advertising Association of America [OAAA].Out of home media formats: (2013), October 14, 2013. http://www.oaaa.org/OutofHomeAdvertising/OOHMediaFormats/OOHMediaFormats.aspx.
[2]. Copeland, L. More Communities Banning "Television on a Stick.‟ USA Today; March 23, 2010.
[3]. Sisiopiku, V.P., D. Hester, A. Gan, D. Stavrinos, and A. Sullivan. Roadside Advertising and Traffic Safety.3rdAnnual International Conference on Civil Engineering, Athens, Greece, 2013.

[4]. Lee, S., M. McElheny, and R. Gibbons. Driving Performance and Digital Billboards. Prepared for Foundation for Outdoor Advertising Research and Education by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), Center for Automotive Safety Research, 2007.
[5]. Institute for Road Safety Research, Roadside Advertising and Information, 2013. http://www.swov.nl/rapport/Factsheets/UK/FS_Advertising.pdf

Citation
Virginia P. Sisiopiku, Md Mozahidul Islam, Andrew Sullivan "Traffic Safety Risks from Digital Advertising Billboards in Alabama" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0005. USA
Page 30-36
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ANED 06.067X/E10113036 aned
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Jay Nagdeo, Priya Mehta

Remotely Controlled Automated Irrigation System

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
In the present scenario of farming a lot of automation has been included in order to get timely and proper growing of crops. Due to land unavailability the farms are outside the city and the farm owners have to travel large distances just to start the motors for irrigation. This technology helps to control the irrigation system from a far away distance as it works on GSM technology. So by just sending a SMS (Short Message Service) the farmer can look after his farm from his home itself. Another problem that mainly arises in farms which are out of city is the frequent load shedding. To tackle this problem the GSM module that is present on the farm notifies the farmer if the power supply is present or load shedding is going on. The failure causing devices are monitored and are reported to the user. Main problem lies with the pumping motor. These are usually three phase motors and can get damaged by several factors like over current, Short Circuit, Phase failure etc. This technology helps to report all these problems directly to the user in an easy to understand graphical way by using an Android application.
Irrigation, Microcontroller, Sensors, GSM module, Android Application.
[1]. Overview of The GSM system: IEEE Communication Magazine April 1993
[2]. An Introduction to Android: Huang Kuguang, Database Lab. Inha University
[3]. Android Application Development, Danial Switkin, Google Inc.
[4]. H.T.Ingale, N.N.Kasat –"Automated Irrigation system‟, International Journal of Engineering Research and Development.
[5]. Manish Giri, Dnyaneshwar Natha Wavhal, Department of Computer Engineering MIT Academy of Engineering Alandi(D), University of Pune-Automated Intelligent Wireless Drip Irrigation Using Linear Programming
Citation
Jay Nagdeo, Priya Mehta "Remotely Controlled Automated Irrigation System" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0006. India
Page 37-42
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M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

(A New theory on "YOGA") LONG LIVE!...

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
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  • Full Article
This scientific research article focus that the Philosophy of "YOGA" shall be considered as closely associated with the prehistoric "HERBAL INDO TRIO DRUG" which enabled human life sustained for thousands of years without any "Disease". The "YOGA" shall also be called as "IMMUNE" or "DIVINE DRUG". In proto Indo-Europe language the divine drug (Trinity) shall also be called as "YOKAM" or "THAMIL MARUNTHU".
a) Philosophy of "Perfect health"?...
b) Philosophy of "Immunity"?...
c) Philosophy of "Yoke"?...
d) Etymology of word "Disease"?...
e) Etymology of word "Sin"?...
f) Etymology of word "Yoga"?...
a) Intensive Internet "e-book" study through, Google search and wikipedia
b) M.Arulmani, "3G Akkanna Man", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2011
c) M. Arulmani; V.R. Hemalatha, "Tamil the Law of Universe", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2012
d) Harold Koontz, Heinz Weihriah, "Essentials of management", Tata McGraw-Hill publications, 2005
e) M. Arulmani; V.R. Hemalatha, "First Music and First Music Alphabet", Annai Publications, Cholapuram, 2012
Citation
M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha "(A New theory on "YOGA") LONG LIVE!..." published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0007. India
Page 43-50
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Vidya N. Chiwande, Prof. Animesh R. Tayal

Load Rebalancing with Security for Hadoop File System in Cloud

  • Abstract
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  • Full Article
[1]A file system is used for the organization, storage,[1]retrieval, naming, sharing, and protection of files. Distributed file system has certain degrees of transparency to the user and the system such as access transparency,[2] location transparency, failure transparency, heterogeneity, replication transparency etc.
[1][3]NFS (Network File System), RFS (Remote File Sharing), Andrew File System (AFS) are examples of Distributed file system. Distributed file systems are generally used for cloud computing applications based on [4] the MapReduce programming model. A MapReduce program consist of a Map () procedure that performs filtering and a Reduce () procedure that performs a summary operation. However, in a cloud computing environment, sometimes failure is occurs and nodes may be upgraded, replaced, and added in the system.
Therefore load imbalanced problem arises. To solve this problem, load rebalancing algorithm is implemented in this paper so that central node should not overloaded. The implementation is done in hadoop distributed file system. As apache hadoop is used, security issues are arises. To solve these security issues and to increase security, [20] Kerberos authentication protocol is implemented to handle multiple nodes. This paper shows real time implementation experiment on cluster with result.
Hadoop , Distributed File System, Load Rebalance , Kerberos, Cloud.
[1]. Hung-Chang Hsiao, Member, IEEE Computer Society, 18Hsueh-Yi Chung, Haiying Shen, Member, IEEE, and Yu-Chang Chao "Load Rebalancing for Distributed File Systems in Clouds", may 2013.
[2]. H. Shen and C.Z. Xu, "Locality-Aware and Churn-Resilient Load Balancing Algorithms in Structured P2P Networks," IEEE Trans Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 849-862, June2012
[3]. H.C. Hsiao, H. Liao, S.S. Chen, and K.C. Huang, "Load Balance with Imperfect Information in Structured Peer-to-Peer Systems," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distributed Systems, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 634- 649, Apr. 2011
[4]. Jeffrey Dean and Sanjay Ghemawat. MapReduce: Simplified data processing on large clusters. In OSDI, pages 137–150, 2004.
[5]. Sanjay Ghemawat, Howard Gobioff, and Shun-Tak Leung. "The Google File System" , In Proceedings of the nineteenth ACM symposium on Operating systems principles, SOSP '03, pages 29–43, New York, NY, USA, 2003
Citation
Vidya N. Chiwande, Prof. Animesh R. Tayal "Load Rebalancing with Security for Hadoop File System in Cloud" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0008. India
Page 51-57
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Krushang Sonar, Hardik Upadhyay

A Survey: DDOS Attack on Internet of Things

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
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  • Full Article
Internet of Things refer as interconnection of smart object, included from small coffee machine to big car, communicate with each other without human interactions also called as Device to Device communications. In current emerging world, all of the devices become smarter and can communicate with other devices as well. With this rapid development of Internet of Things in different area like smart home, smart hospital etc. it also have to face some difficulty to securing overall privacy due to heterogeneity nature. There are so many types of vulnerability but here in this paper we put concentration on Distributed Denial of Service attack (DDoS). DoS is attack which can block the usage for authentic user and make network resource unavailable, consume bandwidth; if similar attack is penetrated from different sources its call DDoS. To prevent from such attack it need mechanism that can detect and prevent it from attack, but due to small devices it has limited power capacity. So that mechanism must be implemented at network entrance. In this paper we discuss different DDoS attack and its effect on IoT.
Denial of Service, Distributed Denial of Service, Device to Device, Internet of Things, Smart Object.
[1]. A. Karila, S. Fdida, M. May, and M. Potts. A. Gavras, "Future Internet Research and Experimentation: The FIRE Initiative," ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 89-92, July 2007.
[2]. Shelby Z. (2013, June) Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). Document. [Online]. https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-core-coap-18
[3]. Musfiq R and Srinivas S Deepak T, "Technique for Preventing DoS Attacks on RFID Systems," in SoftCOM, Split, Dubrovnik, 2010, pp. 6-10.
[4]. C.P. O'Flynn, "Message Denial and Alteration on IEEE 802.15.4 Low-Power Radio Networks," in New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS), Paris, 2011, pp. 1-5.
[5]. Stuart C. (2007, May) 802.11 Denial of Service Attacks and Mitigation. Document. [Online]. http://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/wireless/80211-denial-service-attacks-mitigation-2108
Citation
Krushang Sonar, Hardik Upadhyay "A Survey: DDOS Attack on Internet of Things" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0009. India
Page 58-63
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Suraj Thawani, Hardik Upadhyay

A Survey on Securing TORA for Detecting and Protecting Against Sybil Attack in MANETs

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  • Full Article
Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a quite challenging to ensures security because if it's open nature, lack of infrastructure, and high mobility of nodes. MANETs is a fast changing network in a form of decentralized wireless system. It requires a unique, distinct and persistent identity per node in order to provide their security and also has become an indivisible part for communication for mobile device. In this phase of dissertation, we have focused giving security to Temporally Ordered Routing Protocol Algorithm (TORA) from Sybil attack. TORA is based on a family of link reversal algorithm. It is highly adaptive distributing routing algorithm used in MANET that is able to provide multiple loop-free routes to any destination using the Route Creation, Route Maintenance and Route Erasure functions. Sybil attack is a serious threat for wireless networks.
This type of attacker comes in the network and they start creating multiple identities. From that multiple identities they are disrupting the network by participating in communication with line breaking nodes. This cause's huge loss in network resources. These networks can be protected using network failure and firewall detection schemes for detecting the attack and minimizing their effects. Proposed approach is expected to secure TORA through the implementation. Performance factor of network would be taken into consideration in order to verify the efficiency of modified TORA in MANET environment.
Mobile Ad-hoc Networks, TORA, Security, Sybil Attack.
[1]. H. Ehsan, F. A. Khan, "Malicious AODV: Implementation and Analysis of Routing Attacks in MANETs", IEEE 11th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications, 2012.
[2]. Rajeswari M., Dr. P. U. Maheswairi, Bhuvaneshwari S., Gowri S., "Performance analysis of AODV, DSR, TORA and OLSR to achieve group communication in MANET", IEEE 4th International Conference on Advanced Computing, December 2012.
[3]. S. Abbas, M. Merabti, D. Llewellyn-Jones, K. Kifayat "Lightweight Sybil Attack Detection in MANETs" IEEE System Journal, June 2013.
[4]. A. K. Gupta, Dr. H. Sadawarti, Dr. A. K. Verma "Performance analysis of AODV, DSR & TORA Routing Protocols" IACSIT International Journal of Engineering and Technology, April 2010.
[5]. K. H. Lim and A. Datta "An In-depth Analysis of the Effects of IMEP on TORA Protocol" IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference: Mobile and Wireless Networks, 2012.
Citation
Suraj Thawani, Hardik Upadhyay "A Survey on Securing TORA for Detecting and Protecting Against Sybil Attack in MANETs" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0010. India
Page 64-69
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Version - 4 (November 2014)

  

Venkatesh Mammula, Arjuna Rao A

Integration of Dg Units to Microgrid with Power Quaility Improvement Using Ann Techique

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  • Full Article
The proposed system presents power-control strategies of a Micro grid-connected hybrid generation system with versatile power transfer. This hybrid system allows maximum utilization of freely available renewable energy sources like wind and photovoltaic energies. For this, an adaptive MPPT algorithm along with standard perturbs and observes method will be used for the system.
The inverter converts the DC output from non-conventional energy into useful AC power for the connected load. This hybrid system operates under normal conditions which include normal room temperature in the case of solar energy and normal wind speed at plain area in the case of wind energy. However, designing an optimal micro grid is not an easy task, due to the fact that primary energy carriers are changeable and uncontrollable, as is the demand. Traditional design and optimization tools, developed for controlled power sources, cannot be employed here. Simulation methods seem to be the best solution.
Digital signal processor, distributed generation (DG), total harmonic distortion (THD), voltage source converter (VSC).
[1]. T. Zhou and B. François, "Energy management and power control of a hybrid active wind generator for distributed power generation and grid integration," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 95– 104,Jan. 2011.
[2]. M. Singh, V. Khadkikar, A. Chandra, and R. K. Varma, "Grid interconnection of renewable energy sources at the distribution level with power quality improvement features," IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 26, no. 1,pp. 307–315, Jan. 2011.
[3]. M. F. Akorede, H. Hizam, and E. Pouresmaeil, "Distributed energy resources and benefits to the environment," Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 724–734, Feb. 2010.
[4]. C. Mozina, "Impact of green power distributed generation," IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 55–62, Jun. 2010.
[5]. B. Ramachandran, S. K. Srivastava, C. S. Edrington, and D. A. Cartes, "An intelligent auction scheme for smart grid market using a hybrid immune algorithm," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 10,
pp. 4603–4611, Oct. 2011.
Citation
Venkatesh Mammula, Arjuna Rao A "Integration of Dg Units to Microgrid with Power Quaility Improvement Using Ann Techique" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0001. India
Page 01-13
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Hariram.V, Hema Kumar. M

Experimental investigation and optimization study of combustion chamber geometry on performance and emission parameters using Rice bran biodiesel

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An experimental investigation and optimization study of various piston geometries was conducted on Greaves single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine using straight diesel and blends of rice bran biodiesel. The three combustion chamber geometries used in this study were Standard toroidal piston (STP), hemispherical bowl piston (HBP) and Shallow toroidal re-entrant piston (STRP) at compression ratios of 18:1, 19.04:1 and 16.4:1 respectively. Rice bran biodiesel was derived by two step trans-esterification process with an optimum yield of 86% with molar ratio 1:6, 06% of catalyst (KOH), 90 min reaction time and 65oC reaction temperature. The performance parameters like brake specific energy consumption, brake thermal efficiency and the emission parameters like carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen were analysed in detail. It was noticed that the BSEC of STRP was 12.1% with diesel and 14.02% with B100 biodiesel blend. The brake thermal efficiency was also found to be improved with biodiesel blend with STRP on comparison with STP and HBP. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emission was found to decrease with STRP geometry were as HBP exhibited negative improvement. NOx emission was also found to increase with STRP.
Toroidal piston, transesterification, biodiesel, hydrocarbon, BSEC
[1]. Altin R, Cetinkaya S and Yucesu HS. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engine. Energy Conversion Management 2001;42(5):529 – 38.
[2]. Cerit M, Buyukkaya E and Engin T. Thermal analysis of a partially ceramic coated piston: Effect on cold start HC emission in a spark ignition engine. Applied Thermal Engineering 2011;336 – 41.
[3]. Cigizolu K.B, Ozaktas T and Karaosmanoglu F. Used sunflower oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Energy Sources 1997;19:559 – 66.
[4]. El Boulifi N, Bouaid A, Martinez M and Aracil J. Optimization and oxidative stability of biodiesel production from rice bran oil. Renewable Energy 2013;53:141 – 47.
[5]. Hanbey Hazar. Cotton methyl ester usage in a diesel engine equipped with insulated combustion chamber. Applied Energy 2010;87:134 – 40.
Citation
Hariram.V, Hema Kumar. M "Experimental investigation and optimization study of combustion chamber geometry on performance and emission parameters using Rice bran biodiesel" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0002. India
Page 14-21
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Datta Sainath Dwarampudi

Analysis and Construction of a Robot controlled by a Universal Remote Control

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This paper aims at controlling a robot that is a tank like vehicle using a universal infrared remote control. The infrared signal sent from the universal infrared remote control is received by IR receiver and decoded by the microcontroller PIC16F873A using an algorithm embedded in the microcontroller. The output from the microcontroller is fed to the motor driver which drives the left and right motors. The robot‟s motor control can be speed controlled by using PWM/PDM (Pulse Width Modulation/ Pulse Duration Modulation) technique.
Infrared, Universal Remote Control, PIC, Analysis, Construction, Speed Control, Robot.
[1]. Bob Harbour, "Dual Motor Bidirectional Electronic Speed Control", April 30,1999. http://www.circuits.Lab.com.
[2]. William G. Grimm, "Decoding Infrared Remote Controls Using a PIC 16C5X Microcontroller", 1997.
[3]. David De Vleeschauwer, "DAVschomepage", http://user.pandora.be/davshomepage.
[4]. Microchip. "PIC16F873A Data Sheet" Microchip Technology Inc. May,2001.
[5]. Sanda Win, Tin Shein, Khin Maung Latt, "Design and Construction of PIC-based IR Remote Control Moving Robot", World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology Vol:2 2008.
Citation
Datta Sainath Dwarampudi "Analysis and Construction of a Robot controlled by a Universal Remote Control" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0003. India
Page 22-28
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E. Ngale Haulin, F. Tchangnwa Nya, B. Touogam Touolak

Karal clay in the Far North Cameroon: Study on Behavioural Floor Structures

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  • Full Article
The north is known for its scorching heat and swelling clay which in the presence of water, dramatical increase in water volume and by drying or even to crack [2] [5]. Many authors have addressed the problems posed by this type of ground vis-à-vis the construction and especially the buildings. What exact type of transport infrastructure can be built on these soils? It is to answer this question that we focus our research on Karal clay, the main constituent of soil in the region of Far Northern Cameroon. Over 21,489 km of roads in Cameroon in charge of the state, nearly 44.5% are in poor condition. The Far North Region of Cameroon is one with the longest straight road in poor conditions. In about 2374 km of road, only 1% is in good condition, 20% in fair condition and 79 in poor conditions [3] [8]. The damage seen on the N-1 Kousséri Maroua road in the region of the Far North are related to a combination of stresses: it supports the traffic, the weather, the layer thickness and the quality of materials that constitute it. All these stresses are associated in one way or another with the clay soil blowing up known for its instability to participate in the degradation of these roads [3] [6] [13]. The primary mission of this scientific work is to provide necessary information and capital on Karal clay, mineralogy, and its behavior with respect to pavement structures in the Sahel. However, laboratory studies on Karal clay, allowed better assessment of its physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics. Armed with these scientific findings it allow us to better understand the Karal clay and its behaviour on the ground in the Sahel region, we have developed strategies to increase the profitability of road investments on swelling clay soils. To achieve the expected results, we submitted samples of Karal clay testing of physical-chemicalmineralogical characterisation laboratory. It is in particular, the determination of the water content and organic matter, the complete particle size analysis, determination of Atterberg limits, Proctor changed, testing Californian Bearing Ratio of the oedometer test, the shear test straight to the box Casagrande, and finally the Xray diffraction
Clay Karal - swelling clay soils - Geotechnical and clay mineralogy - Sahelian Zone.
[1] MINEPAT, M. D. (2010). REGIONAL PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT. Maroua, Cameroon.
[2] SEGNOBOS, C., & IYEBI-MANDJEK, O. (2000). Atlas de la province de l'extrême nord cameroun. Paris, FRANCE: IRD.
[3] MINTP. (2006). Plan Directeur Routier du Cameroun :Document de synthèse. Yaoundé, Centre, Cameroun.
[4] Blanck, G., Cuisinier, O. & Masrouri, F. 2013. Soil stabilisation with organic non- traditional additives for the improvement of earthworks. Acta Geotechnica (DOI 10.1007/s11440-013-0251-6).
[5] Cuisinier, O., Javadi, A.A., Ahangarasr, A. & Masrouri, F. 2013. Identification of coupling parameters between shear strength behavior and chemical's effects with an evolutionary-based data mining technique. Computers and Geotechnics. 48, 107- 116. 10.1016/j.compgeo.2012.10.005
Citation
E. Ngale Haulin, F. Tchangnwa Nya, B. Touogam Touolak "Karal clay in the Far North Cameroon: Study on Behavioural Floor Structures" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0004. India
Page 29-40
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ANED 06.067X/D10112940 aned
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K. Rajasekhar B.saritha

Equilibrium Studies of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solution Using Corn Cob as Adsorbent

  • Abstract
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The objective of this work is the study of adsorption of dye solution which is a dye malachite green using corn cob. Removal of this dye from aqueous solution using corn cob has been investigated. Liquid phase adsorption experiments were conducted. Batch adsorption studies are Carried out by observing the effect of experimental parameters, namely, pH, and amount of adsorbents, contact time and initial concentration.
Optimum conditions for dye removal are studied like pH value, contact time required, amount of adsorbent, initial concentration, etc. The results generated by this work can be used for determination of optimum conditions for adsorption of dye in aqueous solutions. Dye is present in mixture form in various Industrial effluents like Textile Industries, Sewage water, Water treatment plants. This work can have use in Design of adsorption columns for dyes removal. The Freundlich adsorption model assumes that adsorption takes place on heterogeneous surfaces. Adsorption increases with increase in pH. The adsorption of cationic dye is mainly influenced by the amount of negative charges in the solution which is actually influenced by the solution pH. At pH=2 there is net positive charge in the solution so adsorption is less whereas at pH=12there is increase in negative charges increasing adsorption of malachite green. Maximum adsorption was found to take place at pH=12. Adsorption tends to increase with contact time. At first the increase in adsorption is very rapid as there are lots of free sites for the adsorption to take place. Adsorption decreases at later stages till saturation is reached due to saturation of active sites. The optimum contact time for equilibrium was found to be 100 min.
corn cob, adsorption, malachite green, dye, adsorbent.
[1] B.H. Hameed, A.T.M. Din, A.L. Ahmad (2006) Adsorption of methylene blue onto Bamboo-based activated carbon: Kinetics and equilibrium studies.
[2] C. Namasivayam*, D. Kavitha (2001) Removal of Congo Red from water by adsorption Onto activated carbon prepared from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste, Dyes and Pigments 54 (2002) 47–58.
[3] Emad N. El Qada∗, Stephen J. Allen, Gavin M. Walker (2006) Adsorption of Methylene Blue onto activated carbon produced from steam activated bituminous coal, Chemical Engineering Journal 124 (2006) 103–110.
[4] 4.Grabowska EwaLorenc, GryglewiczGra_zyna (2005) Adsorption characteristics of Congo red on coal-based mesoporous activated carbon, Dyes and Pigments 74 (2007)34-40.
[5] I.A. Rahman, B. Saad, S. Shaidan, E.S. Sya Rizal (2005) Adsorption characteristics of Malachite green on activated carbon derived from rice husks produced by chemical–Thermal process, Bioresource Technology 96 (2005) 1578–1583.activated carbon kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analysis. Colloids and Surfaces, 264(2005) 17-28.
Citation
K. Rajasekhar B.saritha "Equilibrium Studies of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solution Using Corn Cob as Adsorbent" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0005. India
Page 41-48
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Ravikant sahu, Samta Gajhbhiye

Analysis of IT Monitoring Using Open Source Software Techniques: A Review

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The Network administrators usually rely on generic and built-in monitoring tools for network security. Ideally, the network infrastructure is supposed to have carefully designed strategies to scale up monitoring tools and techniques as the network grows, over time. Without this, there can be network performance challenges, downtimes due to failures, and most importantly, penetration attacks. These can lead to monetary losses as well as loss of reputation. Thus, there is a need for best practices to monitor network infrastructure in an agile manner. Network security monitoring involves collecting network packet data, segregating it among all the 7 OSI layers, and applying intelligent algorithms to get answers to security-related questions. The purpose is to know in real-time what is happening on the network at a detailed level, and strengthen security by hardening the processes, devices, appliances, software policies, etc. The Multi Router Traffic Grapher, or just simply MRTG, is free software for monitoring and measuring the traffic load on network links. It allows the user to see traffic load on a network over time in graphical form.
Network security, packet, monitoring, segregating, network.
[1]. A. Danalis and Constantinos Dovrolis. Anemos: An autonomous network monitoring system. In In Proceedings of the 4th Passive and Active Measurements (PAM) Workshop, April2003.
[2]. Aditya Akella, Srinivasan Seshan, and Anees Shaikh. An empirical evaluation of wide-areaInternet bottlenecks. In Proc.ACM IMC, October2003.
[3]. Kostas G. Anagnostakis, Michael B.Greenwald, and RaphaelS.Ryger. cing: Measuring networkinternal delays using only existing infrastructure. In Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, April2003.
[4]. GiuseppeDi Battista, Maurizio Patrignani, and Maurizio Pizzonia. Computing the types of the relationships between autonomously stems. InProc. IEEEINFOCOM, April2003.
[5]. Jean-ChrysostomeBolot.End-to-endpakcetdepayandlossbehaviorintheInternet.InProc.ACM SIGCOMM‟93, San Francisco, CA, September1993.
Citation
Ravikant sahu, Samta Gajhbhiye "Analysis of IT Monitoring Using Open Source Software Techniques: A Review" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0006. India
Page 49-53
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Ch.Giri Phani, Ch.L.K.M.Gupta

An Experimental Study on Structural Grade Concrete Using Multi Mineral Admixtures

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Supplementary cementitious material (SCM) such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag sand silica fume are extensively used in construction. A partial replacement of cement by mineral admixtures such as, fly ash, GGBFS, silica fume (SF) in concrete mixes would help to overcome these problems and lead to improvement in the durability of concrete. In this thesis of work, an attempt has been made to study the mechanical properties of structural grade concrete using ternary blend.
Structural grade concrete, ternary blend, cube compressive strength, split tensile strength
[1] Pierre-Claude Aitcin, "Developement in the application of high performance concrete", Construction and Building Material, Vol. 9. No. 1, 1995, 13-17
[2] Andrzej Ajdukiewicz and Wojciech Radomski, "Trends in the Polish research on high-performance concrete", Cement and Concrete Composite, Vol. 24, 2002, 243-251
[3] Pierre-Claude Aitcin, "The durability characteristics of high performance concrete", Cement& Concrete Composite, Vol. 25, 2003, 409-420
[4] Moayad N Al-Khalaf and Hana A Yousif, "Use of Rice husk ash in concrete", The International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete, Vol. 6, November 4 1984.
[5] Muhammad Soaib Ismail and A. M. Waliuddin, "Effect of rice husk ash on high strength concrete", Construction and Building Material, Vol. 10. No. 7, 1996, 521-526
Citation
Ch.Giri Phani, Ch.L.K.M.Gupta "An Experimental Study on Structural Grade Concrete Using
Multi Mineral Admixtures" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0007. India
Page 54-58
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P. Bhargavi, D. Ragaleela

An Intelligent Based Hybrid Generation Scheme Fed Active Compensation Scheme for PQ Features

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Harmonic pollution of the power supply system has raisen significantly in recent years due primarily to an increase of non-linear loads connected to the utility through residential, commercial and industrial customers. They constitute a harmonic pollution source of the network, which generate many disturbances, and disturb the optimal operation of electrical equipments. This paper, proposed a solution to eliminate the harmonics introduced by the nonlinear loads in steady and in transients. It presents a predictive current control strategy for achieving maximum benefits from these grid-interfacing inverters implementing conventional DC link controller and intelligence controller, when installed in 3-phase 4-leg voltage source inverter(VSI). The inverter is controlled to perform as a multi-function device by incorporating active power filter functionality.
The use of a four-leg voltage-source inverter allows the compensation of current harmonic components, as well as unbalanced current generated by three-phase nonlinear loads. Renewable energy resources (RES) are being increasingly connected in distribution systems utilizing power electronic converters. The compensation performance of the proposed active power filter and the associated hybrid PV/Wind system generation scheme with new control scheme is demonstrated to improve the power quality features is simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Active Power Filter, Current Control, Hybrid Generation Scheme, Fuzzy Logic Controller, and Power Quality.
[1] J. Rocabert, A. Luna, F. Blaabjerg, and P. Rodriguez, ―Control of power converters in AC microgrids,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 4734–4749, Nov. 2012.
[2] Akagi H. New trends in active filters for power conditioning. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 1996; 32(6):1312– 22.
[3] H. Rudnick, Juan Dixon and Luis Moran, ―Active power filters as a solution to power quality problems in distribution networks, ‖IEEE power & energy magazine, pp. 32-40, Sept./Oct. 2003.
[4] A. Mansoor, W.M. Gardy, P. T. Staats, R. S. Thallam, M. T. Doyle, and M. J. Samotyj, ―Predicting the net harmonic current producedby large numbers of distributed single phase computer loads.‖ IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol.10, pp. 2001-2006, 1994.
[5] Parmod Kumar, and Alka Mahajan, ―Soft Computing Technics for the control of an Active Power Filter,‖ IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan . 2009.
Citation
P. Bhargavi, D. Ragaleela "An Intelligent Based Hybrid Generation Scheme Fed Active
Compensation Scheme for PQ Features" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0008. India
Page 59-71
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K.Dayanand, Albert Prasanna Kumar

Performance Analysis of Image Enhancement Using Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform and Nonlocal Means

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
Resolution enhancement (RE) schemes which are not based on wavelets has one of the major drawbacks of losing high frequency contents which results in blurring. The discrete wavelet- transform-based (DWT) Resolution Enhancement scheme generates artifacts (due to a DWT shift-variant property). A wavelet- Domain approach based on dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) & nonlocal means (NLM) is proposed for RE of the satellite images. A satellite input image is decomposed by DT-CWT (which is nearly shift invariant) to obtain high-frequency sub bands. Here the Lanczos interpolator is used to interpolate the highfrequency sub bands & the low-resolution (LR) input image. The high frequency sub bands are passed through an NLM filter to cater for the artifacts generated by DT-CWT (despite of it's nearly shift invariance). The filtered high-frequency sub bands and the LR input image are combined by using inverse DTCWT to obtain a resolution-enhanced image. Objective and subjective analyses show superiority of the new proposed technique over the conventional and state-of-the-art RE techniques.
Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT), Lanczos Interpolation, Resolution Enhancement (RE), shift variant.
[1] Y. Piao, I. Shin, and H. W. Park, "Image resolution enhancement using inter-subband correlation in wavelet domain," in Proc. Int. Conf. ImageProcess., San Antonio, TX, 2007, pp. I-445–I-448.
[2] C. B. Atkins, C. A. Bouman, and J. P. Allebach, "Optimal image scaling using pixel classification," in Proc. Int. Conf. Image Process., Oct. 7–10, 2001, pp. 864–867.
[3] A. S. Glassner, K. Turkowski, and S. Gabriel, "Filters for common resampling tasks," in Graphics Gems. New York: Academic, 1990, pp. 147–165.
[4] D. Tschumperle and R. Deriche, "Vector-valued image regularization with PDE's: A common framework for different applications," IEEE Trans.Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 506 – 517, Apr. 2005.
[5] M. J. Fadili, J. Starck, and F. Murtagh, "Inpainting and zooming using sparse representations," Comput. J., vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 64–79, Jan. 2009.
Citation
K.Dayanand, Albert Prasanna Kumar "Performance Analysis of Image Enhancement Using Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform and Nonlocal Means" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0009. India
Page 72-76
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Dr. Ajeet Singh Poonia

Analysis of Existing Models & Proposed Cyber Crime Investigation Model

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Reference
  • Full Article
In current scenario cyber crime is increasing at exponential rate, as the technology is growing at enormous speed hence the cyber crime investigation is becoming a tedious job without a proper framework.
There is a wide range of different types of cyber crime today which are prevailing in the society. Solution of each case requires is a complicated task. Till date the investigation models proposed by various researchers have some or the other shortfalls. They are somehow limited to certain types of cyber crime only and these models largely restrict themselves to the investigation of the crime scene and the evidence, and so are less extensive in their scope. These models provide overview of the general technical investigation activities. In this paper, a model has been proposed, named "cyber crime investigation model" which will capture a full scope of an investigation process and provide framed activity for every step. The proposed model focuses more into efficiency, accuracy and how to preserve the fragile evidence, its transport and storage.
Cyber Crime Investigating Model, Realization phase, Authorization phase, Audit planning, Auditing, Managing evidence, Hypothesis, Challenge analysis, Dissemination.
[1]. M.Pollitt, An ad-hoc review of digital forensics models, in Book Chapter from Cybercrime: An Introduction to an Emerging Phenomenon, G.Higgins, Editor, McGraw Hill.
[2]. G.Palmer, A Road Map for Digital Forensic Research: Report from the First Digital Forensic Workshop, in Online: http://www.dfrws.org/dfrws-rm-final.pdf, D.T.R. DTR-T001-01, Editor. 2001.
[3]. M.Reith, C.C., G.Gunsch, An Examination of Digital Forensics Models. International Journal of Digital Evidence, 2002. 1(3): p. 1-12.
[4]. B.Carrier, E.H.S., Getting Physical with the Investigative Process. International Journal of Digital Evidence, 2003. 2(2).
[5]. B.Carrier, E.H.S., Getting Physical with the Investigative Process. International Journal of Digital Evidence, 2004. 2(2).
Citation
Dr. Ajeet Singh Poonia "Analysis of Existing Models & Proposed Cyber Crime Investigation Model" published at International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2014)
MID 1011.067X.0010. India
Page 77-81
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